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Those who Served
F/O Kabbash . Royal Air Force navigator 101 Sqd.
Pte. Maina Kach . British Army 13th (Nyasaland) Btn. King's African Rifles (d.24th April 1946)
Private Kach is commemorated on the Lubudi Memorial in the Congo.
Pte. Maina Kach . King's African Rifles 13th (Nyasaland) Bn. (d.24th April 1946)
Private Kach is commemorated on the Lubudi Memorial in the Congo.
Pte. Kanchana Senerat Kadigawe MID. British Army 5th Btn (Scottish) 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade from Sri lanka)
Private Kanchana Senerat Kadigawe was the only Sri Lankan to win the Oak Leaves
This is a tribute to SSP Senarat (K.S.) Kadigawe who passed away recently at his ancestral home in Kandy after a distinguished career in the Sri Lanka Police. He was the only Sri Lankan to win the ‘Oak Leaves’ in the British Army during World War II. His death took my mind back to 1976 when for the first time he revealed to a journalist his World War II experiences as a paratrooper in Nazi-occupied Europe. He was then SP (Transport) and I was doing the 'police beat' for the Sunday Observer. At the time Kadigawe was residing at Police Quarters, Keppettipola Mawatha, Colombo, with his family. It all began when he told me that he liked to know the whereabouts of a Greek family that had befriended him during the war. Responding to his request, I had a short news item published on the Sunday Observer front page stating that Kadigawe wished to contact the family of Constantinades who lived in the city of Piraeus. But there was no response to it from anyone, though all details were given. This story is how Kadigawe came into contact with this Greek family. Born in the Wanni, he was one of many young Sri Lankans who had enlisted in the British Royal Army Service Corps at the outbreak of WWII. Having arrived in the Middle-East as a RASC soldier he applied to join the Red Berets. After rigorous training he earned the paratrooper's `wings' thus becoming the only `colored' combatant in the Fifth Battalion (Scottish) 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade.
On July 31, 1944, the now defunct Times of Ceylon ran the following news item under a picture of him in the uniform of the British `Red Berets.' CEYLON MAN AS PARATROOPER SERVING IN THE MEDITERRANEAN THEATRE Pte. K. Senarat Kadigawe is, if not the only Ceylonese parachutist fighting in this war, one of the few. He is the only coloured man in the 5th Battalion (Scottish) 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade,doing service with the Central Mediterranean Forces… Around this time Greece had fallen to the Germans following a Nazi `blitzkrieg' (lightening attack) in April 1941. By the middle of May, the country was under joint occupation by three Axis powers: Nazi Germany, Fascist Italy and the Kingdom of Bulgaria. They brought about terrible hardships for the Greek civilian population. Over 300,000 civilians died from starvation, thousands more through reprisals, and the country's economy was ruined.
In 1944 the Red Berets were ordered to go on a mission to Piraeus. Their target was a power station which supplied electricity to search lights that helped German anti-aircraft gunners to spot British and American planes over Greece. The soldiers including Private Kadigawe boarded a Dakota C-47 transport plane, which took off from their base in North Africa with its lights switched off. The night was pitch-black and the plane was now flying over the Mediterranean. Soon the aircraft was over the `drop zone' in Greece and the green light inside the plane came on. From the open side door the paratroopers dived into the darkness one by one. After landing they studied a map that showed the power station and set off separately on different paths to reach the target lest the enemy captured all of them together. Even so it was no easy task to avoid being caught by German army patrols looking for curfew violators. Destroying the power station however turned out to be easier than the Red Berets had anticipated since it was lightly guarded. Probably the enemy did not expect a ground attack on it and assumed that anti-aircraft defences were sufficient to protect the installation. Two army engineers among the paratroopers cut an opening in the high barbed fire fence and entered the premises while Kadigawe and others covered them, ready to open fire if the two German soldiers guarding the place spotted the intruders. But everything went smoothly and the engineers succeeded in planting two time bombs inside the station. They were set to go off within 24 hours giving enough time for the attackers to flee from the place – or so Kadigawe thought. He and his comrades had been ordered to reach the Greek coast and meet at a designated spot from where a British Royal Navy ship would pick them up.
