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   Bettisfield Park camp was situated between Whitchurch and Ellesmere in Shrophire. The camp was constructed in the Deer Park of the mansion which was the home of the Hanmer family. It was home to No. 2 (TF) Artillery Training School, later called 2nd Reserve Brigade TF. 3rd Line reserve brigades from East & West Lancs plus Welsh were all posted there.

   National Filling Factory Banbury, Oxfordshire, was built in December 1915, a facility of wooden huts separated by earth blast walls. First output was April 1916.filling 6-pdr. to 9.2-in. shell. In 1917 they also began filling H.2 mines and a mustard gas facility was added, filling gas shells with the blister agent. It was under the direct control of the Board of Management and employed upwards of 1500. The huts were removed in 1924 and the remaining earthworks were placed on the Heritage at Risk Register in 2015. The site is situated beside the M40 shielded by trees and scrub.

   The 11th (Service) Battalion Cameronians (Scottish Rifles) was raised at Hamilton in October 1914 as part of Kitchener's Third New Army and joined 77th Brigade, 26th Division. They moved to Codford St Mary for training and by December 1914 was in billets in Bristol. They moved to Warminster in February 1915 and then to Sutton Veny in April. They proceeded to France, landing at Boulogne on the 20th of September 1915 but sailed for Salonika from Marseilles in November 1915. They saw action at the Battle of Horseshoe Hill in 1916, the Battles of Doiran in 1917 & 18, the Pursuit to the Strumica Valley in September 1918 and crossed the Serbian-Bulgarian border two days before the Armistice with Bulgaria. The Division pushed on towards Adrianople, but the Turkishh Armistice followed soon afterwards. 26th Division then became part of the Army of the Danube and then the Army of the Occupation of Bulgaria. The Division was demolilised in February 1919.

   11th Battalion, The Essex Regiment was raised at Warley in September 1914 as part of Kitchener's third new army, initally attached to 71st Brigade in 24th Division. They moved to Shoreham for training and then on to billets in Brighton in January 1915 returning to Shoreham in March and then moving to Blackdown in June 1915. They proceeded to France on the 30th of August 1915, landing at Boulogne. On the 11th of October 1915 the battalion transferred with 71st Brigade to 6th Division and then to 18th Brigade, in the same Division on the 27th October. In 1916 they were in action at Battle of Flers-Courcelette on The Somme, in The Battle of Morval and The Battle of Le Transloy. In 1917 they were in action at Hill 70 and at Cambrai. In 1918 they saw action in the Battle of St Quentin, The Battles of the Lys, The Advance in Flanders, Battles of the Hindenburg Line and The Pursuit to the Selle. After the Armistice, 6th Division were selected to join the occupation force and they moved into Germany in mid December, being based at Bruehl by Christmas 1918.

   

The 18th Battalion of the Durham Light Infantry was raised in Durham on 10 September 1914 as a Pals battalion.

The first casualty of enemy action on British soil during the Great War 1914-1918 was Private Theophilus Jones aged 29 who was killed on the 16th December 1914 at Heugh Battery, Hartlepool, when a German naval taskforce bombarded the town. He was one of six men of the Battalion to die in the bombardment, with a further eleven being wounded.

In May 1915 the 18th DLI was attached to 93rd Brigade, 31st Division and set sail for Egypt in December 1915 to defend the Suez Canal. The division was transferred to France in March 1916 for the preparation for the Battle of the Somme in July 1916.

The 31st Division took over the front line opposite the village of Serre, the northern most point of the Somme line. On the morning of the 1st of July, D Company of the 18th DLI were in the first wave of the attack and were situated to the southern edge of the village of Serre, with the 15th and 16th West Yorks. They suffered heavy losses but a few men of D Company managed to reach their objective, Pennant Copse. The other companies of 18th DLI were in the second wave with the 18th West Yorks but made now headway and were held in reserve.

The 18th DLI would later see action in The Battle of the Ancre and in 1917 the Operations on the Ancre before moving north to Arras for The Third Battle of the Scarpe and The Capture of Oppy Wood. In 1918 they saw action in The Battle of St Quentin, The Battle of Bapaume and The First Battle of Arras.

They moved north to Flanders and took part in The Battle of Estaires, The Battle of Hazebrouck, The Defence of Nieppe Forest and The attack at La Becque during the Battles of the Lys. During the Advance in Flanders they were involved in The capture of Vieux Berquin, and The action of Tieghem. They crossed the River Scheldt on the 9th of November and at the Armistice the forward units had reached Everbecque and the River Dender. They moved back to the Arques-Blendecques area and demobilisation began.

   21st (4th Public Schools) Battalion, Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was raised in at Epsom on the 11th of September 1914 by the Public Schools and University Men's Force. Following initial training near home, on the 26th of June 1915 they joined 98th Brigade, 33rd Division. The Division concentrated at Clipstone camp near Mansfield in Nottinghamshire in July 1915. In August they moved to Salisbury Plain for final training and firing practice. They proceeded France in November and by the 21st, 33rd Division had concentrated near Morbecque, being strengthened by the exchange of 98th Brigade for the experienced 19th Brigade from 2nd Division. On the the 26 of February 1916 the battalion transferred to GHQ and was disbanded on the 24th of April 1916 with many of the men being commissioned.

   23rd (1st Sportsman's) Battalion, The Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) was raised Formed at the Hotel Cecil in the Strand, London, on 25 September 1914 by E.Cunliffe-Owen. In June 1915 they joined 99th Brigade, 33rd Division at Clipstone camp near Mansfield in Nottinghamshire in July 1915. In August they moved to Salisbury Plain for final training and firing practice. In November they received orderes to prepare to proceed to France and the Divisional Artillery and Train were replaced by the units raised for the 54th (East Anglian) Division. By the 21st of November the 33rd Division had concentrated near Morbecque. On the 25th of November 1915 The Battalion transferred to 2nd Division as part of an exchange to strengthen the inexperienced 33rd Division. They took part in the Winter Operations 1914-15 and in 1915 saw action at The Battle of Festubert and The Battle of Loos. In 1916 they fought in the Battles of the Somme, including the Battle of Deville Wood and the Operations on the Ancre. In 1917 they were in action during The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, the Battles of Arras and The Battle of Cambrai. In 1918 they fought on the Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and The Battle of the Selle. 2nd Division was selected to advance into Germany and formed part of the Occupation Force after the Armistice.

The 23rd was the first of two Sportsmen's Battalions. The 24th (2nd Sportsmen) was also raised at the Hotel Cecil by Mrs Cunliffe-Owen. The war diaries of both battalions are held by the Fusiliers' Museum at the Tower of London. The 24th RF also served in France until the Armistice, and marched into Germany at the end of 1918. Both battalions were presented with Colours at the end of the war, an unusual mark of distinction for Kitchener battalions, in recognition of their service.

   Fort Brockhurst was constructed in the 1860's, one of five forts to defend the approaches to Portsmouth Harbour, At the outbreak of war in August 1914 it was armed with 4 4.7in. guns, a 3-inch Heavy Anti-Aircraft gun was mounted at the fort in 1917. From 25th Sept. 1915 Brockhurst became No. 2 Depot RGA, previously located at Fort Rowner. This was one of the four main Depots of the RGA where men who enlisted were sent to be approved, numbered, issued with uniform and be given two weeks basic drill before being posted to a regional company for further training and then on to a battery. Fort Brockhurst was also a Demobilisation Centre at the end of the war.

   Fort Elson was one of five forts forming the Gosport Advanced Line, construction began in 1855. Built to an irregular hexagonal plan form, surrounded by a dry ditch which could be flooded with seawater if required, it is the most northern fort in this line, the oldest of the remaining Portsmouth forts, it is situated within the heart of RNAD Gosport and within the restricted area.

The fort went out of military use in 1901, but was rearmed in 1917, with a Quick Fire 3" 20 cwt anti-aircraft gun mounted on a Peerless lorry.

   Fort Rowner was built in the late 1850's as part of the outer defence line for Gosport. It was disarmed in 1902 and in 1908 became No.2 Depot of the Southern Group R.G.A. This was one of the four main Depots of the RGA where men who enlisted were sent to be approved, numbered, issued with uniform and be given two weeks basic drill before being posted to a regional company for further training and then on to a battery. In September 1915 No 2 Depot RGA moved to Fort Brockhurst and Fort Rowner was taken over by the RFC. In 1916 it was rearmed with a 6-pounder Hotchkiss heavy anti aircraft gun.

Today the fort is inside the naval base of HMS Sultan.

   Frenchman's Point Coastal Battery was built at Horsley Hill on the coast to the south of Tynemouth, in the early 1900's to complement the Tynemouth Castle Battery. The battery had been reduced to the reserve in 1906, but after the bombardment of Hartlepool in December 1914, the Battery was restored to the Tyne defences with its full complement of guns. It was armed with one 9.2 inch Breech-loading Mk. X and two 6 inch Breech-loading Mk. VII guns.

The battery was sold in 1922 as it was damaged by subsidence and repairs would be cost prohibitive. The area was used as a holiday camp until the Second World War when the emplacements were rearmed and new emplacements were constructed in 1941. Today the site is owned by the National Trust, the original emplacements are now buried but the mounds of the WW2 emplacements are visible.

   The HQ of the 5th (Renfrewshire) Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders was at Finnart Street, Greenock. A, B, C, D, F and G Companies were based in Greenock, E Coy was based in Port Glasgow and H Coy was based in Gourock and Inverkip. When war broke out in August 1914 they were mobilised and attached as Army Troops to the Black Watch Brigade on the Scottish coastal defences. In April 1915 they moved to Dunfermline and transferred to the HLI Brigade in the Lowland Division which was renamed 157th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division in May. They departed in early June for Gallipoli via Egypt landing at Cape Helles on 3 July. They remained on the peninsula until January 1916 when they returned to Egypt.

   The 4th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment was a Territorial unit with HQ in Grange Road, Birkenhead. A to D Companies were based in Birkenhead, E Coy at Tranmere, F and G Coys at Liscard, H Coy was recruited from Heswall, Parkgate, West Kirkby and Hoylake. Theier cadet corps were: 1st Birkenhead Cadet Corps which was based at St Catherines Institute in Tranmere, 2nd New Brighton Cadet Corps based at 67-67 Rowson Street, New Brighton, 3rd New Brighton Cadet Corps based at Oarside Farm, Mount Pleasant Road, New Brighton, Liscard High School Cadets, 1st Oxton Cadet Corps based in Birkenhead and the 1st Poulton Cadet Coy which was based at St Lukes Parish Hall.

When war broke out in August 1914. They were at once mobilised and moved to Shrewsbury and Church Stretton but by the end of August were at Northampton. In December 1914 they moved to Cambridge and by March 1915 was at Bedford preparing for service in India. On the 13th of May 1915 the Cheshire Brigade was renamed 159th Brigade, 53rd (Welsh) Division. On the 2nd of July orders arrived to re-equip for service in the Mediterranean and on the 14th they sailed from Devonport to Alexandria and made a landing at Suvla Bay Gallipoli on the 9th of August 1915. They were involved in operations in the Suvla Bay area suffering heavy losses. By the time they were evacuated to Mudros on the 11th of December the Division stood at just 162 officers and 2428 men (approx 15%). From Mudros they went on to Alexandria and to Wardan, where the the divisional artillery rejoined in February 1916. They were in action at The Battle of Romani in the Palestine campaign and in 1917 158th Brigade fought at The First Battle of Gaza and the whole Division were in action during The Second Battle of Gaza, The Third Battle of Gaza when they were involved in capture of Beersheba, Tell Khuweilfe, and The Capture of Jerusalem. In December they were in action in The Defence of Jerusalem. In March 1918 they fought at The Battle of Tell'Asur. On the 31st of May 1918 the 4th Cheshires left the Division and sailed for France, joining 102nd Brigade, 34th Division on the 1st of July. They returned to action, at The Battles of the Soissonais, the Ourcq and the capture of Baigneux Ridge. They took part in the Final Advance in Flanders and at the Armistice was at rest in the area east of Courtrai. 34th Division was selected to join the Army of Occupation and began to move towards Germany on the 14th of November. On the 22nd of December a large number men with industrial and mining skills were demobilised. By the end of January 1919 the Division was occupying the Cologne bridgehead.

   The 5th (Earl of Chester's) Battalion, Cheshire Regiment had its HQ at Volunteer Street Chester. A Coy were from Altringhan and Knutsford, B Coy from Chester and Kelsall, C Coy from Sale and Cheadle, D Coy from Hartford, E Coy from Chester, F Coy from Frodsham and Lymm, G Coy from Runcorn and H Coy from Hartford.

They were with the Cheshire Brigade, Welsh Division when war was declared in August 1914. They were immediately mobilised and moved to Shrewsbury and Church Stretton, by the end of August they moved to Northampton and then in December to Cambridge for final preparations. They proceeded to France on the 15th of February 1915, landing at at Le Havre to join 14th Brigade, 5th Division. They were in action in The Battle of Mons and the subsequent retreat, The Battle of Le Cateau, The Battle of the Marne, The Battle of the Aisne, The Battles of La Bassee and Messines and The First Battle of Ypres. In 1915 they were in action at The Second Battle of Ypres and the Capture of Hill 60. In autumn 1915, many units were exchanged with units from the newly arrived volunteer 32nd Division, to stiffen the inexperienced Division with regular army troops. On the 29th of November 1915 they became a Pioneer Battalion. On the 13th of February 1916 the 1/5th Chesters transferred to the newly reformed 56th (London) Division, in the Hallencourt area in February. In 1916 they were in action on The Somme taking part in the diversionary attack at Gommecourt on the 1st of July. Also The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of Morval in which the Division captured Combles and The Battle of the Transloy Ridges. In 1917 they were in action during The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line and the Battles of Arras in April, then The Battle of Langemarck in August, then the Cambrai Operations in November. In 1918 They were in action on The Somme, in the Second Battles of Arras, the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice the infantry were in a rest period, whilst the artillery were in action. The Division received orders to join the British force to occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were cancelled on the 21st of November, when they were in the area of Harveng undertaking road and railway repairs. Demobilisation was completed on the 18th of May 1919.

   The 6th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment was a Territorial unit with HQ at The Armoury, Stockport. A and B Coy were based at The Drill Hall, Astley Street, Stalybridge, C Coy were from Hyde, D Coy from Glossop and Hatfield, E, F and H Coys were from Stockport. They were part of the Cheshire Brigade, Welsh Division when war broke out in August 1914. They proceeded to France on the 10th of November 1914 joining 15th Brigade, 5th Division on the 17 December 1914. On the 1st of March 1915 they transferred to GHQ and took over guard and other duties at Rouen, Abbeville and Dieppe. On the 9th of January 1916 they transferred to 20th Brigade, 7th Division then on the 29th of February 1916 to 118th Brigade, in the newly arrived 39th Division to replace units who had remained in England to complete their training. On the 30th June 1916 they were in action in an attack near Richebourg l'Avoue with the Sussex battalions suffered heavy casualties. They were in action during the Battles of the Somme, including, the fighting on the Ancre, The Battle of Thiepval Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre heights and the capture of Schwaben Reddoubt and Stuff Trench as well as The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 they fought in The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Langemarck, The Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, The Battle of Polygon Wood and The Second Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918 they were in action at The Battle of St Quentin, The actions at the Somme crossings, The Battle of Bapaume and The Battle of Rosieres before moving to Flanders. They took part n The fighting on Wytschaete Ridge, The First and Second Battle of Kemmel and The Battle of the Scherpenberg. On the 28th of May 1918 they transferred to 75th Brigade, 25th Division and were in action at The Battle of the Aisne, on the 17th of June the battalion absorbed men of the 11th Cheshires, which was reduced to cadre. On the 8th of July 1918 they transferred to 21st Brigade, 30th Division. They were in action during the Advance in Flanders and by the Armistice had crossed the River Scheldt with advanced units reaching the line between Ghoy and la Livarde, north west of Lessines. In January 1919 30th Division took up duty at the Base Ports of Dunkirk, Calais, Boulogne and Etaples and demobilisation began.

   The 7th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment were a Territorial unit with their HQ in Macclesfield.A Coy was from Congleton, B Coy from Congleton and Bollington, C and D Coys were based in Macclesfield, E Coy was from Macclesfield and Winsford, F Coy from Natwich and Crew, G Coy from Sandbach, Middlewich and Winsford and H Coy was from Wimslow, Winsford and Middlewich. They had two associated cadet corps; The Macclesfield Industrial School Cadet Corps and the Macclesfield Grammar School Cadet Corps.

   The Cheshire Yeomanry (Earl of Chester's) were a Territorial unit, part of the Welsh Border Mounted Brigade. Their HQ was at Old Bank Buildings, Chester. A Squadron were from Knutsford, Alderley Edge, Hale and Sale. B Squadron were from Eaton, Chester, Farndon, Aldford, Oulford, Tattenhall and Kelsall. C Squadron were from Northwich, Great Budworth, Appleton, Warburton, Nantwoich, Windsford, Middlewich, Tarporley and Crew. D Squadron were from Nacclesfield, Congleton, Stockport and Adlington and had their Drill Hall at The Barracks, Crompton Road, Macclesfield.

   The City of Aberdeen Batteries, Royal Field Artillery consisted of the 1st and 2nd Batteries and had their HQ at North Silver Street, Aberdeen. They were a territorial unit, part of the 1st Highland Brigade

   Cinque Ports Fortress Company, Royal Engineers were a Territorial Unit with their HQ at 16 Bench Street Dover.

   City of Aberdeen Fortress Engineers were a territorial unit of the Royal Engineers, they had their HQ at 80 Hardgate, Aberdeen.

   The City of Dundee Battery, was a territorial unit of the Royal Field Artillery, part of the 2nd Highland Brigade. They had their HQ at Dudhope Drill Hall, Brown Street, Dundee.

   City of Dundee Fortress Engineers were a territorial unit of the Royal Engineers, they had their HQ at 52 Taylor's Lane, Dundee.

   The City of Edinburgh Batteries consisted of the 1st and 2nd Batteries and were territorial units, part of the 1st Lowland Brigade. They had their HQ at 30 Grndlay Street, Edinburgh.

   City of Edinburgh Fortress Engineers were a territorial unit of the royal Engineers with their HQ at 28 York Place, Edinburgh.

   The City of Glasgow Batteries consisted of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd City of Glasgow Batteries which were part of the 3rd Lowland Brigade and the 4th and 5th City of Glasgow Batteries whcih were part of the 4th (Howitzer) Lowland Brigade. They were all territorial units and the 3rd and 4th Lowland Brigades also had an Ammunition Column. All were based in the city of Glasgow with their HQ at 8 Newton Terrace, Charring Cross, Glasgow.

   The 6th Battalion Royal Warwickshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force with HQ the Drill Hall, Thorpe Street, Birmingham (next to the Birmingham Hippodrome) serving with the Warwickshire Brigade, South Midland Division. The units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914 and they were at once recalled. They mobilised for war service on 5 August 1914 and moved to concentrate in the Chelmsford area by the second week of August 1914 and commenced training. They proceeded to France, from Southampton, landing at le Havre on the 22nd of March 1915. The Division concentrated near Cassel. on the 13th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 143rd Brigade, 48th (South Midland) Division. In 1916 They were in action in the Battle of the Somme, suffering hevy casualties on the 1st of July in assaulting the Quadrilateral (Heidenkopf). They were also in action at The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, capturing Ovillers, The Battle of Pozieres Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights and The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 the Division occupied Peronne during the The German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and were in action in the Third Battles of Ypres. On the 21st of November 1917 they entrained for Italy. In 1918 they were involved in The fighting on the Asiago Plateau and The Battle of the Vittoria Veneto in the Val d'Assa area. At the Armistice the Division had withdrawn and was at Granezza. Demobilisation began in early 1919.

   The City of London Yeomanry (Rough Riders) were a territorial unit, part of the London Mounted Brigade. They had their HQ at 39 Finsbury Sqaure, Finsbury and A, B, C and D squadrons were all based there.

   The Clyde Royal Garrison Artillery was a territorial unit with their HQ in King William Street, Port Glasgow. At the outbreak of war in 1914 there were three Garrison Companies, No.1 (Port Glasgow) Coy., No2 (Helensburgh and Dunbarton) Coy. and No.3 (Dunbarton) Coy.

   The Cornwall Fortress Engineers were a territorial unit of the Royal Engineers, their HQ was at Falmouth. No.1 Electric Lights Coy was based in Falmouth, No.2 Works Coy were based at Lerryn Drill Hall and No.3 Works Coy. were from Penryn, Constantine and Ponsanooth.

   The Cornwall Royal Garrison Artillery (Duke of Cornwall's) were a territorial unit with their HQ in Falmouth. The unit consisted of two heavy batteries, No.1 was from Padstow, St Merryn, Charlestown, Bugle and Parr, No 2 from Penzanace, St Just, and St Buryan with five Garrison Companies: No.3 (Looe), No.4 (Marazion), No.5 (St Ives), No.6 (Falmouth) and No.7 (Truro).

   The County of London Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were territorial units which formed the 2nd to the 8th London Brigades.

2nd London Brigade RFA had its HQ at the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich and consisted of the 4th and 5th (Woolwich) Batteries and the 6th (Eltham) Battery and Ammunition Column. Their associated cadets were the 1st Woolwich Cadet Corps based at High Street, Plumstead.

3rd London Brigade RFA had its HQ at the Artillery Barracks, Leonard Street, Finsbury and consisted of the 7th, 8th and 9th (Finsbury) Batteries and Ammunition column.

4th (Howitzer) London Brigade RFA had their HQ at Ennersdale Road, Lewisham and consisted of the 10th and 11th (Lambeth) County of London Batteries and Ammunition Column.

5th London Brigade RFA had their HQ at 76 Lower Kennington Lane, Lambeth and consisted of the 12th and 13th Batteries and the Ammunition Column based in Lambeth and the 14th Battery which was based in Porteous Road, Paddington.

6th London Brigade RFA had their HQ at 105 Holland Road, Brixton and consisted on the 15th, 16th and 17th (Brixton) Batteries and the Brixton Ammunition Column.

7th London Brigade RFA had their HQ in High Street, Fulham and consisted of the 18th (Fulham) Battery, 19th (Shepherds Bush) Battery, 20th (Fulham) battery and the Fulham Amunition Column.

8th (Howitzer) London Brigade RFA had their HQ at Oakland, St Margaret's Road, Woolwich and was made up of the 21st and 22nd Batteries with their Ammunition Column.

   The County of London Yeomanry (Middlesex Hussars) were a territorial unit, part of the London Mounted Brigade with their HQ at The Duke of York's Headquarters in King's Road, Chelsea where all their squadrons A to D were based.

   The Westminster Dragoons, County of London Yeomanry were a territorial unit, part of the London Mounted Brigade. Their HQ was at Elverton Street, Westminster where all the squadrons A to D were based. The stables were in Horseferry Road, Westminster (Chanel4 HQ is now on this site)

   The 3rd County of London Yeomanry (Sharpshooters) were a territorial unit, part of the London Mounted Brigade, with their HQ at Henry Street (now Allitsen Road), St John's Wood.

   The Cumberland Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were a territorial unit, part of the 4th East Lancashire (Howitzer) Brigade which had its HQ in Workington. The 1st Cumberland Bty was based in Carlisle, the 2nd in Workington and their Ammunition Column in Workington, Whitehave and Maryport.

   The Denbighshire Hussars Yeomanry was a territorial unit, part of the Welsh Mounted Brigade. Their HQ was at 1 Erdigg Road, Wrexham. A Squadron drew from Wrexham, Llangollen, Mold and Ruabon, B Squadron from Denbigh, Prestatyn, Rhyl and Ruthin, C Squadron from Bangor, Carnarvon, llandudno and Beaumaris, D from Birkenhead.

   The Derbyshire Howitzer Batteries were part of the Territorial Force, 4th North Midland (Howitzer) Brigade. Their HQ was at 91 Siddal's Road, Derby. The unit consisted of the 1st (Derby and West Hallam) Battery, the 2nd (Derby) Battery and the Derby Ammunition Column.

   The Derbyshire Yeomanry were a unit of the Territorial Force, part o fthe Notts and Derby Mounted Brigade. Their HQ was at 91 Siddall's Road, Derby. A Squadron was drawn from Chesterfield, Riply, Belper, Beauchief and Ekington, B Squadron from Bakewell, Buxton, Tideswell, Matlock, Youlgreave and Hartington, C Squadron from Derby, Ormaston Manor, Duffield and Wirksworth, D Squadron from Derby, Ilkeston, Church Gresley and Repton.

   The Devonshire Batteries were part of the Territorial Force, 4th Wessex Brigade, Royal Field Artillery who had their HQ in Exeter. The 1st Devonshire Battery was from Exeter and Exmouth, 2nd from Paignton, Torre and Dartmouth, 3rd from Tavistock, Lydford and Milton, the Ammunition Column from Exeter, Crediton and Teignmouth.

   The Devonshire Fortress Engineers were a Territorial unit of the Royal Engineers, their HQ was at Mutley Barracks, Plymouth. No.1 Coy was from Torquay, Newton Abbott and Yealmpton, No.2 and No.3 Coys were based in Exeter, No.4 and No.5 (Electric Light) Coys were based in Plymouth. They had two associated cadet companies, No.1 Cadet Company based at Yealmpton and No.2 Cadet Coy based at Mutley Barracks.

   The 4th Battalion, Devonshire Regiment were a Territorial unit with their HQ in Exeter. they were part of the Devon and Cornwall Brigade, Wessex Division. A Coy was based in Exeter and Broadclyst, B and C Coys in Exeter, D Coy was from Exmouth, Budleigh, Salyterton and Lympstone, E Coy from Tiverton, Brampton and Dulverton, F Coy from Sidmouth, Ottery St Mary, Newton Poopleford, Honiton and Colyton, G Coy from Cullompton, Whimple, Burlescombe and Uffculme, H Coy from Axminster, Chardstock abd Lyme Regis. They had a cadet corps at Exeter Cathedral School.

Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Wessex Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November and moved to the 3rd (Lahore) Divisional Area at Ferozepore. They served in India until the end of February 1916 when they were sent to Mesopotamia, landing at Basra on the 2nd of March 1916 with the independent 41st Indian Brigade. On the 5th of May they transferred to 37th Brigade, 14th (Indian) Division. In February 1917 they moved to Amara to the Tigris Lines of Communication.

   The 5th (Prince of Wales) Battalion, Devonshire Regiment were a Territorial unit with their HQ in Plymouth. They were part of the Devon and Cornwall Brigade, Wessex Division. A coy were from Plymouth and Tavistock, B from Plymouth, C from Plymouth, Ivybridge and Kingsbridge, D Coy from Devonport, E Coy from Newton Abbott and Chudleigh, f Coy from Teignmouth, Dawlish and Torquay, G coy from Moreton Hampstead, Bovey Tracey and Chagford, H Coy from Totnes, Ashburton and Buckfastleigh. Their cadet corps were the Plymouth Lads Brigade Cadet Corps, Haytor Cadet Corps and Totnes Cadet Corps.

Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Wessex Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 9th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November 1914 and served in 3rd (Lahore) Divisional Area at Multan. In December 1915 they moved to Lahore. In spring 1917 they were sent to Egypt, landing at Suez on the 4th of April, they joined 232nd Brigade, 75th Division on the 25th of June for service in Palestine. They saw action during The Third Battle of Gaza, The Capture of Gaza, The Capture of Junction Station and The Battle of Nabi Samweil. In 1918 they fought in The Battle of Tell'Asur and The Battle of Berukin before being transferred to the Western Front. They landed at Marseilles on the 1st of June and travelled north by train to join 185th Brigade, 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division. They were in action during The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of Havrincourt, The Battle of the Canal du Nord, The Battle of the Selle, The capture of Solesmes and The Battle of the Sambre. At the Armistice the advanced units had crossed the Sambre and reached the Maubeuge-Avesnes road. The Division was the only Territorial formation to be selected to enter Germany and took over the area around Schleiden in December.

   The 6th Battalion, Devonshore Regiment had their HQ in Barnstable. they were part of the Territorial Force Southern Command. A coy was from Barnstable and Muddiford, B Coy from Okehampton, Hatherleigh, Bow and Sticklepath, C Coy from Bideford, Appledore, Parkham and Hartland, D coy from Torrington, St Giles, Holsworthy and Ashwater, E Coy from South Molton, Witheridge, Molland and Chittlehampton, F Coy from Chumleigh, Winkleigh, King's Nympton, Burrington and Crediton, G Coy from Combe Martin, Berrynarbor, Braunton and Croyde.

Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Wessex Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 9th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November and served in 3rd (Lahore) Divisional Area at Lahore. In January 1916 they joined the independent 36th Brigade, Indian Army for service in Mesopotamia, and landed at Basra on the 5th of January 1916. In the 12th of May 36th Brigade joined 14th (Indian) Division and in September 1916 they transferred to the Tigris Lines of Communication.

   The 7th (Cyclist) Battalion, Devonshore Regiment were a Territorial Unit of Southern Command, with their HQ in Exeter. A Coy was from Torquay, B Coy from Exeter, Topsham and Woodbury, C Coy from Exeter, D Coy from Cullompton, Bradninch and Silverton, E Coy from Crediton, F Coy from Dartmouth, G Coy from Plymouth, H Coy from Torquay. Their cadet company was the Dartmouth Cadet Company based at Crothers Hill, Dartmouth. As the demand for cyclists in France waned and they were seen to be useful in home defence and the unit did not deploy overseas.

   The Devonshire Royal Garrison Artillery had their HQ at the Artillery Drill Hall, Lambhay Hill, Plymouth. They were a Territorial unit consisting of No.1 (Ilfracombe and Lynmouth) Heavy Battery, No.2 (Devonport, Plympton and Salcombe) Heavy Battery, No. 3 and No.4 (Devonport) Garrison Coy, No.5 and No.6 (Plymouth) Garrison Coy.

   The Dorsetshire Battery were a Territorial unit of the Royal Field Artillery, part of the 3rd Wessex Brigade.

   The Dorsetshire Yeomanry (Queen's own) were a Territorial unit, part of the 1st South Western Mounted Brigade. they had their HQ in Sherborne. A Squadron were from Dorchester, Bridport, Weymouth, Maiden Newton and Charmouth, B squadron from Sherborne, Yeoville and Pulham, C Squadron from Blandford, Wimborne, Wareham and Handley, D Squadron from Gillingham, Shadtesbury, Stalbridge and Sturminster Newton.

   The 4th Battalion, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry were a Territorial unit of the Devon and Cornwall Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. Their HQ was in Truro and the unit consisted of: A Coy (Penzance), B Coy (Camborne), C Coy was based in Falmouth, with their drill hall on the corner of Berkeley Vale and Brook Street, D Coy at Helston, E Coy (Truro), F Coy (Hayle), G Coy (Redruth) and H Coy (St Just and Pendeen). Their associated cadet company was, A Coy. 1st Cadet Battalion of Cornwall based in Falmouth.

   The 5th Battalion, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry were a Territorial unit, part of the Devon and Cornwall Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. They had their HQ in Bodmin and were made up of: A Coy (Liskeard), B coy (Saltash and Callington), C Coy (Launceston), D Coy (St Austell and St Stephen), E Coy (Bodin and Lostwithiel), F Coy (Camelford, Wadebridge and Delabole), G Cot (St Columb and Newquay) and H Coy (Bude, Stratton, Kilkhampton and Morwenstow)

   The Duke of Lancaster's Own Yeomanry were a Territorial unit with their HQ at Lancaster House, Whalley Road, Whalley Range, Manchester, they were part of the Welsh Border Mounted Brigade. A Squadron was from Oldham and Rochdale, B Squadron from Bolton and Liverpool, C Squadron from Whalley Range and D Squadron from Preston and Blackpool.

   The 4th Battalion, Duke of Wellington's West Riding Regiment were a Territorial unit with their HQ in Halifax. A, B, C and F Companies were based in Halifax, D Coy in Brighouse, E Coy in Cleckheaton (Their Drill Hall is now a shopfitters warehouse), G Coy in Elland and H Coy in Sowerby Bridge. When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service, taking up possition on the coastal defences near Hull and Grimsby. On the 5th of November they moved to billets in Doncaster for the winter. They trained in the South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire in preparation for service overseeas. They proceeded to France on the 14th of April 1915, sailing from Folkestone to Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 147th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action during the Battles of the Lys, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice, The 49th Division was resting at Douai, demobilisation began in early 1919.

   The 5th Battalion, Duke of Wellington's West Riding Regiment was a Territorial unit with its HQ at The Drill Hall in St Pauls Street, Huddersfield. A, B, C and D Companies were based in Huddersfield, E Company in Huddersfield and Meltham, F Coy in Holmfirth, G Coy in Kirkburton, and H Coy in Mirfield. When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service, taking up possition on the coastal defences near Hull and Grimsby. On the 5th of November they moved to billets in Doncaster for the winter. They trained in the South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire in preparation for service overseeas. They proceeded to France on the 15th of April 1915, sailing from Folkestone to Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 147th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. On the 30th of January 1918 they transferred to 186th Brigade, 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division and absorbed the 2/5th Battalion, and was then renamed the 5th Battalion. They were in action during The Battle of Bapaume, The First Battle of Arras, The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of Havrincourt, The Battle of the Canal du Nord, The Battle of the Selle, The capture of Solesmes and The Battle of the Sambre. At the Armistice the advanced units had crossed the Sambre and reached the Maubeuge-Avesnes road. The Division was the only Territorial formation to be selected to enter Germany and took over the area around Schleiden in December.

   The 6th Battalion, Duke of Wellington's West Riding Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Skipton-in-Craven. A Company was based in Skipton-in-Craven and Barnoldswick, B Coy in Skipton-in-Craven, C Coy in Guiseley, D and E Coys in Keighley, F Coy in Settle and Ingleton, G Coy at The Drill Hall, Drill Street, Haworth and H Coy in Bingley. They had a cadet corps in Settle. When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service, taking up possition on the coastal defences near Hull and Grimsby. On the 5th of November they moved to billets in Doncaster for the winter. They trained in the South Yorkshire and Lincolnshire in preparation for service overseeas. They proceeded to France on the 16th of April 1915, sailing from Folkestone to Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 147th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action during the Battles of the Lys, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice, The 49th Division was resting at Douai, demobilisation began in early 1919.

   The 7th Battalion, Duke of Wellington's West Riding Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Milnsbridge, off Scar Lane (ex Carpet Factory). A and B Companies were based in Milnsbridge, C Coy in Slaithwaite, D Coy in Marsden, E Coy in Upper Mill, F and H Coy in Mossley and G Coy in Lees.

   The Durham Batteries, Royal Garrison Artillery were units of the Territorial Force. The 1st (Seaham Harbour), 2nd Durham Battery was split with the left half being based at the Drill Hall, Seaham Harbour and the right half at The Barracks, Gilesgate, Durham City. The 3rd (West Hartlepool) Durham Battery, based at The Armoury, West Hartlepool, the Seaham Harbour and Durham Ammunition Column together formed the 3rd (County of Durham) Brigade which had its HQ at the Drill Hall, Seaham Harbour. The 4th (South Shields)Battery and the South Shields and Hebburn Ammunition Column were based at at Bollingbroke Street, South Shields and formed the 4th (Howitzer) County of Durham Brigade, along with the 5th Durham (Howitzer) Bty which was based at The Artillery Drill Hall in Hebburn. The Heavy Battery made up of No.I and No.II Coy's which were based at the Drill Hall, The Green, Sunderland. With No.III; No.IV; No.V and No.VI Coy's being based at The Armoury, West Hartlepool.

   The Durham Fortress Engineers were a Territorial unit of the Royal Engineers, they had their HQ at Western Road, Jarrow. Nos. 1 and 2 Companies were based at the Drill Hall, Western Rd, Jarrow, with No.3 Coy based at the Drill Hall, Elm Grove, Alexandra Rd, Gateshead.

   The 8th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at the Drill Hall, Gilesgate, Durham.

A Coy was also based there, being drawn from from Gilesgate, Sherburn Hill, Brandon and Sacriston, B Coy was also based at Gilesgate, C Coy was based in Lumley Terrace Chester-le-Street, D Coy at the Drill Hall, Birtley, E Coy at The Armoury, Beamish and Burnhope, F Coy at the Drill Hall, Stanley, G Coy at The Armoury's in Washington and Houghton-le-Spring and H Coy at Drill Hall, Hamsteels and also recruited from Langley Park and Sleetburn.

After training in Britain they proceeded to France on the 17th of April 1915 landing at Boulogne to joined 151st Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. They saw action in the Second Battle of Ypres in 1915 and in June after suffering heavy casualties merged with the 6th DLI to become the 6/8th until mid August.

They were in action again on the Somme in 1916 and at Arras and Passchendaele in 1917, in 1918 saw action on The Somme and in the Battles of the Lys. In August the 8th DLI transferred to 117th Brigade, 39th Division and was disbanded in France on the 6th of November 1918.

   

The 9th Battalion Durham Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at the Drill Hall, Burt Terrace, Gateshead, where A, B, C and D Companies also based. E Coy was based at the Drill Hall, Felling, F Coy at the Drill Hall, Chopwell. G Coy at the Drill Hall in Blaydon and H Coy were based at the Drill Hall, West Ryton.

They proceeded to France on the 17th of April 1915 landing at Boulogne to joined 151st Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. They saw action in the Second Battle of Ypres in 1915, on the Somme in 1916 and at Arras and Passchendaele in 1917.