The real fireworks – both literally and metaphorically – however began when the bombs went off completely destroying the power station. The enraged Germans began combing the entire area like mad dogs looking for the attackers. But the Greeks, except for Nazi collaborators, were thrilled. They were willing to give whatever assistance the British paratroopers required. And it was Kadigawe who needed it most since he was on the verge of being captured. But luck was with him. A Greek Bank official, Constantinades residing nearby came to his help and asked the Sri Lankan soldier to quickly move into his house. Kadigawe was then taken to an upstairs room where he was told to hide. The room belonged to one of Constantinades' daughters. The girl's father told her to pretend to be very sick, get into bed and cover herself with a sheet. Bottles of medicine were placed on a small table near the bed. Kadigawe was then told lie motionless on a very narrow stretch of the floor between the bed and the bedroom wall. A bed sheet fully covered both sides of the bed so well that anyone peeping under the bed could see no soldier between the bed and the wall. The Sri Lankan soldier asked Constantinades why he and his family were risking their lives to protect him. If he was captured the Germans would very likely send him to a POW camp under the Geneva Convention rather than shoot him. But the fate of a Greek civilian found giving shelter to a British soldier would be quite different. The Germans would execute the civilian and perhaps his entire family on the spot in as a `lesson' to others. But Constantinades would hear none of it. He firmly told Kadigawe that it was their patriotic duty to protect all foreigners fighting to liberate Greece from the Nazis. So the paratrooper had no alternative but to follow his instructions.
Soon the Germans were all over the place. Uttering the usual warning through loud hailers, they began searching the houses in the neighbourhood for the escapees. Kadigawe was lying motionless but the tension was unbearable. He could hear his own heart beat. His real fear was for the Greek family. Constantinades' daughter was on the bed pretending to be seriously ill and moaning in `discomfort and pain.' At the Constantinades home the Nazis first began searching every room on the ground floor. Then Kadigawe heard the sound of jackbooted feet The Germans were climbing up the stairs. After thoroughly inspecting every room on the upper floor, they came to the one where Kadigawe was hiding. As the Nazi officer in charge stepped into the room, Constantinades fervently appealed to him to avoid disturbing his very sick daughter. She was in great pain he said. For moment, the German stood there looking hard at the girl, who turned out to be a good `actress.' To her, Kadigawe and Constantinades those few seconds seem like an eternity. Then the officer turned back saying `okay' and climbed down the stairs with his men. Kadigawe did not know how to thank the Greek family. Soon afterwards he managed to reach the coast where he joined his comrades before the British Navy ship picked them up.
A year later when Kadigawe met the Constantinades family again it was his turn to reciprocate. They were then in very dire circumstances. Following the German surrender and the end of the World War in 1945, Greece found itself in the throes of a civil war between the government and communists who resorted to terrorist acts. Hunger and starvation was widespread. The Allied occupation troops had opened soup-kitchens to serve the hungry masses. The Red Berets were called into assist the Greek authorities in dealing with terrorism. One day, Kadigawe passing one of the food queues was shocked find two very familiar faces. They were the daughters of Constantinades. Talking to them the Sri Lankan soldier learnt that the civil war had made their father bankrupt. They were given prompt assistance by Kadigawe and his comrades in a generous gesture of gratitude.
Kadigawe earned the Military Medal for an act of gallantry by killing two terrorists and maiming two others in the Greek civil war. Seven months after the end of World War II, on November 24, 1945, Lt. Colonel D.R. Hunter Commander of the 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade awarded Kadigawe a certificate for having won the confidence of his superiors and for acts of gallantry a distinguished service. But his proudest moment came when he resigned from the army and joined the Sri Lanka Police as a sub-inspector. At an inspection parade of SIs at the Police Training School the then Inspector-General W.T. Brindley, saluted Kadigawe on seeing the Oak Leaves and Military Medal on his uniform.
By Janaka Perera, Asian Tribune Sat, 2008-09-13.
Sgt. Hyman Chaim Mordecai Kahler . Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve 75 Squadron from Stoke Newington, London)
(d.19th Apr 1944)
Sergeant (Flight Engineer) Hyman Kahler was the Son of Morris and Rachel Kahler, of Stoke Newington, London. He was aged 21 when he died and is buried in a collective grave in the Gram Churchyard in Denmark.
Pte. Thomas Kahlow . British Army Royal Berkshire Regiment from London)
(d.28th May 1940)
P/O Stefan Kalarus . Royal Air Force 350 Sqdn. from Poland)
(d.8th Jan 1942)
I am researching a Polish flier, who (according to his headstone in our churchyard) was a member of 350 squadron. His name was Pilot Officer Stefan Kalarus. Has anyone any information about an air accident involving planes of 350 Squadron which occurred on 8th of January 1942 at RAF Valley? I have found one squadron history which refers to this accident but in no detail. I would be glad to hear from you.
Mikhail Kalashnikov . Red Army from Izhevsk, Udmurtia Republic )
Mikhail Kalashnikov who designed the AK-47 assault rifle joined the Red Army in 1938, he began to show mechanical flair by inventing several modifications for Soviet tanks. The moment that firmly set his course was in the 1941 battle of Bryansk against Nazi forces, when a shell hit his tank. Recovering from wounds in the hospital, he brooded about the superior automatic rifles he'd seen the Nazis deploy; his rough ideas and revisions bore fruit five years later. "Blame the Nazi Germans for making me become a gun designer, I always wanted to construct agricultural machinery."
Pvt. Louis John Kalil . United States Army 394th Infantry Regiment from Mishawaka, IN)
Pte. Herbert J Kammeraad . US Army from Holland, Mi. USA)
Dad did not talk to much about it.The few times I could get him to talk this is what I remeber. They were captured and moved to a guarded barn the US was shelling the Germans he heard 1 shell go long then 1 go short the 3rd shell hit the barn, he was on an outside wall it blew him out side the barn. He said he could not see because of the clay forced up under his eye lids. Not many men survived the blast. He was moved to pow camp stalag 7a from what I can obtain. He said they were forced to repair train tracks that the allies bombed. He told about being chain bombed "he said they chain bombs together so the bombs would lay out in a line to desroy more track " Dad said the Germans would run for shelters and leave them their. He talked about pick axeing the gages in a train engine when the germans were gone.Dad said they made them carry a bucket of grease and a stick to grease train cupplers.He talked about adding a hand full of dirt then covering it with grease.He said towards the end they starved,they fed them hedge leaf soup and bread made from saw dust.I remember him saying they would trade uniforms with us officers so they could go on work detail. Sometimes the locals would slip the bread and food and this would allow the officers a chance to get more to eat.I think i was 25 years old before my dad ever talked about it at all and I was born in 1955. I know it affected him deeply. He was looking for a book called Feet Of Clay, I think it was writen by someone he was captured with.
Barbara Kane . Timber Corps
Desmond Kane .
Signalman. Henry Kane . Royal Navy HMS Prunella (d.21st Jun 1940)
Frmn. Robert Kane . Merchant Navy SS Empire Fusilier (d.9th Feb 1942)
Robert Kane died age 54. He was born in Jarrow in 1887, son of William and Margaret Jane Kane (nee McCauley) of Jarrow. He was the husband of Florence Kane (nee Wilson) of Jarrow and is remembered on the Tower Hill Memorial. Robert is commemorated on the WW2 Roll of Honour Plaque in the entrance of Jarrow Town Hall.
Jozef Kania . Royal Air Force 303 Sqdn.
Jozef (Joseph) Kana (or Kania) was born 26 September 1914 in Krupina Slovak Republic. He was an RAF pilot (ID 794087) in 303 Squadron. He also served in 313 Squadron and later No. 1. ACU, 587 and 631 Squadrons.
F/Sgt. Bronislaw Karbowski . Royal Air Force 138 Sqdn. (d.21st April 1942)
138 Squadron flew on Special Operations duties in WWII, and lost an aircraft on 21st April 1942 over Austria. The crew were:
Wing Co W.R. Farley DFC, RAF (2nd pilot) F/O J.A. Pulton, RAFVR (airgunner) F/O R. Zygmuntowicz, PAF (pilot) Sgt C. Madracki, PAF (navigator) F/Sgt B Karbowski, PAF (rear gunner) Capt. A.H. Voellnagel, RAF Sgt L. Wilmanski, PAF (airbomber) Sgt M. Wojciechowski, PAF (wop/airgunner)
All the crew were buried in Durnbach War Cemetery, Collective Grave 9.H.20-24.
Sgt. E. Karbowy . Royal Air Force 300 Sqdn.
I am trying to trace the following, who were part of a Lancaster crew posted to 300 Squadron at Faldingworth in April 1945:
Sgt. WOP/Air E. Karbowy Sgt. A/G K. Walczewski Sgt. F/E Z. Stefaniak Sgt. A/G J. Wierzbicki P/O Nav Z. Sajkiewicz
Sgt. Zdzislaw Kardasiewicz . Polish Air Force from Poland)
(d.30th August 1944)
Zdzislaw Kardasiewicz was buried in the Collective Grave 961-966 in the Aalestrup Churchyard in Denmark.
Cpl. Ilmar Karvonen . United States Army Co A. 2831st Engineer Combat Btn. from Liminga, Michigan)
Ilmar Karvonen served in North Africa (Algeria?), Italy, France, Germany. I am looking for more information on unit and it's history.
Walter William Kasper . Royal Canadian Air Force 408 Squadron
Sgt. Eugeniusz Pawee Kasprzak . Polish Air Force 138 Sqd. from Lublin, Poland)
(d.17th Sep 1943)
Donald Frank Kassell . Royal Navy HS. Cap Saint Jacques from Pearl St, Starbeck, Harrogate)
My father Don Kassell volunteered on his 18th birthday and was sent to HMS Royal Arthur for training. He was trained as a nurse and sent on the Hospital ship Cap Saint Jacques which sailed to South Africa, India and Ceylon amongst others.