On the 12th of February 1918 the 9th DLI converted to a Pioneer Battalion and transferred to 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division. They returned to the Somme fighting at Bapaume in March and took part in the Second Battles of Arras, the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy.

 Abbotts VAD Hospital  The Abbotts VAD hospital, Cheltenham treated 1603 patents between 1914 and 1919 with 20 deaths. Today The Abbotts is used as a children's nursery.

   The American Hospital For English Soldiers was situated at Caen Wood Towers, Hampstead Lane in London.

   The American Women's Hospital was situated at 98-99 Lancaster Gate, London.

   Anstie Grange Officers' Hospital was situated at Holmwood, Dorking

   The Arnoldi Hospital was run by Mrs. Arnoldi at 47 Roland Gardens, London, S.W.

 Norfolk Battery, Royal Field Artillery  The Norfolk Batteries of the Royal Field Artillery were part of the 1st East Anglian Brigade. The 1st Norfolk Battery had its HQ at Nelson Road, Great Yarmouth, the 2nd and 3rd Batteries were based in Norwich and the Ammunition Column was based in Norwich and Great Yarmouth. Their associated cadets were the Cadet Norfolk Artillery with their HQ in Surrey Street, Norwich.

   The East Anglian (Essex) Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery had their HQ at Artillery House, Stratford Green. They were part of the 54th (East Anglian) Division TF who had just set out for thier annual summer camp when war was declared in August 1914. The Division returned home and took up their defensive positions at Brentwood. They then moved to Chelmsford, Bury St Edmunds and Norwich. They took up coastal defence duties in November until February 1915 when they moved to St Albans. In July 1915 the 54th (East Anglian) Division departed for Gallipoli, but the East Anglian (Essex) Heavy Battery remained in England.

The Battery proceeded to France on the 14th of March 1916 and joined XXIII HA Bde.

   The East Anglian Clearing Hospital was a unit of the Territorial Force, Royal Army Medical Corps and had their Head Quarters in Ipswich.

 East Anglian Transport & Supply Column, ASC  The East Anglian Transport & Supply Column were part of the Territorial Force, Army Service Corps and had their HQ at 156 High street, Ilford. The Norfolk and Suffolk Brigade Company was based in Kings Lynn and Downham Market, the East Midland Brigade Company was based in Northampton and the Essex Brigade Company were based at Bay Lodge, The Green Stratford and in Woolwich.

 East Anglian Field Ambulance, RAMC  The East Anglian Field Ambulance was part of the Territorial Force, Royal Army Medical Corps. The 1st East Anglian Field Ambulance had their HQ in Woodbridge Road, Ipswich with A, B and C Sections based in Ipswich, Woddbridge, Needham Market and Trimley. The 2nd East Anglian Field Ambulance had their HQ at 44 Bethel Street, Norwich with A, B and C Sections based in Norwich, East Dereham and Lowestoft. The 3rd East Anglian Field Ambulance had their HQ at Walthamstowe Lodge, Church Hill, Walthamstow, with A and B Sections based in Southend, C Section based in Silvertown and Prittlewell.

 East Anglian Engineers  The East Anglian Engineers were part of the Territorial Force, Royal Engineers and had their HQ in Ashburnham Road, Bedford, the unit consisted of the 1st(Bedford) Field Company, the 2nd (Bedford and Luton) Field Company and the East Anglian Signal Company, which was organised as No 1 and No 2 (Norfolk and Suffolk) Sections, No 3 (East Midland) Section and No 4 (Essex) Section.

   The East Lancashire Clearing Hospital, was a territorial unit of the Royal Army Medical Corps with their HQ in Manchester.

 East Lancashire Royal Engineers  The East Lancashire Royal Engineers was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at 73 Seymour Grove, Old Trafford, Manchester. The unit was made up of the 1st and 2nd (Old Trafford) Field Companies and the East Lancashire Divisional Signal Company which consisted of No 1 and No 2 (Lancashire Fusiliers) Sections, No 3 (East Lancashire) section and No 4 (Manchester) Section.

 East Lancashire Transport & Supply Column, ASC  The East Lancashire Transport & Supply Column, was a Territorial Force unit of the Army Service Corps. Their HQ was at Hulme Barracks in Manchester. They were made up of the Lancashire Brigade Company based in Manchester, the Manchester Brigade Company with its HQ in Manchester and the East Lancashire Brigade Company based in Rawtenstall.

 East Lancashire Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps  The East Lancashire Field Ambulance was a unit of the Royal Army Medical Corps, part of the Territorial Force. Their HQ was at Upper Chorlton Road, Manchester and all three Field Ambulances were based there. The 1st East Lancashire Field Ambulance consisted of A and B (Manchester) sections and C (Bolton) Section. The 2nd East Lancashire Field Ambulance consisted of A and B (Manchester) sections and C (Burnley) Section. The 3rd East Lancashire Field Ambulance consisted of A and B (Manchester) sections and C (Bury) Section.

 East Lancashire (Heavy) Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery  The East Lancashire (Heavy) Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery was a Territorial Force unit, part of the Lancashire Brigade, RGA which had its HQ at Sefton Barracks, Upper Warwick Street, Toxteth Park, Liverpool. The East Lancs (Heavy) Battery was attached to the East Lancashire Division.

 East Lancashire Regiment, 4th Btn.  The 4th Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Blackburn. A, B, C, D and E Companies were based in Blackburn, F and G Coys in Darwen and H Coy in Clitheroe. When war broke out in August 1914 they were based in Blackburn with the East Lancashire Brigade in East Lancashire Division. They were mobilized for war and moved to to Chesham Fold Camp (Bury) for training then proceeded overseas leaving from Southampton on the 10th of September 1914, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 126th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. On the 14th of February 1918 they transferred to 198th Brigade in 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division and absorbed the 2/4th Batallion. In April they were reduced to cadre strength and in August transferred to 118th Brigade in 39th Division on Lines of Communication work.

 East Lancashire Regiment, 5th Btn.  The 5th Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Mill St, Burnley. The unit was made up of A (Burnley) Company, B (Burnley and Padiham) Coy, C and D (Burnley) coys, F (Accrington) Coy, G (Haslingden and Ramsbottom) Coy and H (Baccup) Coy. When war broke out in August 1914 they were based in Blackburn with the East Lancashire Brigade in East Lancashire Division. They were mobilized for war and moved to to Chesham Fold Camp (Bury) for training then proceeded overseas leaving from Southampton on the 10th of September 1914, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 126th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. The Battalion was demobilized at Charleroi between December 18 and March 1919.

 East Riding Batteries, Royal Field Artillery  The East Riding Batteries, were units of the Territorial Force, part of the 2nd Northumbrian Brigade, Royal Field Artillery. They had their HQ in Hull and consisted of the 1st and 2nd East Riding (Hull) Batteries, supported by the Hull Ammunition Column. The third Battery which made up the Brigade was the North Riding (Scarborough and Whitby) Battery.

 East Riding Fortress Engineers  The East Riding Fortress Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force, Royal Engineers, consisting of No 1 (Hull) Works Company and No 2 (Hull) Electric Lights Company. They had their HQ in Colonial Street, Hull.

 East Riding Yeomanry  The East Riding Yeomanry were a Territorial Force unit of the Yorkshire Mounted Brigade and had their HQ in Railway Street, Beverley. A Squadron were based in Walton Street, Hull where they had a Riding School and Gymnasium (now Wenlock Barracks). B Squadron in Beverly, North Cave, Hornsea and Patrington, C Squadron in Fulford and Dunnington and D Squadron in Driffield, Hunmanby, Pocklington, Settrington and Bridlington.

 East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery  The East Riding Royal Garrison Artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Park Street, Hull. The unit was made up of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th (Hull) Garrison Companies.

 East Surrey Regiment, 5th Btn.  The 5th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the Surrey Infantry Brigade, Home Counties Division. their HQ was at 17 St George's Road, Wimbledon. A Coy was based in Streatham, B Coy in Leatherhead, Bookham and Walton-on-the-Hill, C Coy in Sutton, D Coy in Mitcham, E, F, and G Coys in Wimbledon and H Coy in Epsom.

 East Surrey Regiment, 6th Btn.  The 6th Battalion, East Surrey Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the Surrey Infantry Brigade, Home Counties Division. Their HQ was in Orchard Road, Kingston-upon-Thames. A Coy was based in Esher, Cobham and Hersham, B and C Coys in Richmond, D, E and F Coys in Kingston-upon-Thames, G Coy in Chertsey and Weybridge and H coy in Egham. Their cadet corps was at Richmond County School.

 East Yorkshire Regiment, 4th Btn  The 4th Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Londesborough Barracks, Hull. They served with the York and Durham Infantry Brigade, Northumberland Division. Companies A, B, C, D, E and F were based in Hull, G and H in East Hull. They served as part of York and Durham Brigade, Northumbrian Division. They had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out and they were at once recalled to Hull and then moved to Darlington to take up defensive possitions with a number of men being detailed to guard the wireless station at Stockton on Tees. Over 75% of the men volunteered for service abroad at the first time of asking, by the end of October 1914 those who had not volunteered were transferred to other units and other volunteers took their place in the 4th battalion which moved to Newcastle to prepare for service overseas.

They proceeded to France on the 17th of April 1915 landing at Boulogne. concentrating in the area of Steenvoorde just as the German army attacked Ypres, using poison gas for the first time. The 50th Division were rushed into the battle. On the 12th of May became 150th Brigade of the 50th Division. They saw action in The Battle of St Julien, The Battle of Frezenburg Ridge and The Battle of Bellewaarde Ridge. In 1916 They fought on the Somme at The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of Morval and The Battle of the Transloy Ridges. In 1917 they were in action at Arras during The First Battle of the Scarpe, The Capture of Wancourt Ridge and The Second Battle of the Scarpe before moving north for the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they fought on the Somme, in the Battles of the Lys and The Battle of the Aisne, leaving the troops exhausted. On the 15th of July 1918 the battalion was reduced to cadre and transferred to Lines of Communication, then on the 16th of August they transferred to 116th Brigade, 39th Division at Varengeville and took on a role supervising courses of instruction for newly arrived American troops. The Battalion was demobilised on the 7th of November 1918.

 East Yorkshire Regiment, 5th Btn  The 5th (Cyclist) Battalion, East Yorkshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force attached to Northern Command. Their HQ was in Park Street, Hull. A, B, C and D Companies were based in Hull, E Coy in Howden, North Cave and Saddlethorpe, F Coy in Beverley, Hessle, Market Weighton and Pocklington, G Coy in Bridlington, Hunmanby and Filey, with H Coy in Hedon and Withernsea.

 Eastern Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance, RAMC  The Eastern Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance, was a Territorial Force unit of the Royal Army Medical Corps. Their HQ was in Grove Road, Luton, A Section was based in Luton and Dunstable, B Section in Bedford.

 Eastern Mounted Brigade Supply & Transport Column, ASC  The Eastern Mounted Brigade Supply & Transport Column were a Territorial Force unit of the Army Service Corps. Their HQ was in Market Road, Chelmsford.

 Essex and Suffolk Royal Garrison Artillery  The Essex and Suffolk Royal Garrison Artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Main Road, Dovercourt. It was made up of No 1 (Harwich and Felixstowe) Garrison Company, No 2 (Stratford) Garrison Company, No 3 (Southend-on-Sea and Leigh-on-Sea) Garrison Company and No 4 (Ipswich) Garrison Company.

 Essex Batteries, Royal Field Artillery  The Essex Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were part of the Territorial Force, serving with the 2nd East Anglian Brigade, whose HQ was was at Artillery House, The Green, Stratford. The 1st Essex Battery was based in Stratford, the 2nd Essex Battery was based at 17 Victoria Road, Romford and the 3rd Essex Battery at The Artillery Drill Hall in Grays. Each was supported by a Company of the Essex Artillery Column.

 Essex Fortress Engineers  The Essex Fortress Engineers were a Territorial Force unit of the Royal Engineers. Their HQ was in Market Road, Chelmsford.

 Essex Regiment, 4th Btn.  The 4th Battalion, Essex Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Brentwood. A Coy was based in Romford, B Coy in Manor Park, C Coy in Ilford, D Coy in Barking, E Coy in Loughton, Abridge and Woodford, F Coy drew from Brentwood, Southminster, Wickford, Billericay, Althorne, Bradwell-on-Sea, Burnham-on-Crouch, Mountnessing and Tillingham. G Coy were from Ongar, Epping and Harlow. H Coy were from Hornchurch, Dagenham, Rainham and Harold Wood. Their associated Cadet Corps were; Cranbrook College Cadets in Ilford, Manor Park Cadet Company, Ongar Grammar School Cadets, Warley Garrison Cadets and East Ham Secondary School Cadets.

   5th Battalion Essex Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Association Buildings, Market Road, Colchester. A Coy was drawn from Chelmsford, Broomfield, Writtle and Great Waltham. B Coy from Chelmsford, Boreham, Hatfield and Danbury, C Coy from Colchester, D Coy from Manningtree, Dedham and Bradfield. E Coy from Halstead, Hedingham, Yeldham, Pebmarsh, Earls Colne and Maplestead. F Coy from Braintree, Bocking, Dunmow, Thaxted, Great Bardfield, Felstead and Coggleshall. G Coy from Maldon, Wickham Bishops, Witham, Terling, Tiptree and Tollesbury. H Coy from Clacton-on-Sea, Wivenhoe and Walton-on-the-Naze. They had two associated cadet corps at King Edward VI School in Chelmsford and Colchester Royal Grammar School.

   6th Battalion Essex Regiment were a Territorial Force unit with their HQ in West Ham. Companies A to G were based in West Ham and H Coy was from Prittlewell and Grays. Their Cadet Corps were based at Church of the Assension in West Ham, Palmer's School in Grays, Given Wilson Institute in London Road, Plaidstow and Southend High School.

   7th Battalion, Essex Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Walthamstow Lodge, Church Hill, Walthamstow. A to G Coys were based in Walthamstow with a Cadet Corps based at 26 Chester Road, Walthamstow.

   8th (Cyclist) Battalion, Essex Regiment had been raised in 1908 as part of the Essex and Suffolk Cyclist Battalion, which was divided in 1911. They had their HQ in Colchester, A Coy was from Leyton, B Coy from West Ham, C Coy from Colchester, Braintree, Dunmow adn Maldon, D Coy from Saffron Waldon and Stanstead Mountfitchet, E Coy from East Ham, F Coy from Ilford, G Coy from Brentwood and H Coy from Coggleshall. They had a cadet batalion based at Wellington Street, Canning Town.

   The Essex Royal Horse artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the Eastern Mounted Brigade with their HQ in Market Street, Chelmsford. No 1 Section was based in Colchester, No 2 Section in Chelmsford and Ingatestone, their ammunition column consisted of A Sub-section, based in Colchester and B Sub-section in Chelmsford.

   The Essex Yeomanry were a Territorial Unit, part of the Eastern Mounted Brigade with their HQ at 17 Sir Isaac's Walk, Colchester. A Squadron was drawn from Colchester, Clacton on Sea, Harwich, Walton on the Naze, Great Bentley and Ardleigh. B Squadron was drawn from Braintree, Halstead, Chelmsford and Tiptree. C Squadron from Waltham Abbey, Epping, Loughton, Bishop's Stortford, Newport and Dunmow. D Squadron from Southend on Sea, Brentwood, Grays, Stratford and Orsett.

   The Fife and Forfar Yeomanry, known as the Scottish Horse were a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the Highland Mounted Brigade with their HQ in Kirkcaldy. A Squadron were drawn from Cupar, Kirkcaldy, Ladybank and St Andrews. B Squadron from Dunfirmline, Balfron, stirling, Kippen, Kelty, Kinross and Aloa. C Squadron from Dundee and D Squadron from Forfar, Arbroath, Edzell, Montrose and Laurencekirk.

   The Forth Royal Garrison Artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Easter Road Barracks, Edinburgh. Nos 1 to 4 Garrison Companies were from Edinburgh, No 5. from Kirkcaldy and Kinghorn, and No 6. from Burntisland and Inverkeithing.

   Forefarshire Battery, Royal Field Artillery, based in Arbroath was a Territorial Force unit, part of the 2nd Highland Brigade which had its HQ at Dudthorpe Drill Hall, Brown Street, Dundee.

   The Fifeshire Battery, Royal Field Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the 2nd Highland Brigade, which had its HQ at Dudthope Drill Hall, Brown Street, Dundee.

   The Glamorgan Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were units of the Territorial Force serving. The 1st Glamorgan Battery was based in Swansea, the 2nd Glamorgan Battery was based in Briton Ferry and Neath, they made up the 1st Welsh (Howitzer) Brigade RFA, along with their Ammunition Column which was based in Morriston. Brigade HQ was at 42 Castle Street, Swansea.

The 3rd and 4th Glamorgan Batteries were based in Cardiff along with their Ammunition Column and made up the 2nd Welsh Brigade RFA.

   The Glamorgan Fortress Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force Royal Engineers with their HQ in Park Street, Cardiff. The unit consisted of, No 1 Works Company from Cardiff, No 2 Works Company from Barry and Barry Island and No 3 Electric Lights Company from Cardiff.

   Glamorgan Royal Garrison Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Cardiff. Nos 1, 2 and 3 Garrison Companies were based in Cardiff, No 4 in Penarth and No 5 in Barry.

   Glamorgan Royal Horse Artillery had its HQ in Port Talbot and consisted of the Port Talbot Battery and ammunition column. It was a unit of the Territorial Force and served with the South Wales Mounted Brigade.

   The Glamorgan Yeomanry was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the South Wales Mounted Brigade. Their HQ was in Bridgend. A Squadron was drawn from Swansea, Neath, Port Talbot and Reynoldston. B Squadron from Bridgend, Maesteg, Cowbridge and Porthcawl. C Squadron from Cardiff and D Squadron from Pontypridd, Nelson, Llwynypia, Caerphilly, Mountain Ash, Aberdare and Merthyr Tydfil.

   The Gloucestershire Batteries, Royal Field Artillery served with the 1st South Midland Brigade, which had its HQ in Bristol and were part of the Territorial Force. The 1st and 2nd Gloucestershire Batteries and the Gloucestershire Ammunition Column were based in Bristol, the 3rd Gloucestershire Battery was based in Gloucester.

   4th (City of Bristol) Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ in Queen's Road, Clifton, Bristol. A to E Companies were based in Clifton, F Coy in St George's and G and H Companies in Bristol. They served with the Gloucester and Worcester Brigade, South Midland Division. They had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914 and they were at once recalled. They mobilised for war service on 5 August 1914 and moved to Swindon, then to Maldon in Essex in the second week of August to concentrate with the Division and commence training. They proceeded to France from Folkestone, landing at Bologne on the 30th of March 1915 The Division concentrated near Cassel. On the 15th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 144th Brigade, 48th (South Midland) Division. In 1916 they were in action in the Battle of the Somme, suffering hevy casualties on the 1st of July in assaulting the Quadrilateral (Heidenkopf). They were also in action at The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, capturing Ovillers, The Battle of Pozieres Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights and The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 the Division occupied Peronne during the The German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and were in action in the Third Battles of Ypres. On the 21st of November 1917 they entrained for Italy. In 1918 they were involved in The fighting on the Asiago Plateau and The Battle of the Vittoria Veneto in the Val d'Assa area. At the Armistice the Division had withdrawn and was at Granezza. Demobilisation began in early 1919.