Sgt. William Kastens . Royal Canadian Air Force w/op 419 Sqd. (d.4th Oct 1944)
Robert Katan .
My father-in-law, Robert Katan, was in Stalag 2B.
Pte. Sikiteni Katonda . British Army 2nd Btn. King's African Rifles (d.15th October 1943)
Private Katonda was buried in the Lubudi African Cemetery in the Congo, Grave 8.
Pte. Sikiteni Katonda . King's African Rifles 2nd Btn. (d.15th October 1943)
Private Katonda was buried in the Lubudi African Cemetery in the Congo, Grave 8.
Naomi Katz . Land Army
Renee Katz . Land Army from London, East End)
My mother was born and brought up in the East End of London, one of a family of five sisters, one brother and a father. Her mother, my maternal grandmother, had died when they were small children. They lived lives of poverty and deprivation, many children had rickets and every large family had one or two baby siblings in the cemetery.
The sons and daughters of working class families of their generation usually stayed near their parental home and continued to live for most of their lives close to where they were born. That is until the war disrupted the pattern of life for these communities.
My mother and her two sisters (the three youngest of the family) were called up. One opted for munitions factory work, but my mother and her youngest sister chose to join the Land Army.
This was a marvellous opportunity for young women who had little opportunity to travel, especially town girls who had no experience of country life. My mother had been a dressmaker; she now found herself living in rural Cambridgeshire, working as a farmer, picking fruit and vegetables. The farms in this part of the world were small-holdings - market gardens mainly.
When she speaks of her time on the land my mum's eyes light up. She loved the work, loved the fresh air and the friendship. Twenty or so girls lived in a village called Willingham in a supervised hostel. They were allocated to local farms and, by and large, cycled to work. Not every girl was happy, but my mother speaks with affection about the farming family who owned, or more likely leased, the farm on which she worked.
She remembers picking tomatoes in greenhouses with rain pounding on the glass roof. She was a town girl who made an effortless transition to country life, susceptible to the beauties of nature and the seasons. What a change for a dressmaker who had spent her working life in slum sweatshops!
There was a good social life as well. My mum was in her mid-twenties and still single and my aunt a little younger. They would cycle into Cambridge on their days off to go dancing at Dorothy's in the centre of Cambridge. (This is now a multiplex cinema). American and British troops stationed nearby outnumbered the girls, so there was no lack of attention. My mum and my aunt first tasted peanut butter and bananas at a dance on the American Service base.
The success of the Yanks did not make them popular with the British boys, who couldn't offer such luxuries. Some of the girls went on to new lives in the USA with American husbands. Imagine the shock and excitement of arriving in America after spending life in, say, domestic service in rural England, or doing factory work in urban slums.
Cycling was the best way to travel. Although there was a curfew for the girls at the hostel, I have gained the impression that they had considerable freedom, or at least managed to escape the overseeing eye of the hostel warden. But it seems that, despite the ample opportunities for fraternising with men, most of the girls abided by the social rules of the day and cycled back to the hostel after an evening out, obedient to the curfew.
Those who went into Cambridge by bus often lodged with families in town if they missed the last bus back to the village. In a war society, being invited to sleep overnight with strangers was the way things happened. The hospitality was provided out of sheer generosity of spirit, and accepted by the girls in innocence. My mum never spoke of unplanned pregnancies, though I imagine they occurred. The war spirit affected everyone. Lifts were given to any soldier and, of course, to Land Girls. Trucks carrying troops would readily stop for the girls, their bicycles hoisted on board, and friendships struck. Romance readily followed.
A prisoner of war camp was sited a few miles out of Cambridge. The Italian troops held there were sent to work on the farms and learned a little English. Their lukewarm commitment to fighting is what my mother remembers most clearly. They had surrendered readily and were biding their time in relatively benign captivity. It is perhaps a tribute to the civilised nature of British society then, that they made no complaints about their treatment. Although my mum can't personally recall any liaisons between Italian prisoners and English girls, they must have happened.
My mother married before the end of the war. Her photograph shows her dressed in a rather splendid smart, short, tailored dress, a lovely violet colour she tells me. The tailored, slightly masculine style, perhaps reflecting the war's demand that women do men's work, was rather flattering. Of course, my mum made the dress herself with whatever materials she could lay her hands on. She left the Land Army before the war ended, when she fell pregnant with my older sister.
Pte William P Katz . (d.26th January 1945)
Held as a Prisoner in Fukuoka 3b.
Pte Dave Bernard Katzeff . South African Army Transvaal Scottish from Johannesburg S.A.)
My father Dave Katzeff was a POW and during his time as a prisoner he compiled a book called "The Observer' which was edited by him. The late General Smuts wrote the forward. My father returned to South Africa in June 1945
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