   5th Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at The Barracks, Gloucester. A and B Companies were based in Gloucester, C Coy in Stroud and Cirencester, D Coy in Tewkesbury, Forthampton and Kemberton, E and F Coy were based in Cheltenham, G Coy in Dursley and Wotton under Edge while H Coy drew from Campden, Blockley, Willersey, Shipston-on-Stour, Moreton-in-the-Marsh, Mickleton and Stowe-on-the-Wold.

They had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914 and they were at once recalled. They mobilised for war service on the 5th of August 1914 taking up station on the Isle of Wight, soon moving to Swindon, then to Maldon in Essex in the second week of August to concentrate with the Division and commence training. They proceeded to France from Folkestone, landing at Bologne on the 30th of March 1915 The Division concentrated near Cassel. On the 15th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 145th Brigade, 48th (South Midland) Division. In 1916 they were in action in the Battle of the Somme, suffering hevy casualties on the 1st of July in assaulting the Quadrilateral (Heidenkopf). They were also in action at The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, capturing Ovillers, The Battle of Pozieres Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights and The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 the Division occupied Peronne during the The German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and were in action in the Third Battles of Ypres. On the 21st of November 1917 they entrained for Italy. In 1918 they were involved in The fighting on the Asiago Plateau. On the 11th of September they left the Division and returned to France to join 75th Brigade, 25th Division fought in the Final Advance in Picardy.

   6th Battalion, Gloucestershire Regiment had their HQ at St Michael's Hill, Bristol and were a unit of the Territorial Force serving with the Gloucester and Worcester Infantry Brigade, South Midland Division. A to H companies were all based in Bristol and they had two Cadet Companies, also based in Bristol. They were part of the Gloucester and Worcester Brigade, South Midland Division and had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914 and they were at once recalled. They mobilised for war service on 5 August 1914 and moved to Swindon, then to Maldon in Essex in the second week of August to concentrate with the Division and commence training. They proceeded to France from Folkestone, landing at Bologne on the 30th of March 1915 The Division concentrated near Cassel. On the 15th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 144th Brigade, 48th (South Midland) Division. In 1916 they were in action in the Battle of the Somme, suffering hevy casualties on the 1st of July in assaulting the Quadrilateral (Heidenkopf). They were also in action at The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, capturing Ovillers, The Battle of Pozieres Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights and The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 the Division occupied Peronne during the The German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line and were in action in the Third Battles of Ypres. On the 21st of November 1917 they entrained for Italy. In 1918 they were involved in The fighting on the Asiago Plateau and The Battle of the Vittoria Veneto in the Val d'Assa area. At the Armistice the Division had withdrawn and was at Granezza. Demobilisation began in early 1919.

   The Gloucestershire Yeomanry also called the Gloucestershire Hussars were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at The Barracks, Gloucester. A Squadron were drawn from Gloucester, Ledbury, Cheltenham and Winchcombe. B Squadron from Stroud, Westonbirt, Yate, Berkley, Cirencester and Bourton-on-the-Water. C Squadron from Newport, Cardiff, Chepstow, Ebbw Vale, Monmouth and Abergavenny. D Squadron from Bristol, Broadmead, Tockington and Horfield. They served with the 1st South Midland Mounted Brigade.

   4th Battalion, Gordon Highlanders were a unit of the Territorial Force based in Aberdeen. It consisted on Companies A to H and served with the Gordon Infantry Brigade, Highland Division. They were part of the Gordon Brigade, Highland Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they had just departed for annual camp and were recalled at once to home base, they mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August 1914 and concentrated at Bedford. They proceeded to France on the 20th of February 1915, landing at Le Havre to join 8th Brigade, 3rd Division who were at La Clytte. They were in action in The First Attack on Bellewaarde and the Actions at Hooge. On the 10th of October 1915 they transferred to 76th Brigade still with 3rd Division. On the 23rd of February 1916 they transferred to 154th Brigade, 51st (Highland) Division. they were in action in the Battles of the Somme, including the attacks on High Wood and The Battle of the Ancre, capturing Beaumont Hamel, taking more than 2000 prisoners. In late 1916, the 1/4th Battalion absorbed the Shetland Companies of the Gordon Highlanders. In 1917 They took part in the Arras Offensive, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Menin Road Ridge and the Cambrai Operations. They remained in the Cambrai area until the 21st of March 1918, when the enemy launched an overwhelming attack and the Division were engaged in a fighting withdrawal back to Bapaume. In April they moved north and fought in The Battles of the Lys before a quiet spell at Oppy near Arras, from May to July. They were then in action at The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. They were resting the Cambrai-Iwuy area at the Armistice, the 4th Gordon Highlanders were selected to join the Army of Occupation on the Rhine and left for Germany in February 1919.

   5th (Buchan and Formartin) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Peterhead. A Company drew from Strichen, New Pitsligo, New Aberdour, New Deer and Maud. B Company from Peterhead, Longside and St Fergus, C Coy from Peterhead, Boddam and Hatton. D Coy from Turriff, Fyvie and Cuminestown. E Coy from Ellon, Auchnagatt, Methlick, Skilmafilly and Newburgh. F Coy from Old Meldrum, Tarves, Newmachar and Pitmedden, G Coy from Fraserburgh and Rosehearty, H Coy from Fraserburgh and Lonmay. They served with the Gordon Infantry Brigade, Highland Division.

   6th (Banff and Donside) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders was a unit of the Territorial Force, part of the Gordon Infantry Brigade, Highland Division. Their HQ was in Keith. A Coy was drawn from Banff, Aberchirder, Cornhill and Portsoy. B Coy from Dufftown, Aberlour, Chapeltown, Glenrinnes and Minmore. C Coy from Keith and Grange. D Coy from Buckie, Findochty and Cullen. E Coy from Inverurie and Pitcaple. F Coy from Alford, Cushnie, Lumsden, Glenbucket, Strathdon, Corgarff, and Towie. G Coy from Bucksburn and Dyce. H Coy from Huntley, Insh and Rhynie.

   7th (Deeside Highland) Battalion, Gordon Highlanders were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Banchory. They served with the Gordon Infantry Brigade, Highland Division. A coy was from Banchory, Durris and Torphins. B Coy from Portlethen, C Coy from Stonehaven, D Coy from Laurencekirk, Auchenblae, Bervie, Fettercairn, Fordoun and Marykirk. E Coy from Ballater, Crathie and Braemar, F Coy from Aboyne, Tarland, Finzean and Logie Coldstone. G Coy from Skene, Blackburn, Monymusk and Echt. H coy from Peterculter and Countesswells. They were part of the Gordon Brigade, Highland Division.

When war broke out in August 1914 they had just departed for annual camp and were recalled at once to home base. They moved to Bedford and on the 3rd of May 1915 they proceeded to France. The Division concentrated in the area of Lillers, Busnes and Robecq and were rushed to the defence of Ypres, being in action until the 19th of May when they moved to Estaires on the River Lys. The brigade was renamed 152nd Brigade, 51st (Highland) Division. They were in action in the The Battle of Festubert and The Second Action of Givenchy before moving south to The Somme taking over the line near Hamel. In 1916 they were in action in the Battles of the Somme, including the attacks on High Wood and The Battle of the Ancre, capturing Beaumont Hamel, taking more than 2000 prisoners. In 1917 They took part in the Arras Offensive, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Menin Road Ridge and the Cambrai Operations. They remained in the Cambrai area until the 21st of March 1918, when the enemy launched an overwhelming attack and the Division were engaged in a fighting withdrawal back to Bapaume. In April they moved north and fought in The Battles of the Lys before a quiet spell at Oppy near Arras, from May to July. They were then in action at The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. On the 6th of October 1918 they amalgamated with 1/6th Battalion to form the 6/7th Battalion. They were resting the Cambrai-Iwuy area at the Armistice and demobilisation began December.

   The Shetland Companies, Gordon Highlanders were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Lerwick. A Company was from Lerwick, B Coy from Lerwick and Scalloway, they were attached to the Gordon Infantry Brigade, Highland Division.

   Hampshire Batteries were part of the Territorial Force serving with the Wessex Brigades, Royal Field Artillery.

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Hampshire Batteries along with their Ammunition Column, made up the 1st Wessex Brigade, whose HQ was in St Paul's Road, Portsmouth. The 1st and 2nd Batteries were based in Portsmouth, the 3rd in Gosport.

The 2nd Hampshire Howitzer Brigade had its HQ in Ryde and consisted of the 4th Hampshire Battery based in Ventnor and Ryde, the 5th Hampshire Battery based in Freshwater and Newport, and their Ammunition Column based in Ryde, Binstead and Ventnor.

The 6th Hampshire Battery, was based at Victoria Drill Hall in Bournmouth and served with the 3rd Hampshire Brigade which had its HQ at The Armoury, Prospect Place, Swindon.

   Hampshire Fortress Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Commercial Road, Portsmouth. It consisted of No 1 and No 2 works Companies, based in Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth, No 3 Works Coy based in Eastleigh, No 4 Electric Light Coy based in Hampshire Terrace, Portsmouth, No 5 Electric Light Coy based in Freshwater, Lymington and East Cowes and No 6 Electric Light Coy based in Gosport.

   4th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the Hampshire Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. They had their HQ in Winchester and was made up of Companies A to H. They had a cadet corps at Peter Symonds School, Winchester. They were part of the the Hampshire Brigade, Wessex Division. Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November. In January 1915 they transferred to 4th (Rawalpindi) Brigade, 2nd (Rawalpindi) Division and on the 18th of March they landed at Basra with 33rd Indian Brigade and served in Mesopotamia and Persia for the rest of the war. They were in action at Kut-el-Amara on the 29th of April 1916, when the Battalion HQ and one Company were captured, the 4th Hampshires then formed a composite Bn with the 1/5th Buffs. From January 1918 they were in action in Persia with Lt Col Matthews' Column. By November the Battalion HQ was at Zinjan. In June 1919 two Companies were attached to Lt Col Matthews' Motor Mobile Column and were in action at Resht in August 1919.

   5th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the Hampshire Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. They had their HQ at Carlton Place, Southampton and was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of the Hampshire Brigade, Wessex Division. Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November. They remained in India throughout the war. In May 1919 they joined 46th Mobile Indian Brigade at Kohat and saw action in Third Afghan War for a brief period. They returned to England arriving at Southampton on the 8th of November 1919.

   6th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the Hampshire Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. They had their HQ at Connaught Hall, Portsmouth and was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of the Wessex Division. Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 6th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November. They served in India until September 1917 when they were sent to Basra to join 52nd Brigade, 17th Indian Division. They remained in Mesopotamia for the duration of the conflict.

   7th Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the Hampshire Infantry Brigade, Wessex Division. They had their HQ at 177 Holdenhurst Road, Bournemouth and was made up of Companies A to H. They had a cadet corps at Lymington. They were part of the Hampshire Brigade, Wessex Division. Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 6th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Karachi on the 11th of November. They served in India until January 1918 when they were sent to Aden.

   8th (Isle of Wight, Princess Beatrice's) Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with Southern Command. They had their HQ in Newport, Isle of Wight and was made up of Companies A to H. They had cadet corps at Ventnor and Cowes.

   9th (Cyclist) Battalion, Hampshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force, formed in 1911 and serving with Southern Command. They had their HQ at Hamilton House, Commercial Road, Southampton and was made up of Companies A to H.

   Hampshire Royal Garrison Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in St Mary's Road, Southampton. It consisted of No 1 Heavy Battery, based at Southampton and Eastleigh, No 2 Garrison Company in Southampton, No 3 Garrison Company in Eastleigh and Bishop's Waltham, No 4 Garrison Company in Portsmouth, No 5 Garrison Company in Southampton, No 6 Garrison Company in Woolston and Bitterne, No 7 Garrison Company in Southampton and No 8 Garrison Company in Eastleigh.

   Hampshire Royal Horse Artillery was a mounted unit of the Territorial Force serving with the 1st South Western Mounted Brigade. It had its HQ in Southampton where the Battery was based, and its Ammunition Column was based in Basingstoke.

   Hampshire Yeomanry (Carabiniers) were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Hyde Close, Winchester. They consisted of A, B, C and D Squadrons and served with the 1st South Western Mounted Brigade.

   1st Battalion, Herefordshire Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at The Barracks, Hereford. It was made up of Companies A to H and served with the Welsh Border Infantry Brigade. They saw action in Gallipoli. After being evacuated from Gallipoli the regiment fought at the Battle of Romani (Egypt) fought up through Sinai were at the three battles of Gaza, Bathsheba and Jerusalem before returning to France.

   Hertfordshire Batteries, Royal Field Artillery served with the 4th East Anglian Brigade which had its HQ at 28 St Andrew's Street, Hertford. It was a unit of the Territorial Force and consisted of the 1st Hertfordshire Battery based at Artillery Buildings, Harpenden Road, St Albans, the 2nd Hertfordshire Battery, based at Clarendon Hall, Watford and an Ammunition Column which was based at St Andrews St. Hertford.

   1st Battalion, Hertfordshire Regiment was a unit of the Territorial Force serving with the East Midland Infantry Brigade, East Anglian Division. It had its HQ in Hertford and consisted of Companies A to H.

   Hertfordshire Yeomanry was a mounted unit of the Territorial Force based in Hertford. It was amde up of A, B, C and D Squadrons.

   Highland Clearing Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Aberdeen.

   Highland Cyclist Battalion was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Kirkcaldy. It consisted of A Company in Kirkaldy, B Coy in Cowie, C Coy in Tayport, D Coy in Forfar, E Coy in Dunfirmline, F Coy in New Scone, G Coy in East Wemyss and H Coy in Bannockburn.

   1st Highland Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Fonthill Road, Aberdeen. It consisted of A, B and C sections and was later renamed 89th (Highland) Field Ambulance.

   2nd Highland Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Fonthill Road, Aberdeen. It was made up of A, B and C Sections and served with the 51st Highland Division. The Highland Division was created in 1908 part of the Territorial Force. They had just departed for annual camp when they were recalled to home base, they mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August 1914 and concentrated at Bedford. Several units were sent to France as reinforcements for the BEF between November 1914 and March 1915. The rest of the Division proceeded to France in early May 1915. The Division concentrated in the area of Lillers, Busnes and Robecq and were rushed to the defence of Ypres, being in action until the 19th of May when they moved to Estaires on the River Lys. They were in action in the The Battle of Festubert and The Second Action of Givenchy before moving south to The Somme taking over the line near Hamel. In 1916 they were in action in the Battles of the Somme, including the attacks on High Wood and The Battle of the Ancre, capturing Beaumont Hamel, taking more than 2000 prisoners. In 1917 They took part in the Arras Offensive, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Menin Road Ridge and the Cambrai Operations. They remained in the Cambrai area until the 21st of March 1918, when the enemy launched an overwhelming attack and the Division were engaged in a fighting withdrawal back to Bapaume. In April they moved north and fought in The Battles of the Lys before a quiet spell at Oppy near Arras, from May to July. They were then in action at The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. They were resting the Cambrai-Iwuy area at the Armistice and demobilisation began December. The 6th Black Watch, 4th Seaforth Highlanders and 4th Gordon Highlanders were selected to join the Army of Occupation on the Rhine and left for Germany in February 1919.

   3rd Highland Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at Dunhope Drill Hall, Brown Street, Dundee. It was made up of A, B and C Sections and served with the 51st Highland Division. The Highland Division, created in 1908 was part of the Territorial Force. They had just departed for annual camp when they were recalled to home base, they mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August 1914 and concentrated at Bedford. Several units were sent to France as reinforcements for the BEF between November 1914 and March 1915. The rest of the Division proceeded to France in early May 1915. The Division concentrated in the area of Lillers, Busnes and Robecq and were rushed to the defence of Ypres, being in action until the 19th of May when they moved to Estaires on the River Lys. They were in action in the The Battle of Festubert and The Second Action of Givenchy before moving south to The Somme taking over the line near Hamel. In 1916 they were in action in the Battles of the Somme, including the attacks on High Wood and The Battle of the Ancre, capturing Beaumont Hamel, taking more than 2000 prisoners. In 1917 They took part in the Arras Offensive, The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Menin Road Ridge and the Cambrai Operations. They remained in the Cambrai area until the 21st of March 1918, when the enemy launched an overwhelming attack and the Division were engaged in a fighting withdrawal back to Bapaume. In April they moved north and fought in The Battles of the Lys before a quiet spell at Oppy near Arras, from May to July. They were then in action at The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. They were resting the Cambrai-Iwuy area at the Armistice and demobilisation began December. The 6th Black Watch, 4th Seaforth Highlanders and 4th Gordon Highlanders were selected to join the Army of Occupation on the Rhine and left for Germany in February 1919.

   Highland (Heavy) Battery (Fifeshire), Royal Garrison Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Elgin Street, Dunfermline.

   5th (City of Glasgow) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 24 Hill Street, Garnethill, Glasgow. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of HLI Brigade, Lowland Division. They had just departed for annual summer campwhen war broke out in August 1914, They were at once mobilised and moved to Dunfermline in a defensive role. On the 11th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 157th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division. On the 26th of May they sailed from Devonport for Gallipoli, via Egypt and Mudros. They landed at Cape Helles on the 3rd of July. They were in action at Gully Ravine, Achi Baba Nullah, Krithia Nullahs and The evcuation of Helles on the 8th of January 1916. They moved to Egypt and concentrated at Abbassia near Cairo. They moved to El Kantara and took over No 3 Section of the Suez Canal defences on the 2nd of March. They were in action at Dueidar in April and The Battle of Romani in August. In 1917 they were in action during The First, Second and Third Battles of Gaza, at Wadi el Hesi, The capture of Junction Station, The Battle of Nabi Samweil and The Battle of Jaffa including the passage of the Nahr-el-Auja. 52nd Division remained in the line near Arsuf until March 1918 when it was relieved by the 7th (Meerut) Division and proceedrd to France, sailing from Alexandria on the 11th of April, via Marseilles they concentrated near Abbeville. 52nd Divisiobn took over a sector of front line near Vimy on the 6th of May until the 23rd of July when they moved to take over the line north east of Arras. They were in action inThe Battle of Albert, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of the Canal du Nord and The Final Advance in Artois. At the Armistice 52nd Division was north of the Mons canal engaged on clearing Herchies.

   6th (City of Glasgow) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 172 Yorkhill Street, Glasgow. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of HLI Brigade, Lowland Division. They had just departed for annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914, They were at once mobilised and moved to Dunfermline in a defensive role. On the 11th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 157th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division. On the 26th of May they sailed from Devonport for Gallipoli, via Egypt and Mudros. They landed at Cape Helles on the 3rd of July. They were in action at Gully Ravine, Achi Baba Nullah, Krithia Nullahs and The evcuation of Helles on the 8th of January 1916. They moved to Egypt and concentrated at Abbassia near Cairo. They moved to El Kantara and took over No 3 Section of the Suez Canal defences on the 2nd of March. They were in action at Dueidar in April and The Battle of Romani in August. In 1917 they were in action during The First, Second and Third Battles of Gaza, at Wadi el Hesi, The capture of Junction Station, The Battle of Nabi Samweil and The Battle of Jaffa including the passage of the Nahr-el-Auja. 52nd Division remained in the line near Arsuf until March 1918 when it was relieved by the 7th (Meerut) Division and proceedrd to France, sailing from Alexandria on the 11th of April, via Marseilles they concentrated near Abbeville. 52nd Divisiobn took over a sector of front line near Vimy on the 6th of May until the 23rd of July when they moved to take over the line north east of Arras. They were in action inThe Battle of Albert, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of the Canal du Nord and The Final Advance in Artois. At the Armistice 52nd Division was north of the Mons canal engaged on clearing Herchies.

   7th (Blythwood) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 69 Main Street, Bridgeton, Glasgow. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of HLI Brigade, Lowland Division. They had just departed for annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914, They were at once mobilised and moved to Dunfermline in a defensive role. On the 11th of May 1915 the formation was renamed 157th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division. On the 26th of May they sailed from Devonport for Gallipoli, via Egypt and Mudros. They landed at Cape Helles on the 3rd of July. They were in action at Gully Ravine, Achi Baba Nullah, Krithia Nullahs and The evcuation of Helles on the 8th of January 1916. They moved to Egypt and concentrated at Abbassia near Cairo. They moved to El Kantara and took over No 3 Section of the Suez Canal defences on the 2nd of March. They were in action at Dueidar in April and The Battle of Romani in August. In 1917 they were in action during The First, Second and Third Battles of Gaza, at Wadi el Hesi, The capture of Junction Station, The Battle of Nabi Samweil and The Battle of Jaffa including the passage of the Nahr-el-Auja. 52nd Division remained in the line near Arsuf until March 1918 when it was relieved by the 7th (Meerut) Division and proceedrd to France, sailing from Alexandria on the 11th of April, via Marseilles they concentrated near Abbeville. 52nd Divisiobn took over a sector of front line near Vimy on the 6th of May until the 23rd of July when they moved to take over the line north east of Arras. They were in action inThe Battle of Albert, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of the Canal du Nord and The Final Advance in Artois. At the Armistice 52nd Division was north of the Mons canal engaged on clearing Herchies.

   8th (Larnark) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Larnark. It was made up of Companies A to H.

   9h (Glasgow Highland) Battalion, Highland Light Infantry was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 81 Greendyke Street, Glasgow. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were part of HLI Brigade, Lowland Division when war broke out in Augsut 1914. They were at once mobilised and moved to Dunfermline in a defensive role. On the 5th of November the left the Division and proceeded to France, joining 5th Brigade, 2nd Division on the 23rd. They took part in the Winter Operations 1914-15 and in 1915 saw action at The Battle of Festubert and The Battle of Loos. On the 30th of January 1916 they left the Division and became GHQ Troops. On the 29th of May they joined 100th Brigade, 33rd Division. They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they took part in the Arras Offensive, The actions on the Hindenburg Line, the Operations on the Flanders coast and the Third Battles of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action in the Battles of the Lys, the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice the Division was in a peroid of rest in the Sambre valley near Leval Demobilisation took placr throughout the first months of 1919 with Divisional HQ moving to Le Havre on the 28th of February.

   Highland Mounted Brigade Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Rose Street, Inverness.

   Home Counties Clearing Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Surbiton.

   1st Home Counties Field Company, Royal Engineers was a unit of the Territorial Force based in Eastbourne and Brighton. They served with the Home Counties Divisional Royal Engineers, which had its HQ at Ordnance Yard, Eastbourne. They were later redesignated 490th (1st Home Counties) Field Company and served with 8th Division.

   2nd Home Counties Field Company, Royal Engineers was a unit of the Territorial Force based in St-Leonards-On-Sea and Bexhill, part of teh Home Counties Divisional Royal Engineers. They were later redesignated 491st (2nd Home Counties) Field Company and joined 5th Division.

   1st Home Counties Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at The Palace Maidstone. A Section was based in Maidstone, B Section in Snodland and C Section in Chatham. They were later redesignated 81st (1st Home Counties) Field Ambulance and served with 27th Division. The Division was formed at at Magdalen Hill Camp near Winchester in November-December 1914 from regular army units who had arrived back in England from garrisons of the Empire, having been replaced by Territorial units. The Division proceeded to France via Southampton on the 20th to 23rd of December 1914 as a much-needed reinforcement. The Division concentrated in the area between Aire and Arques being joined by Territorial units taken from other Divisions. In 1915 they saw action at St Eloi and in The Second Battle of Ypres. In November they were ordered to Salonika in November 1915 and embarkation began on the 17th, but it was not until the 13th of February 1916 that whole Division finally arrived. Between the 30th of September and 2nd of October 1916 they were engaged in the capture of Karajakois, followed swiftly by the capture of Yenikoi and then the battle of Tumbitza Farm. In 1917 they were in action during the capture of Homondos. In mid 1918 a number of units returned to France and in September the remaining units of the 27th Division were in action in the final offensive in Salonika, including the capture of the Roche Noir Salient, the passage of the Vardar river and the pursuit to the Strumica valley. Hostilities with Bulgaria ceased on the 30th of September, the 27th Division continued to advance and war wasordered to halt and turn about on the 2nd of November, being ordered to the Black Sea. The Division reached Constantinople on the 19th of December and set up a HQ at Tiflis in January 1919. The Division was finally disbanded on the 24th of September 1919 at Batum.

   2nd Home Counties Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Ashford. A Section was based in Canterbury, B Section in Ashford and Folkestone and C Section in Whitstable. They were later redesignated 82nd (2nd Home Counties) Field Ambulance and served with 27th Division. The Division was formed at at Magdalen Hill Camp near Winchester in November-December 1914 from regular army units who had arrived back in England from garrisons of the Empire, having been replaced by Territorial units. The Division proceeded to France via Southampton on the 20th to 23rd of December 1914 as a much-needed reinforcement. The Division concentrated in the area between Aire and Arques being joined by Territorial units taken from other Divisions. In 1915 they saw action at St Eloi and in The Second Battle of Ypres. In November they were ordered to Salonika in November 1915 and embarkation began on the 17th, but it was not until the 13th of February 1916 that whole Division finally arrived. Between the 30th of September and 2nd of October 1916 they were engaged in the capture of Karajakois, followed swiftly by the capture of Yenikoi and then the battle of Tumbitza Farm. In 1917 they were in action during the capture of Homondos. In mid 1918 a number of units returned to France and in September the remaining units of the 27th Division were in action in the final offensive in Salonika, including the capture of the Roche Noir Salient, the passage of the Vardar river and the pursuit to the Strumica valley. Hostilities with Bulgaria ceased on the 30th of September, the 27th Division continued to advance and war wasordered to halt and turn about on the 2nd of November, being ordered to the Black Sea. The Division reached Constantinople on the 19th of December and set up a HQ at Tiflis in January 1919. The Division was finally disbanded on the 24th of September 1919 at Batum.

   3rd Home Counties Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ st 24 Claremont Road, Surbiton. A, B and C Sections were all based in Surbiton. They were later redesignated 83rd (3rd Home Counties) Field Ambulance and served with 27th Division. The Division was formed at at Magdalen Hill Camp near Winchester in November-December 1914 from regular army units who had arrived back in England from garrisons of the Empire, having been replaced by Territorial units. The Division proceeded to France via Southampton on the 20th to 23rd of December 1914 as a much-needed reinforcement. The Division concentrated in the area between Aire and Arques being joined by Territorial units taken from other Divisions. In 1915 they saw action at St Eloi and in The Second Battle of Ypres. In November they were ordered to Salonika in November 1915 and embarkation began on the 17th, but it was not until the 13th of February 1916 that whole Division finally arrived. Between the 30th of September and 2nd of October 1916 they were engaged in the capture of Karajakois, followed swiftly by the capture of Yenikoi and then the battle of Tumbitza Farm. In 1917 they were in action during the capture of Homondos. In mid 1918 a number of units returned to France and in September the remaining units of the 27th Division were in action in the final offensive in Salonika, including the capture of the Roche Noir Salient, the passage of the Vardar river and the pursuit to the Strumica valley. Hostilities with Bulgaria ceased on the 30th of September, the 27th Division continued to advance and war wasordered to halt and turn about on the 2nd of November, being ordered to the Black Sea. The Division reached Constantinople on the 19th of December and set up a HQ at Tiflis in January 1919. The Division was finally disbanded on the 24th of September 1919 at Batum.

   Home Counties (Kent) Heavy Battery, Royal Garrison Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Faversham.

   Honourable Artillery Company was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at Armoury House, Finsbury. It consisted of A Battery, (1st City of London Horse Artillery) and the London Mounted Brigade Ammunition Column, B Battery (2nd City of London Horse Artillery) and the South Eastern Mounted Brigade Ammunition Column along with Four Infantry Companies. It was attached to the 1st London Division.

   Inns of Court Officer Training Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 10 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's Inn, Holborn. It was made up of one Cavalry Squadron and A, B and C Infantry Companies.

   Inverness-shire Royal Horse Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force serving with the Highland Mounted Brigade. It had it's HQ in Margaret Street, Inverness and the Ammunition Column was based in King street, Nairn.

   Kent Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were units of the Territorial Force serving with the Home Counties Brigades.

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Kent Batteries along with their Ammunition Column formed the 3rd (Cinque Ports) Brigade, which had its HQ in Dover. The 1st Kent Battery was based in Liverpool Street, Dover. The 2nd Kent Battery was based in Sheldon Street, Folkestone. The 3rd Kent Battery was based in High Street, Ramsgate. The Ammunition Column was based in Deal (Gun Section) and Sandwich (Small Arms Section.)

The 4th and 5th Kent Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Erith and formed the 4th Home Counties (Howitzer) Brigade with their HQ being at Trevethan, Bexley Road, Erith.

   Kent Cyclist Battalion had its HQ in Tonbridge and was made up of Companies A to H.

   Kent Fortress Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force Royal Engineers. Their HQ was at the Submarine Mining School, Gillingham. The unit consisted of No 1 (Tonbridge and Southborough) Works Company, No 2 (Ashford) Works Company, No 3 (Southborough) Works Company, No 4 (Gillingham) Electric Lights Company, No 5 (Gillingham and Gravesend) Electric Lights Company and No 6 (Gillingham) Electric Lights Company. They had two associated Cadet Corps, 1st Cadet Battalion Kent (Fortress) Engineers and the 2nd Cadet Battalion based at the Mathematical School, Rochester.

   Kent Royal Garrison Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at Sheerness. In 1914 it was made up of three companies, No 1 (Fort Clarence, Rochester and Sheerness) Coy, No 2 (Gravesend and Northfleet) Coy and No 3 (Dover and Folkestone) Coy.

   King Edward's Horse (Oversea Dominions Regiment) was an Imperial Service unit of the Territorial Force until 1912 when it became part of the Special Reserve. It was based at the Duke of York's Headquarters, Kings Road, Chelsea and was made up of Colonial Subjects living in London, organised into four Squadrons; A (British Asian) Squadron, B (Canadian) Squadron, C (Australiasian) Squadron and D (South African) Squadron.

   5th Battalion King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at 65 St Anne Street Liverpool. It was made up of Companies A to H. They served with the Liverpool Brigade, West Lancashire Division. They proceeded to France on the 22nd of February 1915, landing at Le Havre and joined 6th Brigade, 2nd Division. They saw action at The Battle of Festubert and The Battle of Loos. On the 15th of December 1915 they transferred to 99th Brigade still with 2nd Division and on the 7th of January 1916 they transferred to 165th Brigade, in the newly reformed 55th (West Lancashire) Division which was in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were with drawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   6th (Rifle) Battalion King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at Prince's Park Barracks, Upper Warwick Street, Liverpool. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were serving with Liverpool Brigade, West Lancashire Division when war was declared in August 1914. They proceeded to France on the 25th of February 1915, landing at Le Havre and joined 15th Brigade, 5th Division. They were in action at The Second Battle of Ypres and the Capture of Hill 60. On the 18th of November 1915 they left 15th Brigade and were attached to the Third Army as as Army Troops over the winter. On the 2th of6 January 1916 they transferred to 165th Brigade in teh newly reformed 55th (West Lancashire) Division which was concentrating in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were withdrawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   7th Battalion King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at 99 Park Street, Bootle. It was made up of A to D (Bootle) Coys., E (Cosby) Coy., F (Bootle) Coy, G (Southport) Coy, H (Southport and Formby) Coy. It had a Cadet Corps, Southport Cadet Corps based at 60 Scarisbrick New Road, Southport. They were serving with Liverpool Brigade, West Lancashire Division when war broke out in August 1914. They proceeded to France on the 8th of March 1915, landing at Le Havre and joined 6th Brigade, 2nd Division. They saw action at The Battle of Festubert and The Battle of Loos. On the 4th of September 1915 they transferred to 5th Brigade still with 2nd Division then on the 15th of November 1915 they transferred to 22nd Brigade, 7th Division. On the 7th of January 1916 they joined 165th Brigade in the newly reformed 55th (West Lancashire) Division who were concentrating in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were with drawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   8th (Liverpool Irish) Battalion King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at 75 Shaw Street Liverpool. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were serving with Liverpool Brigade, West Lancashire Division. When war broke out in Auguat 1914 they had just arrived at the annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to base. In February 1915 the Liverpool Irish transferred to North Lancashire Brigade then on the 18th of April they transferred with the Liverpool Brigade to the Highland Division, with the brigade being retitled the 3rd Highland Brigade, in less than a month they would be retitled 154th Brigade, 51st (Highland) Division. They proceeded to France on the 3rd of May 1915, landing at Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area of Lillers, Busnes and Robecq and were rushed to the defence of Ypres, being in action until the 19th of May when they moved to Estaires on the River Lys. They were in action in the The Battle of Festubert and The Second Action of Givenchy before moving south to The Somme taking over the line near Hamel. On the 17th of January 1916 they transferred to the newly reformed 165th Brigade, 55th (West Lancashire) Division in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. On the 31st of January 1918 they transferred to 171st Brigade, 57th (2nd West Lancashire) Division. They were in action during the Second Battles of Arras, the Battles of the Hindenburg Line, including assisting in the capture of Cambrai in October, The occupation of Lille and the Final Advance in Artois. At the Armistice the Division was at rest in the eastern suburbs of Lille. They moved to Arras on the 21st of November to assist with the clear up and the Division was demobilised between March and July 1919.

   9th Battalion, King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at 57-61 Everton Road, Liverpool. It was made up of Companies A to H. F (Ormskirk) Coy was based at The Drill Hall, Southport Road, Ormskirk beside the Parish Church (now the Civic Hall)

   10th (Liverpool Scottish) Battalion King's (Liverpool) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force which had its HQ at 7 Fraser Street, Liverpool off London Road. It was made up of Companies A to H. They were serving with the South Lancashire Brigade, West Lancashire Division. They were mobilized for war and proceeded to France on the 2nd of November 1914 landing at Le Havre and joining 9th Brigade, 3rd Division. They took part in the Winter Operations of 1914-15 and on the 6th of January 1916 they transferred to 166th Brigade, in the newly reformed 55th (West Lancashire) Division in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were with drawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   4th Battalion, King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Ulverston. They served with the North Lancashire Infantry Brigade, West Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they had just departed for annual camp when they were recalled to home base, they mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August 1914 and concentrated at Bedford. In April 1915 the North Lancs Brigade joined 51st (Highland) Division and were renamed 154th Brigade. They proceeded to France in May, landing at Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area of Lillers, Busnes and Robecq and were rushed to the defence of Ypres, being in action until the 19th of May when they moved to Estaires on the River Lys. They were in action in the The Battle of Festubert and The Second Action of Givenchy before moving south to The Somme taking over the line near Hamel. On the 6th of January 1916 the battalion transferred to 164th Brigade, 55th (West Lancashire) Division. The Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were with drawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   5th Battalion, King's Own (Royal Lancaster) Regiment, was a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Lancaster. They served with the North Lancashire Infantry Brigade, West Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they were based in Lancaster with the North Lancashire Brigade, West Lancashire Division. After training, they proceeded to France, land at Le Havre on the 15th of February 1915, on the 3rd of March 1915 they joined 83rd Brigade, 28th Division. In 1915 they were in action in The Second Battle of Ypres and The Battle of Loos. On the 21st of October 1915 the battalion transferred to 2nd Brigade, 1st Division and on the 7th of January 1916 they transferred to the newly reformed 166th Brigade, 55th (West Lancashire) Division who were concentrating in the Hallencourt area. On the 16th of February 1916 the Division relieved the French 88th Division south of Arras, they moved to The Somme in late July taking over a section of front line near the village of Guillemont. They were in action at the The Battle of Guillemont, The Battle of Ginchy, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and The Battle of Morval. The Division moved to Flanders in october 1916 and took over the front line between Wieltje and Railway Wood. In 1917 they were in action at Pilkem Ridge and Menin Road Ridge during the Third Battle of Ypres. They moved south to Cambrai where they suffered very heavily during the German Counter Attacks on the 30th of November 1917. In the Spring of 1918 they were in action in the Battle of the Lys including the Defence of Givenchy on the 9th to the 17th of April. In October they took part in the Final Advance in Artois. After the Armistice they were ordered to advance through Belgium and occupy the Rhine bridgeheads, but these orders were with drawn and the Division was demobilised in Brussels between January and April 1919.

   4th (Border) Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Galashiels. They were part of South Scottish Brigade, Lowland Division, when war broke out in August 1914 they had just departed for annual summer camp war broke out and were at once recalled to base. They were at once mobilzed and moved to on the Scottish coastal defences at Cambusbarron, Stirling. On the 11th of May 1915 the South Scottish Brigade was renamed 155th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division. They sailed from Liverpool on the 24th of May for Gallipoli, landing on the 6th of June. They were in action at Gully Ravine, Achi Baba Nullah, Krithia Nullahs and The evcuation of Helles on the 7th and 8th of January 1916. They moved to Egypt and concentrated at Abbassia near Cairo. They moved to El Kantara and took over No 3 Section of the Suez Canal defences on the 2nd of March. They were in action at Dueidar in April and The Battle of Romani in August. In 1917 they were in action during The First, Second and Third Battles of Gaza, at Wadi el Hesi, The capture of Junction Station, The Battle of Nabi Samweil and The Battle of Jaffa including the passage of the Nahr-el-Auja. 52nd Division remained in the line near Arsuf until March 1918 when it was relieved by the 7th (Meerut) Division and proceeded to France, sailing from Alexandria in early April, via Marseilles they concentrated near Abbeville. 52nd Division took over a sector of front line near Vimy on the 6th of May until the 23rd of July when they moved to take over the line north east of Arras. They were in action in The Battle of Albert, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of the Canal du Nord and The Final Advance in Artois. At the Armistice 52nd Division was north of the Mons canal engaged in clearing Herchies.

   5th (Dumfries & Galloway) Battalion, King's Own Scottish Borderers was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Dumfries. They were part of South Scottish Brigade, Lowland Division, when war broke out in August 1914, they had just departed for annual summer camp war and were at once recalled to base. They were at once mobilzed and moved to on the Scottish coastal defences at Bannockburn, Stirling. On the 11th of May 1915 the South Scottish Brigade was renamed 155th Brigade, 52nd (Lowland) Division. They sailed from Liverpool on the 24th of May for Gallipoli, landing on the 6th of June. They were in action at Gully Ravine, Achi Baba Nullah, Krithia Nullahs and The evcuation of Helles on the 7th and 8th of January 1916. They moved to Egypt and concentrated at Abbassia near Cairo. They moved to El Kantara and took over No 3 Section of the Suez Canal defences on the 2nd of March. They were in action at Dueidar in April and The Battle of Romani in August. In 1917 they were in action during The First, Second and Third Battles of Gaza, at Wadi el Hesi, The capture of Junction Station, The Battle of Nabi Samweil and The Battle of Jaffa including the passage of the Nahr-el-Auja. 52nd Division remained in the line near Arsuf until March 1918 when it was relieved by the 7th (Meerut) Division and proceedrd to France, sailing from Alexandria in early April, via Marseilles they concentrated near Abbeville. 52nd Division took over a sector of front line near Vimy on the 6th of May. On the 28th of June the Battalion transferred to the reforming 103rd Brigade, 34th Division. They saw action, at The Battles of the Soissonais, the Ourcq and the capture of Baigneux Ridge. They took part in the Final Advance in Flanders and at the Armistice was at rest in the area east of Courtrai. 34th Division was selected to join the Army of Occupation and began to move towards Germany on the 14th of November. On the 22nd of December a large number men with industrial and mining skills were demobilised. By the end of January 1919 the Division was occupying the Cologne bridgehead.

   HMS Test was a Laird Type River Class Destroyer built by the Cammell Laird shipyard at Birkenhead and launched on 6th of May 1905. She had a crew of 70 officers and men and a top speed of 25.5 kn. At the outbreak of war in 1914 she was serving with the 9th Destroyer Flotilla based at Chatham, under the command of Lieutenant C. H. Knox-Little.

   4th Battalion, Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Wakefield. They were made up of A (Wakefield) Coy, B (Wakefield) Coy, C (Normanton) Coy, D (Ossett) Coy whose Drill Hall, on the corner of Station Road and Fairfield Terrace is today used by the Ossett Gun Club, E (Dewsbury) Coy, F (Dewsbury) Coy, G (Batley) Coy whose Drill Hall later became The Yorkshire Fire Museum. H (Morley) Coy who were based at The Drill Hall, Ackroyd Street, Morley. They were part of the 3rd West Riding Infantry Brigade, West Riding Division.

When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised at once for war service, moving to Doncaster. In November they moved to Gainsborough and in February 1915 to York to prepare for service overseas, those men who had not volunteered for Imperial Service transferred tp the newly formed 2/4th Battalion. They proceeded to France, from Folkestone landing at Boulogne on the 12th of April 1915 and the Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 148th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action during the Battles of the Lys, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice 49th Division was resting at Douai, demobilisation began in early 1919.

   5th Battalion, Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Frenchgate, Doncaster. They were made up of A (Pontefract) Coy, B (Doncaster) Coy, C (Doncaster) Coy, D (Goole) Coy, E (Featherstone) Coy, F (Doncaster) Coy, G (Conisbrough) Coy, and H (Castleford) Coy. They were part of the 3rd West Riding Infantry Brigade, West Riding Division. When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised at once for war service, moving to Doncaster. In November they moved to Gainsborough and in February 1915 to York to prepare for service overseas, those men who had not volunteered for Imperial Service transferred tp the newly formed 2/5th Battalion. They proceeded to France, from Folkestone landing at Boulogne on the 12th of April 1915 and the Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 148th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. On the 2nd of February 1918 they transferred to 187th Brigade, 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division, absorbed the 2/5th Btn and were renamed 5th Battalion. They were in action during The Battle of Bapaume, The First Battle of Arras, The Battle of the Tardenois, The Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of the Drocourt-Queant Line, The Battle of Havrincourt, The Battle of the Canal du Nord, The Battle of the Selle, The capture of Solesmes and The Battle of the Sambre. At the Armistice the advanced units had crossed the Sambre and reached the Maubeuge-Avesnes road. The Division was the only Territorial formation to be selected to enter Germany and took over the area around Schleiden in December.

   4th Battalion, King's Shropshire Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Shrewsbury. They were attached to the Welsh Border Infantry Brigade.

   Kirkcudbrightshire Battery, Royal Field Artillery was a unit of the Territorial Force, serving with the 2nd Lowland Brigade.

   Lanarkshire Yeomanry were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Lanark. They were made up of A, B C and D Squadrons and were part of the Lowland Mounted Brigade.

   Lancashire & Cheshire Royal Garrison Artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at 19 Low Hill, Liverpool. They consisted of Nos 1, 2, 3 and 4 (Liverpool) Garrison Companies, No 5 (Liscard) Coy, No 6 (New Brighton) and Nos 7 and 8 (Barrow in Furness) Garrison Companies.

   Lancashire Batteries Royal Field Artillery were part of the Territorial Force. The 1st, 2nd and 3rd Lancashire Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Liverpool and together formed the 1st West Lancashire Brigade, RFA which had its HQ at Windsor Barracks, Spekeland Street, Liverpool.

The 4th (Blackburn) Lancashire Battery along with the 5th (Church) and 6th (Burnley) Lancashire Batteries and their Ammunition Column made up the 1st East Lancashire Brigade, RFA and had their HQ at 50 King Street, Blackburn.

The 7th and 8th Lancashire Batteries, along with their Ammunition Column made up the 4th West Lancashire (Howitzer) Brigade and were based in Edge Lane, Liverpool.

The 9th Lancashire Battery had its HQ in Stanley Street, Preston and was part of the 2nd West Lancashire Brigade which had its HQ at 46 Miller Archade, Preston, along with the 10th Lancashire Battery based in Dallas Road, Lancaster, the 11th Lancashire Battery based in Yorkshire Street, Blackpool and their Ammunition Column which was based in Dallas Road, Lancaster.

The 12th Lancaster Brigade had its HQ at 65 Admiral Street Liverpool, which was also the HQ of the 3rd West Lancashire Brigade, which was made up of the 12th, 13th (Widnes) and 14th (Garston) Lancashire Batteries and their Ammunition Column.

The 15th, 16th and 17th Lancashire Batteries, along with their Ammunition Column made up the 2nd East Lancashire Brigade, known as The Manchester Artillery. They had their HQ in Hyde Road, Manchester.

The 18th, 19th and 20th Lancashire Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Bolton and made up the 3rd East Lancashire Brigade, RFA known as The Bolton Artillery.

   Lancashire Brigade Royal Garrison Artillery were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Sefton Barracks, Upper Warwick Street, Toxeth Park, Liverpool. The 1st Lancashire (Heavy) Battery was attached to the East Lancashire Division and the 2nd Lancashire (Heavy) Battery was attached to the West Lancashire Division.

   Lancashire Fortress Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Tramway Road, Aigburth. They were made up of No 1 (Aigburth) Works Company and Nos 2 and 3 (Aigburth) Electric Lights Company.

   5th Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Castle Armoury, Bury. They were part of the Lancashire Fusiliers Infantry Brigade, East Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they were mobilized for war and were amongst the first territorials to proceed overseas leaving from Southampton, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 125th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. The Battalion was demobilized at Charleroi between December 18 and March 1919.

   6th Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Rochdale. They were part of the Lancashire Fusiliers Infantry Brigade, East Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August they were mobilized for war and were amongst the first territorials to proceed overseas leaving from Southampton, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 125th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. In February 1918 they transferred to 197th Brigade, 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division, absorbing the 2/6th Battalion. On the 19th of April 1918 they were reduced to cadre strength and in August absorbed the 12th Battalion who had recently arrived from Salonika. On the 22nd of September they transferred to 198th Brigade in same Division. The Division was selected to march through Belgium to Germany and was demobilized at Rochefort in March 1919.

   7th Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Cross Lane, Salford. They were part of the Lancashire Fusiliers Infantry Brigade, East Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they were mobilized for war and were amongst the first territorials to proceed overseas leaving from Southampton, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 125th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. The Battalion was demobilized at Charleroi between December 18 and March 1919.

   8th Battalion, Lancashire Fusiliers were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Cross Lane, Salford. They were part of the Lancashire Fusiliers Infantry Brigade, East Lancashire Division. When war broke out in August 1914 they were mobilized for war and were amongst the first territorials to proceed overseas leaving from Southampton, arriving in Egypt on the 25th of September 1914. The Division underwent training around Cairo and defended the Suez Canal against the Turkishh attack in February. In May the Division became 125th Brigade, 42nd (East Lancashire) Division and went on to land at Cape Helles in Gallipoli and took part in the action capture the dominating heights around the village of Krithia. By August, the division had lost about 2/3rd of it's men through battle casualties, injuries or sickness and reinforcements arrived. The Battalion made a successful withdrawal from the Helles bridgehead and on the 28th of December 1915 landed on Mudros and then returned to Egypt.

On the 27th of February 1917 they landed Marseilles and proceeded to the Western Front. They were re-equipped for trench warfare and entered the line at Epehy, as part of III Corps in Fourth Army. In September they moved north to Flanders and were in action at the Battle of Passechendaele for a short time before moving to the coast at Nieuport. In November they moved to Givenchy where they undertook the construction of concrete defence works. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme, in the Battles of the Hindenburg Line and the Final Advance in Picardy. The Battalion was demobilized at Charleroi between December 18 and March 1919.

   Lancashire Hussars Yeomanry were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Prince Albert Road, Liverpool. They were made up of Squadrons A to D and were attached to the Welsh Border Mounted Brigade.

   4th Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Oxford Street, Leicester. They were part of the Lincoln and Leicester Infantry Brigade, North Midland Division. The division embarked for France in February 1915, the first territorial division to arrive on the Western Front where it remained for the rest of the war. The first major action was at Hohenzollern Redoubt in the closing days of the Loos offensive, during the attack on 13th October 1915, all the officers who took part became casualties; the total cost was 20 officers and 453 other ranks and of this total just over 200 were killed or died of wounds.

The Battalion's finest hour was in the crossing of the St Quentin Canal on 29 September 1918, breaking through the Hindenburg Line. During the Great War 1914-1918 the battalion lost 628 men, nearly a third of them died on the morning of 13th October 1915 at the Hohenzollern Redoubt.

   5th Battalion, Leicestershire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force, had its HQ in Loughborough and was with the Lincoln and Leicester Brigade of the 46th (N Midland) Division. They arrived in France on the of 28th February 1915 and spent the first few months of the war in the Armentieres sector before moving south to Loos. During the attack on the Hohenzollern Redoubt, which decimated the 4th Battalion, 5th Battalion was in reserve.

In December 1915 the Division war wasordered to Egypt and the 1/5th battalion embarked at Marseille on the 21st January 1916 in the Cunarder Andania, a ship which was described as a floating palace, the next morning the were ordered to disembark and the division went back to the trenches of the Western Front.

   Leicestershire Royal Horse Artillery were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at 1 Magazine Square, Leicester. They were made up of one battery and their Ammunition Column and served with the North Midland Mounted Brigade.

   Leicestershire Yeomanry (Prince Albert's Own) were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ and Riding School (now County Museum) in Leicester. They were part of the North Midland Mounted Brigade.

   Lincolnshire Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were part of the Territorial Force and together formed the 1st North Midland Brigade, RFA. Their HQ was in Grimsby. The 1st Lincolnshire Battery was based in Boston at The Drill Hall, Main Ridge, where they had four 15-pr. B.L.converted guns. (B troop Lincolnshire Yeomanry and C Coy, 4th Lincolns were also based there). The 2nd Lincolnshire Battery was based in Grimsby and the 3rd Lincolnshire Battery in Grimsby and Louth, with their Ammunition Column having sections based with each.

   4th Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Lincoln. They were part of the Lincoln and Leicester Infantry Brigade, North Midland Division. C Coy were based at The Drill Hall, Main Ridge, Boston. (B troop Lincolnshire Yeomanry and 1st Lincolnshire Battery RFA were also based there). G Coy was based at The Drill Hall, South Street, Horncastle.

When war broke out they were at once mobilised for war service and the Division concentrated in the Luton area by mid August. The 4th Lincolns proceeded to France, on the 1st of March 1915 landing at Le Harve, the North Midland Division being the first complete Territorial Division to arrive in a theatre of war when they joined the BEF in the Ypres salient. On the 12th of May the Division was retitled 46th (North Midland) Division. They were in action during The German liquid fire attack at Hooge and The attack at the Hohenzollern Redoubt in October. On the 23rd of December the Division was ordered to proceed to Egypt via Marseilles leaving the DAC, Divisional Train and the Mobile Veterinary Section behind. The 4th Lincolns sailed from Marseilles on the 7th of January 1916, but after only a few days in Egypt the Division was ordered to return to France and on the 4th of February 1916 they embarked from Alexandria and returned to Marseilles. On the 1st of July 1916 they took part in the diversionary attack at Gommecourt. In 1917 they were in action during the Operations on the Ancre, Occupation of the Gommecourt defences, The attack on Rettemoy Graben, The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, The attack on Lievin and The Battle of Hill 70. On the 31st of January 1918 they transferred to 177th Brigade, 59th (2nd North Midland) Division, and absorbed the 2/4th Battalion as the army was reorganised. After further training they went back into the line at Bullecourt on the 11th of February 1918. In March 177th Brigade and the divisional artillery were in action in The Battle of St Quentin. The whole Division then suffered heavily in the The Battle of Bapaume and The Division, without the artillery, moved to Poperinge in Flanders, receiving new drafts of men. On the 5th of April they took over the front line at Passchendaele. On the 13th of April they moved to reinforce the Lys area and were in action during The Battle of Bailleul, suffering heavy losses as the enmy broke through, they moved back to Mont Noir and fought in the The First Battle of Kemmel Ridge. In early May the Division was reduced to a training cadre establishment.

On the 2nd of June the 4th Lincolns transferred to 49th Brigade, 16th Division, then on the 17th to 102nd Brigade, 34th Division and on the 27th to 117th Brigade, 39th Division. On the 27th of July 1918 they transferred to 118th Brigade still with 34th Division and returned to action, at The Battles of the Soissonais, the Ourcq and the capture of Baigneux Ridge. On the 28th of September 1they transferred to 116th Brigade, still with 34th Division. They took part in the Final Advance in Flanders and at the Armistice was at rest in the area east of Courtrai. On the 8th of November 1918 the 4th Lincolns were disbanded in France.

   5th Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at the Drill Hall in Doughty Road, Grimsby. They were part of the Lincoln and Leicester Infantry Brigade, North Midland Division. C Coy were based at The Drill Hall, Halton Road, Spilsby, with an outlying drill station at Skegness. D Coy were based at Louth, with an outlying drill station at North Thoresby. E Coy were based at The Drill Hall, Barton upon Humber. F Coy were based at The Territorial Drill Hall, South End, Alford. G Coy were based in Frodingham with an outlying drill station at Brigg and H coy were based at Gainsborough.

They were mobilised for war service on the 5th of August 1914. The Division concentrated in the Luton area by mid August. They proceeded to France, landing at Boulogne in late February being first complete Territorial Division to arrive in a theatre of war when they joined the BEF in the Ypres salient. On the 12th of May the Division was retitled 46th (North Midland) Division. They were in action during The German liquid fire attack at Hooge and The attack at the Hohenzollern Redoubt in October. On the 23rd of December the were ordered to proceed to Egypt via Marseilles leaving the DAC, Divisional Train and the Mobile Veterinary Section behind. All units had arrived by the 13th of January 1916 but they spent just a few days in Egypt, being ordered to return to France where the units left behind rejoined. On the 1st of July 1916 they took part in The diversionary attack at Gommecourt. In 1917 they were in action during the Operations on the Ancre, Occupation of the Gommecourt defences, The attack on Rettemoy Graben, The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, The attack on Lievin and The Battle of Hill 70. On the 31st of January 1918 they transferred to 177th Brigade, 59th (2nd North Midland) Division who were training at Le Cauroy for rest and further training, going back into the line at Bullecourt on the 11th of February 1918. In March 177th Brigade and the divisional artillery were in action in The Battle of St Quentin. The whole Division then suffered heavily in the The Battle of Bapaume. The Division, without the artillery, moved to Poperinge in Flanders, receiving new drafts of men. On the 5th of April they took over the front line at Passchendaele. On the 13th of April they moved to reinforce the Lys area and were in action during The Battle of Bailleul, suffering heavy losses as the enmy broke through, they moved back to Mont Noir and fought in the The First Battle of Kemmel Ridge. In early May the Division was reduced to a training cadre establishment but was reconstituted and took over a sector on the 25th of July with Third Army. On the 31st of July they absorbed 2/5th Lincolns. They were in action during the The Battle of Albert near Ablainzeville and in The final advance in Artois and Flanders with Fifth Army, entering Lille on the 16th of October, reaching Valenciennes on the Belgian border by the 23rd after heavy fighting on the Scheldt. By the Armistice the advance units were north-east of Tournai in Belgium, facing Lessines. They moved to the area south and south east of Lille, moving to Noeux les Mines and Bethune in the first week of December where demobilisation began.

   Lincolnshire Yeomanry were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at The Old Barracks, Lincoln (now The Museum of Lincolnshire Life). They were part of the North Midland Mounted Brigade. B troop were based at The Drill Hall, Main Ridge, Boston, C Coy, 4th Lincolns and 1st Lincolnshire Battery RFA were also based there.

   London Batteries Royal Field Artillery were units of the Territorial Force.

The 1st, 2nd and 3rd City of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Bloomsbury and together made up the 1st (City of London) Brigade, RFA which had its HQ in Handle Street, Bloomsbury.

The 4th, 5th and 6th County of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Woolwich and Eltham and together made up the 2nd London Brigade, RFA which had its HQ at The Royal Arsenal, Woolwich.

The 7th, 8th and 9th County of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Finsbury and together made up the 3rd London Brigade which had its HQ at The Artillery Barracks, Leonard Street, Finsbury.

The 10th and 11th London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Lewisham and together made up the 4th London (Howitzer) Brigade which had its HQ in Ennersdale Road, Lewisham.

The 12th, 13th County of London Batteries were based in Lambeth and along with 14th County of London Battery which was based in Porteous Road, Paddington along with their Ammunition Column which based in Lambeth, together made up the 5th London Brigade which had its HQ at 76 Lower Kennington Lane, Lambeth.

The 15th, 16th and 17th County of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Brixton and together made up the 6th London Brigade which had its HQ at 105 Holland Road, Brixton.

The 18th, 19th and 20th County of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Fulhan and together made up the 7th London Brigade which had its HQ in High Street, Fulham.

The 21st and 2nd County of London Batteries along with their Ammunition Column were based in Woolwich and together made up the 8th London (Howitzer) Brigade which had its HQ at St Margaret's Road, Woolwich.

   1st London Clearing Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at The Duke of York's Headquarters, Kings Road, Chelsea.

   2nd London Clearing Hospital, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at The Duke of York's Headquarters, Kings Road, Chelsea.

   London Electrical Engineers were a unit of the Territorial Force comprising six companies. They had their HQ at 46 Regency Street, Westminster.

   4th London Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with it's HQ at The School of Ambulance, Brookhill Road, Woolwich and Drill Stations in Dartford and Erith. They served with 47th (2nd London) Division. The 2nd London Division was part of the First Line Territorial Force formed in 1908. The Division had just arrived for their annual summer camp on Salisbury Plain when war wasdeclared in August 1914, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service. The Division concentrated in the St Albans area for training. Many units were detached from the Division and sent to France to be needed reinforcements for the BEF. The remainder of the Division proceeded to France on the 8th of March 1915, being only the second TF Division to arrive in theatre. The 5th London Brigade was ordered to Cassel, and the remainder of the Division concentrated near Bethune and were joined by 5th London Brigade near the end of the month. They saw action in The Battle of Aubers Ridge, The Battle of Festubert, The Battle of Loos and The subsequent Actions of the Hohenzollern Redoubt, In 1916 they fought during The German attack at Vimy Ridge, and on The Somme in The Battle of Flers-Courcelette capturing High Wood, The Battle of the Transloy Ridges in which the captured Eaucourt l'Abbaye and The attacks on the Butte de Warlencourt. In 1917 they were in action in The Battle of Messines, the Third Battles of Ypres and The Cambrai Operations where they captured Bourlon Wood and fought against the German counter attacks. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme and the Final Advance in Artois including making the official entry into Lille. At the Armistice the the forward units of the Division had reached Franses-lez-Buissenal. They marched back to Tournai and on the 26th of November moved on to the Bethune area where demobilisation began with the first parties returning to England in the first week of January 1919.

   6th London Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps was a unit of the Territorial Force with it's HQ at The Duke of York's Headquarters, Kings Road, Chelsea. 6th London Field Ambulance, Royal Army Medical Corps served with 47th (2nd London) Division. They were part of the First Line Territorial Force formed in 1908. The Division had just arrived for their annual summer camp on Salisbury Plain when war was declared in August 1914, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service. The Division concentrated in the St Albans area for training. Many units were detached from the Division and sent to France to be needed reinforcements for the BEF. The remainder of the Division proceeded to France on the 8th of March 1915, being only the second TF Division to arrive in theatre. The 6th London Brigade was ordered to Cassel, and the remainder of the Division concentrated near Bethune and were joined by 6th London Brigade near the end of the month. They saw action in The Battle of Aubers Ridge, The Battle of Festubert, The Battle of Loos and The subsequent Actions of the Hohenzollern Redoubt, In 1916 they fought during The German attack at Vimy Ridge, and on The Somme in The Battle of Flers-Courcelette capturing High Wood, The Battle of the Transloy Ridges in which the captured Eaucourt l'Abbaye and The attacks on the Butte de Warlencourt. In 1917 they were in action in The Battle of Messines, the Third Battles of Ypres and The Cambrai Operations where they captured Bourlon Wood and fought against the German counter attacks. In 1918 they were in action on The Somme and the Final Advance in Artois including making the official entry into Lille. At the Armistice the the forward units of the Division had reached Franses-lez-Buissenal. They marched back to Tournai and on the 26th of November moved on to the Bethune area where demobilisation began with the first parties returning to England in the first week of January 1919.

   Norfolk Yeomanry was a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ in Cattle Market Hill, Norwich. It was part of the Eastern Mounted Brigade.

   7th Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers was a unit of the Territorial Force with its HQ at 14 Fenckle St, Alnwick. A Coy was based in Copper Chare, Morpeth. B Coy at the Drill Hall, Ashington. C Coy at the Armoury, High St, Belford. D Coy at at 14 Fenckle St, Alnwick. E Coy at the Drill Hall, Amble. G and H Coy's were based at Ravensdowne, Berwick-upon-Tweed. They proceeded to France in April 1915, to join the 149th Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. They took part in the Second Battles of Ypres in 1915 and the Battle of the Somme in 1916, the Arras Offensive where they captured Wancourt Ridge and The Second Battle of Passchendaele in 1917. In February 1918 they transferred the 42nd Division as a Pioneer Battalion, and saw action during The Battle of Bapaume, The First Battle of Arras, The Battle of the Ancre, The Battle of Albert, The Second Battle of Bapaume, The Battle of the Canal du Nord, The pursuit to the Selle and The Battle of the Selle. At the Armictice the advance units of the division had crossed the River Sambre at Hautmont. They were moved back to the Charleroi area in mid December where they were demobilised.

   6th (Service) Battalion, The Royal Scots Fusiliers was raised at Ayr in August 1914 as part of Kitchener's First New Army. After initial training in the Ayr area they joined 27th Brigade, 9th Scottish) Division at Bordon and in February 1915 moved to Bramshott for final training. They proceeded to France on the 11th of May 1915, landing at Boulogne and went into action in the The Battle of Loos. On the 7th of May 1916 they transferred to 45th Brigade, 15th (Scottish) Division and amalgamated with 7th Battalion Royal Scots Fusiliers to become 6/7th Battalion.

   

   Armstrong-Whitworth's Low Walker yard at Newcastle-on-Tyne, had six building slips from 650 to 450ft, the yard had previously been owned by Charles Mitchell & Co.

   Furness Withy & Co had a shipyard at Main Harbour, Hartlepool and were engaged in the construction of sloops, war cargo ships, tankers and mercantile shipping.

   

   

The 2nd Battalion, Durham Light Infantry was a regular unit of the British Army. When war broke out in August 1914 they were based in Lichfield, serving with 18th Brigade, part of 6th Division.

In August 1914, they moved to Dunfermline then by the 13th August they were at Cambridge engaged in training. They proceeded to France on the 10th of September 1914, landing at St Nazaire and at once moving to reinforce the hard-pressed BEF on the Aisne.

They then moved North to Flanders and in 1915 saw action at Hooge. In 1916 they were on The Somme and in 1917 at Hill 70 and Cambrai. In 1918 they were again on the Somme then moved to Flanders in the Spring taking part in the fighting retreat as the German's advanced through Baillieul to Kemmel.

The 2nd DLI were in action during the Allied Advance in Flanders later that year and returned to the Cambrai area during Battles of the Hindenburg Line. The were billeted around Bohain at the Armistice on the 11th of November 1918 and the Division was selected to march into Germany as part of the occupation force.

   

   

   

 2/4th Btn Black Watch Raised  2/4th Battalion Black Watch is formed at Dundee in early September 1914 they moved to Broughty Ferry to man the Tay Defences.

   

Lewis Gun which replaced Machine Guns at Battalion

245th Machine Gun Company

Early developments in machine gun tactics in WW1 led to the withdrawal of the standard two machine gun sections from Battalions (4 guns), which were replaced by at least 8 lighter Lewis guns to still maintain the battalion's firepower and increase its flexibility. As a result and in pace with the availability of the Lewis guns, specialist Machine Gun Companies were formed for use at Brigade and Divisional level to maximise their more concentrated fire power.

One such company, the 245th MG Company was raised and trained in Grantham MG Training Base and moved to France joining the 50th (Northumberland) Division as part of the Divisional Troops on the 30 July 1917. It was later moved into the 50th Battalion, Machine Gun Corps on the 1 March 1918 as part of more tactic changes to further increase the concentration of Divisional firepower.

List of 50th Divisional Troops. (This was a separate support unit for the 149, 150 and 151 Brigades which formed the main front line fighting force in the Division)

  • 245th Machine Gun Company joined 30 July 1917, moved to 50th Bn MGC 1 March 1918
  • 1/7th Bn, the Durham Light Infantry joined as Divisional Pioneer Bn 16 November 1915, left 20 June 1918
  • 50th Battalion MGC formed 1 March 1918 (combining 245 MGC with 149, 150 and 151 Brigades Machine Gun Companies).
  • 5th Bn, the Royal Irish Regiment joined as Divisional Pioneer Bn 14 July 1918
  • A number of units joined the Division on a temporary basis during the reorganisation in mid 1918: 8th Border Regiment, 4th South Staffordshire Regiment and 9th Loyal North Lancashire. All had left by August 1918

Completion of Training and Move to France The newly formed 245 Machine Gun Company completed its training at Grantham in early July 1917 and awaited orders to go to war on the Western Front. They were in action during the Third Battles of Ypres.

They joined with the other machine gun companies of the Division to form 50th Machine Gun Battalion on the 1st of March 1918.

   Lafayette Escadrille was a French Air Force Squadron manned mainly by American pilots, it was originally called Escadrille Americaine.

   Heckla Works, was situated in Sheffield, on the site now occupied by the Meadowhall Shopping Centre. Their war production was projectile shells in patented "ERA" steel.

   The 131st Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force was trained in the 104th Westminster Fusiliers Regiment in New Westminster. During World War I the Battalion supplied drafts to Canadian units in France.

   

HMS Viknor was formerly RMS Atrato, built for the Royal Mail Steam Packet Co. She was later renamed SS Viking when sold to Viking Cruising Company and then Viknor by the Admiralty.

She had been requisitioned by the Admiralty converted to an armed merchant ship and attached to the 10th Cruiser Squadron blockading the seas between the North of Scotland and Iceland. She was crewed mainly by Royal Naval Reservists with a ships complement of 22 Officers and 273 Ratings.

On 13th January 1915 Viknor set sail from Londonderry in Ireland and headed out into the Irish Sea to make for her patrol area. On board her were 22 Officers and 273 Ratings mostly from the Royal Navy Reserve. The weather was bad and the sea was very choppy indeed. HMS Viknor never reached her patrol zone, a search of the area was made and scattered wreckage was found in the sea. There were no survivors. Mystery surrounds her sinking, it was thought at first that a U Boat had sunk her, however German records showed that no such craft were in the area until the end of January.

It was officially recorded that HMS Viknor has been destroyed by an enemy mine, somewhere off Tory Island and that no one had survived of the almost three hundred onboard. Some of the bodies of the crew washed up on Irish and Scottish soil over the course of several days.

 The Battle of Neuve Chapelle  The Battle of Neuve Chapelle began on the 10th of March 1915, a British offensive in the Artois region of France and broke through at Neuve-Chapelle, but the British were unable to exploit the advantage. More troops had arrived from Britain and relieved some French troops in Flanders and enabled a continuous British line to be formed from Langemarck to Givenchy. The battle was intended to cause a rupture in the German lines, which would then be exploited with a rush to the Aubers Ridge and possibly Lille, the railway terminus from the east and south-east which was used by the Germans.

The attack was carried out by IV Corps under Lieutenant General Sir Henry Rawlinson. The First Army’s line rans through the water logged meadows of the Lys valley, dominated to the east by the 40 foot high Aubers Ridge, which offered drier ground and observation over the flat plains in all directions. The village of Neuve Chapelle, had been captured by the Germans in October 1914 and lay in a salient about 2,000 yards across, within sight of the strategic town of Lille.

The plan top secret plan was to capture Neuve Chapelle in two days, launching with a ‘hurricane’ bombardment of only 35 minutes duration, using 66 heavy guns. Artillery timetables are issued, giving each battery its exact targets for each stage of the action, a most important innovation. Gun platforms are devised to give stability in the soft muddy ground. The new innovation of Aerial photographs are used to create a map showing the network of German trenches. Each of the two corps involved receives 1,500 copies of this map. Haig insisted that every man must know exactly what his duty is. Officers familiarize themselves with the ground over which they will attack and the assaulting infantry are rehearsed in their tasks. To exploit a success, five divisions of cavalry are brought up behind the offensive front. Forming up trenches are dug along with dummy trenches for deception, advanced ammunition and supply dumps are established, the roads are improved ready for battle traffic and a light railway laid down.

At 7.30am The British bombardment opened, with three hundred forty-two guns firing on the German trenches, directed in part by eighty-five reconnaissance aircraft. More shells are fired in this short opening barrage than in the entire South African War.

At 08:05 the British and Indian divisions attacked along an 8,300 yard front. After three hours of hand to hand fighting, Neuve Chapelle is captured and four lines of German trenches over run. However, in the northern sector, a 400 yard length of German front line was not bombarded, as the guns allocated to this sector did not reach the front in time to take part in the attack. The three waves of men who advanced across No-Man’s Land faced intact German wire defences and most became casualties.

The battle would continue for three days, costing 7000 British and 4200 Indian lives. German losses are estimated to have been around 12,000.

 British Army Battle Formations during the Great War - 1914-1918.  Prior to the First World War the largest unit in the British Army was a Division and the Army was much smaller than the French or German Armies prior to commencement of hostilities in August 1914. Never before had so vast a conflict been fought and its immediate effect was to increase manpower and merge units in large configurations to match its opponent’s dispositions.

An Order of Battle (often shortened to ORBAT) is the identification, strength, command structure and disposition of the personnel, units and equipment of any military force. It is an organisational view of the army.

Battalion (Infantry)

The structure of the Army basically starts with the soldier who is a member of a Battalion, consisting of about 1000 men, which is normally organised into a number of companies (usually 4 and a Headquarters company), which are further subdivided into platoons and sections. This basically enables supervision to be taken down through the various grouping to the smallest section and individual.

Regiment

The next grouping is by Regiment which is the historical backbone of the Army carrying the Monarch’s Colours which display Battle Honours from the past. Most Regiments have a traditional link with towns or regions where they were originally raised or created. During peacetime most Regiments have one or two Battalions, however during wartime extra battalions including reserve battalions are called up or mobilized and recruits sought usually encouraging men to join their local regiment.

Brigade

The next upward chain of command is the Brigade which then consisted of 4 infantry battalions (from different regiments) and other special groups which will be explained later along with the Division.

Division

Then we come to the traditional Division which had a structure laid down as the largest unit for war in the past. The Division is so important to the overall conduct of the war that it will also be explained at the end of this guide.

Corps

The huge numbers raised to fight in this largest and costliest of wars resulted in the need for further coordination of Divisions resulting in the creation of Corps and resulted in many early appointments of General Officers at this new grouping level.

Armies

Finally and again to coordinate very large operation groups, Armies were formed which had a minimum of two Corps attached. The British Command eventually had 5 Armies in France and Flanders.

GHQ

Overall command of all the above units rested with General Headquarters which was itself commanded by the War Office in London.

Changing Tactics as the war progresses.

Now there is a need to explain the higher echelons of command and this requires some understanding of the effects of this large scale warfare and the developing roles of infantry support.

Prior to this war fighting was on land or at sea (Naval Battles) with some Naval support in smaller wars further afield. Now it was to be Land, Sea and - a new concept – Air.

Other units were already in existence to support the Infantry mainly Cavalry (mounted infantry) and Artillery.

Cavalry

Soldiers were organised on the same lines as Infantry Regiments but with sword, lance and Horse. Most were eventually dismounted and trained as infantry as the cavalry role became outdated in this more mechanised war.

Artillery

Soldiers in the Artillery would serve in a Battery or Ammunition Column. A Battery consisted of two and later four guns and a Brigade consisted of usually four Batteries. Artillery was further divided into Field Guns (Royal Field Artillery and Royal Horse Artillery) and Heavy Guns/Howitzers (Royal Garrison Artillery). As the war progressed ever increasing concentration of firepower led to increased use of Divisional Artillery Grouping of Brigades and Ammunition Columns. Artillery played a huge part in trench warfare and it took the allies a long time to gain superiority in this field.

Other Corps.

Now we introduce a different use and meaning of the word Corps. So far we have used it as an overall command level created in this war to command groups of Divisions. Corps was previously in use as a regiment (Kings Royal Rifle Corps) and for special support units such as Royal Engineers, Royal Army Medical, Army Service, Tank and Royal Flying all of which had Corps in their titles. (Some had the Royal added to their titles after the war).

Machine Gun Corps.

Initially each Battalion had two Machine Gun crews and started the war with the Maxim Machine Gun. This was later changed to the Vickers machine gun – similar design but lighter and better firing mechanism. As the war bogged down into trench warfare the need for greater concentration of firepower became obvious so machine gun were removed in stages from the infantry battalions and two schools were set up to train machine gunners in new tactics forming specialist machine gun companies. Each Brigade was given a machine gun company and each Division got a Divisional machine gun company. All these company personnel became part of the Machine Gun Corps. However the Corps did not survive for long after the war as lighter and faster semi-automatic weapons became available at all levels for troops. In order to maintain and improve the firepower of infantry battalions after removal of their machine guns, the even lighter Lewis Gun was issued as they became available, initially 4 then subsequently 8 Lewis guns per battalion – increasing mobility and firepower considerably.

Two New Corps

Totally new to warfare were the concept of Tanks and Planes which led to the formation of the Royal Tank Corps (Royal was added later) which was originally formed as the Heavy Division of the Machine Gun Corps. The introduction of aeroplanes led to the setting up of the Royal Flying Corps, forerunner to a separate arm of the Armed Forces - the Royal Air Force.

The British Armies of 1914-1918

In France and Flanders, the size of the British army was eventually such that it was subdivided into five Armies, each commanded by a Lieutenant-General. Armies were also formed at home and the force in Salonika also went by the title, although those in Gallipoli, Italy and Palestine did not.

Now for that explanation of Brigade and Division Structure.

At the outbreak of was the standard British Army Division consisted of:

3 Brigades, each consisting: 4 Infantry Battalions, 1 Machine Gun Company** and 1 Trench Mortar Battery

Divisional Troops consisting: 1 Infantry Battalion, 1 Pioneer Battalion and 1 Machine Gun Company** (formed into Machine Gun Battalion 1918)

Divisional Mounted Troops: 1 Cavalry Battalion and 1 Cyclist Battalion

Divisional Artillery: 3 Brigades Royal Field Artillery, 1 Howitzer Battery RFA, 1 Heavy Battery Royal Garrison Artillery, 1 Divisional Ammunition Column, 1 Heavy Trench Battety RFA and 1 Medium Trench Battery RFA

Royal Engineers: 3 Field Companies and 1 Signal Company

Royal Army Medical Corps: 3 Field Ambulance Companies

Divisional Train Army Service Corps: Mobile Veterinary Section

From this list one can observe that a Division was a reasonably self-sufficient military unit but it still needed a massive amount of logistic support. Bearing in mind that there were more than 50 Divisions in the Western Front at various stages in the war gives us some idea of the amount of labour needed to keep this vast army supplied with men, equipment, ammunition, animals, food and fodder.

There were many other special units but it is hoped that this guide give a reasonably broad approach to understanding the basics of the British Army’s organisation – and reorganisation - for the pursuit of its objectives in the Great War.

   HMS Bristol was a light cruiser launched in 1910. She saw action in the Battle of the Falkland Islands on the 8th of December 1914

   King Edward VII Hospital was situated in Grosvenor Gardens, London

   The Yorkshire Hussars, were a Territorial unit, who were mobilised on 5th Aug 1914, and the men assembled at their squadron headquarters: A Squadron - Leeds (Maj F H Fawkes) B Squadron - York (Maj Viscount Helmsley) C Squadron - Knaresborough (Maj A E Collins) D Squadron - Middlesborough (Maj E A Herbert)

They were issued with horses and infantry rifles. The yeomanry rank and file were not issued with swords. Within two days they had stationed themselves along the east coast of Yorkshire with the HQ at Scarborough. Lt-Col Stanyforth was CO. with Lord Deramore 2nd in Command. D Squadron was split up and distributed among the other 3 squadrons.

Later in August the Foreign Service Regiment was formed from those willing to serve overseas plus recruits. This was later called the 1/1st Yorkshire Hussars, commanded by Lt-Col Viscount Helmsley. They spent the winter of 1914-15 in Harlow, Essex, waiting impatiently to go to France. In February they were told that the regiment was to be split up and the 3 squadrons to serve in the 46th 49th and 50th Divisions.

Their machine-gun section, commanded by Lt T Preston, was sent to the Essex Yeomanry, 8th Brigade and took part in the Battle of Loos in September. In 1916 the Machine Gun Corps was formed and the YH section became part of the 8th MG Squadron in the 3rd Cavalry Division. They were in the Thiepval trenches on the Somme in August 1816 and took a prominent part in the Battle of Arras in April 1917. They sustained casualties in the cavalry operations of the spring and autumn of 1918 and were awarded many decorations. They were thus the only part of the Yorkshire Hussars to serve as cavalry throughout World War 1.

Major G R Lane Fox commanded A Squadron which was assigned to 50th Division. They arrived in France on the eve of the 2nd Battle of Ypres. From 22nd to 25th May they were in the dismounted role in the Menin road where they lost 5 men killed and 5 wounded, including Maj Lane Fox. The next few months were spent in the Bailleul-Hazebrouk area providing men for digging parties, police duties etc.

B Squadron, commanded by Maj W G Eley who had served in 14th Hussars, was with the 46th Division. They were also in the Menin Road area but later moved to Bethune. At the end of Aug 1915 they lost an officer, Lt E S Turton who was killed by a sniper whilst he was attached to the Sherwood Foresters. In Jan 1916 the division was sent by train to Marseilles where it was intended that they be shipped off to Mesopotamia, but the idea was scrapped and they were sent back to the trenches in the St Pol area.

C Squadron was commanded by Major E York who later commanded the regiment in 1924. They were part of the 49th (West Riding) Division, billeted in turn at places like Merville, Steenwerck, Proven and Esquelbecq.

In May 1916 it was decided that the static nature of the war required a rethink of the cavalry role and that the cavalry regiments were to work as units within a Corps, and that the Corps Commander would control their movements. On 10th May 1916 the Yorkshire Hussars were reunited as a regiment under 17th Corps, at Gouy-en-Ternois. On 1st June there was a new CO, Lt-Col W Pepys of 13th Hussars. They later moved to Berles, between Arras and St Pol, where they remained for more than a year. The initial delight at being a united regiment with the prospect of cavalry action began to wear off as winter approached and the new year produced no more hope. In Nov 1916 their CO left and was replaced by newly promoted Lt-Col Eley. They spent the winter at Warne and then moved to Berles and Habarcq. Here, on 14th Aug 1917, they were given the sad news that the regiment was to be broken up and used as reinforcements to various infantry battalions.

However, the regiment did survive as a unit. They were initially sent for 5 or 6 weeks infantry training and then on the 11th Oct 1917 they went to Zudrove, 20 officers and 396 other ranks. They joined the 9th West Yorkshires in the 32nd Brigade, 11th Division. They were a complete battalion, called the 9th (Yorkshire Hussars) Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment. They wore their regimental cap-badges but West Yorks collar badges, and were commanded by Lt-Col F P Worsley DSO. They were at Passchendale in the line north of Lens and then carried out a successful raid on the Norman Brickstacks. This was led by Captain Roger Walker and consisted of 250 men. One of the officers was killed, Lt C S Haslam. They spent the winter in the depressing colliery district south of Bethune. They were holding the sector opposite Hulluch and Haisnes through the spring of 1918 and suffered gas shelling on 9th April, and the following days, at St Elie. On 15th June they carried out a raid on the St Elie Craters in which a tunnel was successfully blown up by 2nd LT A Dalley. On 24th Aug they were moved to the Arras front for the final advance. They lost two killed and 6 wounded in the line east of Pelves, but they captured a complete German clothing store. On 27th Sep, the battalion, now commanded by Maj R E M Cherry MC made a successful attack on Aubencheul-au-Bac, and on 3rd Oct Marquion Quarry was assaulted and captured. The enemy were in retreat and the battalion crossed the Sensee Canal on 10th Oct.

A new CO was taken on in October, Captain R H Waddy. The battalion was sent back for a short rest and they then advanced south and east of Valenciennes. They dug in on the evening of 3rd Nov just beyond the Jenlain-Curgies railway line, and advanced at dawn through thickly wooded country. They captured Le Triez, taking prisoners and releasing civilian captives. They pushed on to Roisin but had to retire because their flank was exposed. They were in a sunken road but it gave them no protection from enemy shelling. They lost 5 officers and 12 other ranks killed, and 2 officers and 57 other ranks wounded, and a further 44 missing. They sustained 43 more casualties the following day when the Germans shelled the densely populated village of Roisin.

On 10th and 11th November 1918 the 11th Division was relieved and the 9th Battalion's active part in the Great War had come to an end. They marched back and spent the winter at Wallers, 5 miles west of Valenciennes. On 20th Feb 1919 they were presented with Colours and were demobilised. There were 6 officers and 41 men remaining.

 Zeppelin L31  The first flight of Zeppelin L31 took place on the 12th of July 1916 She was an R Class craft built under Production Code LZ72. L31 took part in an important reconnaissance mission in fleet operation against Sunderland. She made six attacks on England dropping a total of 19,411 kilograms (42,794 lb) of bombs along with L32, L 33 and L34 in a Zeppelin raid on night of 23 September 1916. L31 was intercepted and destroyed by British fighter pilot Lt V Tempest on the 2nd of October 1916 near Potters Bar, North of London. L31 was commanded by the leading airship commander of the time, Kapitän Leutnant Heinrich Mathy, who died with his entire crew after jumping from the flaming Zeppelin.

   

   

   

   

   The 10th (Service) Battalion, The Rifle Brigade was raised at Winchester in September 1914 as part of Kitchener's Second New Army and joined the 59th Brigade, 20th (Light) Division. After initial training in the Winchester area they moved to Blackdown and then in February 1915 to Witley. They moved to Hamilton Camp near Stonehenge in April 1915 for final training and then proceeded to France on the 21st of July 1915 landing at Boulogne, the division concentrating in the Saint-Omer area.

   G.T.Hawkins Shoe factory was situated in Lower Mounts, Northampton and produced boots for the allied army.

1915-05-02   

   

   7th Battalion, Suffolk Regiment was raised at Bury St Edmunds in August 1914 as part of Kitchener's First New Army and joined 35th Brigade, 12th (Eastern) Division. 35th Brigade and the Divisional Artillery concentrated near Shorncliffe, in late August. Final training was undertaken near Aldershot from the 20th of February 1915, with the cavalry, motor machine gun battery, sanitary and veterinary sections joining. They proceeded to France on the 30th of May landing at Boulogne, the Division concentrated near St Omer and by 6th of June were in the Meteren-Steenwerck area with Divisional HQ being established at Nieppe. They underwent instruction from the more experienced 48th (South Midland) Division and took over a section of the front line at Ploegsteert Wood on the 23rd of June 1915. They were in action in The Battle of Loos from the 30th of September, taking over the sector from Gun Trench to Hulluch Quarries consolidating the position, under heavy artillery fire. On the 8th they repelled a heavy German infantry attack and on the 13th took part in the Action of the Hohenzollern Redoubt, capturing Gun Trench and the south western face of the Hulluch Quarries. During this period at Loos, 117 officers and 3237 men of the Division were killed or wounded.By the 21st they moved to Fouquieres-les-Bethune for a short rest then returned to the front line at the Hohenzollern Redoubt until the 15th of November, when they went into reserve at Lillers. On the 9th of December, 9th Royal Fusiliers assisted in a round-up of spies and other suspicious characters in the streets of Bethune. On the 10th the Division took over the front line north of La Bassee canal at Givenchy. On the 19th of January they began a period of training in Open Warfare at Busnes, then moved back into into the front line at Loos on the 12th of February 1916. In June they moved to Flesselles and carried out a training exercise. They moved to Baizieux on the 30th June and went into the reserve at Hencourt and Millencourt by mid morning on the 1st of July. They relieved the 8th Division at Ovillers-la-Boisselle that night and attacked at 3.15 the following morning with mixed success. On the 7th they attacked again and despite suffering heavy casualties in the area of Mash Valley, they succeeded in capturing and holding the first and second lines close to Ovillers. They were withdrawn to Contay on the 9th July. They were in action in The Battle of Pozieres on the 3rd of August with a successful attack capturing 4th Avenue Trench and were engaged in heavy fighting until they were withdrawn on the 9th. They moved north and in 1917 were in action at Arras in The First Battle of the Scarpe, The Battle of Arleux and The Third Battle of the Scarpe. They remained in the Arras sector until the 30th of October when they moved to Hesdin for the Cambrai offensive in which the Division suffered heavy losses. In March 1918 they moved by motor lorry from Busnes to Albert and were in action in The Battle of Bapaume and spent the spring engaged in heavy fighting a the enemy advanced across the old Somme battlefields. On the 19th of May 1918 the 7th Suffolks were reduced to cadre strength and on the 24th transferred to 39th Division with over 400 men transferring to the 1/1st Cambridgeshires. On the 16th of August they transferred to 197th Brigade in 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division. They were in action in The Battle of Cambrai, The Pursuit to the Selle and The Battle of the Selle. On the 20th of October the Division was withdrawn to the Serain area for rest, then advanced through Le Cateau from the 2nd of November engaging in sharp fights with the enemy until the Armistice.

   St John's VAD Hospital opened in 1915. It was originally at The Grange, Roe Lane, Southport then moved to The Woodlands, Manchester Road, Southport. It closed in 1919.

   An Extract from Red Cross Description of VAD services.

What was a VAD, exactly?

In 1909 the War Office issued the Scheme for the Organisation of Voluntary Aid. Under this scheme, the British Red Cross was given the role of providing supplementary aid to the Territorial Forces Medical Service in the event of war.

In order to provide trained personnel for this task, county branches of the Red Cross organised units called voluntary aid detachments. All voluntary aid detachment members (who themselves came to be known simply as 'VADs') were trained in first aid and nursing. Within twelve months of the scheme's launch, they numbered well over 6,000.

Membership grew still further on the outbreak of war in 1914. The British Red Cross and the Order of St John of Jerusalem, a body which was also empowered to raise detachments under the War Office Voluntary Aid Scheme, combined to form the Joint War Committee (JWC) to administer their wartime relief work with the greatest possible efficiency and economy, under the protection of the red cross emblem and name. This was such a successful working partnership that when the Second World War broke out in 1939, the British Red Cross and Order of St. John joined together again to form the Joint War Organisation (JWO).

What kind of work did VADs do?

The VADs working under both the JWC and the JWO performed a variety of duties. Both the Committee and the Organisation administered auxiliary hospitals and convalescent homes in Britain throughout the world wars and much of the VAD service was performed in these homes and hospitals. Volunteers performed general nursing duties and administered first aid.

Qualified nurses were also employed to work in these establishments, while many VADs gave their service in military hospitals. In addition, VADs performed clerical and kitchen duties. With many men engaged in military service, women VADs took on roles such as ambulance drivers, civil defence workers and welfare officers. VADs were also sent abroad during both world wars as the Committee and the Organisation operated overseas in countries such as France, Italy and Russia.

   2nd Battalion, The Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own) was in Malta when war broke out in August 1914. As soon as a territorial unit arrived to take over the garrison, they returned to England and joined 23rd Brigade, 8th Division at Hursley Park. They proceeded to France on the 7th of November landing at Le Havre, a much needed reinforcement to the BEF and remained on the Western Front throughout the war. In 1915 they were in action at The Battle of Neuve Chapelle, The Battle of Aubers and The action of Bois Grenier. On the 18th of October 1915 24th Brigade transferred to 23rd Division to instruct the inexperienced troops. In March 1916 23rd Division took over the front line between Boyau de l'Ersatz and the Souchez River in the Carency sector from the French 17th Division, an area exposed to heavy shelling. In mid April they withdrew to Bruay returning to the Carency sector in mid May just before the German attack on Vimy Ridge, in the sector to their right. On the 15th of June 1916 24th Brigade returned to 8th Division. In 1916 They were in action at the Battle of The Somme. In 1917 they fought in The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line and then moved to Flanders and were in action in The Battle of Pilkem and The Battle of Langemarck. In 1918 they saw action during The Battle of St Quentin, The actions at the Somme crossings, The Battle of Rosieres, The actions of Villers-Bretonneux, The Battle of the Aisne, The Battle of the Scarpe and The Final Advance in Artois including the capture of Douai.

   3rd Battalion, The Middlesex Regiment (Duke of Cambridge's Own) was in Cawnpore, India when war broke out in August 1914. As soon as a territorial unit arrived to take over the garrison, they returned to England arriving in December and joined 85th Brigade, 28th Division who were assembling near Winchester. They proceeded to France, via Southampton landing at Le Havre on the 19th of January 1915. The Division concentrated in the area between Bailleul and Hazebrouck, being joined by additional Territorial units. In 1915 they were in action in The Second Battle of Ypres and The Battle of Loos. On the 19th of October 1915 orders were recieved to prepare to sail and five days later the first units left Marseilles for Alexandria in Egypt all units (with the exception XXXI and CXLVI Brigades RFA) arrived the by 22nd of November and the 2nd East Surreys moved to Salonika on the 2nd of December. Later in the year they were in action during the occupation of Mazirko and the capture of Barakli Jum'a. In 1917 they were involved in the capture of Ferdie and Essex Trenches (near Barakli Jum'a) and then the capture of Barakli and Kumli. In mid 1918 a number of units returned to France. The remainer of the Division, including the 2nd East Surreys were later in action at the Battle of Doiran and the pursuit to the Strumica valley. When hostilities with Bulgaria ceased at the end of September the 28th Division was in the area of Trnovo. They moved in early November to Gallipoli and occupied the Dardanelles Forts.

   

   

   Zeppelin LZ24 was a Class M Military craft which had its first flight on the 11th of May 1914 It carried out 24 reconnaissance missions over the North Sea and participated in the first raid over England on the 19th January 1915.During a later mission on the 17th February 1915, it was abandoned by its crew after a forced landing in Denmark due to engine failure, compounded by strong headwind and insufficient fuel to reach Germany. The wind was so strong it blew the airship, now unmanned but with engines still running, out across the sea.

   Zeppelin LZ27 (L4) was launched on the 18th August 1914, a class M craft, she carried out 11 reconnaissance missions over the North Sea.

   Zeppelin LZ41 (L11) was a P Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 7th of June 1915. It flew 31 reconnaissance missions, notably during the Battle of Jutland and 12 raids on England dropping a total of 15,543 kg (34,266 lb) of bombs. Significant raid on Sunderland on 1 April 1916, when 22 people died. Several of the L 11 crew transferred to the ill-fated L 48(LZ 95). The craft was decommissioned in April 1917.

   Zeppelin LZ31 was a Class M Military craft which has its first flight on the 3rd of November 1914. LZ31 took part in the German defence during the Cuxhaven Raid on 25th of December 1914, unsuccessfully attacking HMS Empress. It made 36 reconnaissance missions around North Sea, including marking of mine fields. one successful raid on England, dropping 700 kilograms (1,500 lb) of bombs. LZ31 Caught fire during inflation whilst in its hall at Fuhlsbüttel and was destroyed together with L 9/LZ 36 on 16th of September 1916.

   

LZ36 L9

Zeppelin LZ36 (L9) was a Class O Military craft which had its first flight on the 8th March 1915.

It carried out 74 reconnaissance missions in the North Sea and four raids on England dropping a total of 5,683 kg (12,529 lb) of bombs. It also undertook several attacks on British submarines. It was burnt out in its hangar on 16th of September 1916 together with L6 (LZ 31).

    Zeppelin LZ101 (L55) was a V Class craft which had its first flight on 1st of September 1917. It went on to carry out two attacks dropping a total of 5,450 kilograms (12,020 lb) of bombs. It was heavily damaged in the second one on 19 October 1917 and it drifted behind the Western Front. It rose to a Zeppelin all-time world record altitude of 7,600 metres (24,900 ft) to escape, but was then dismantled following a forced landing.

   Zeppelin LZ103 (L56) was a V Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 24th of September 1917. It flew 17 reconnaissance missions and participated in the last raid on England on 6 August 1918. It was destroyed by its crew on 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ106 (L61) was a V Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 12th of December 1917 It carried out 9 reconnaissance missions and two attacks on England dropping a total of 4,500 kilograms (9,900 lb) of bombs. In 1920 it was ordered to be transferred to Italy as war reparations.

   Zeppelin LZ107 (L62) was a V Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 19th of January 1918 It flew two reconnaissance missions and two attacks on England dropping a total of 5,923 kilograms (13,058 lb) of bombs. During the raid on the 12/13th April 1918 her gunners managed to damage and drive away an attacking airplane, the only known instance of this happening. It crashed north of Helgoland on the 10th of May 1918, having been shot down by Felixstowe F2A flying-boat N4291, flown by Capt T.C. Pattinson and Capt T.H. Munday.

   Zeppelin LZ108 (L60) was a V Class military Zeppelin which has its first flight on the 18th of December 1917. It flew 11 reconnaissance missions and one attack on England dropping 3,120 kg of bombs. It was destroyed together with L 54 when British Sopwith Camel fighters launched from the aircraft carrier HMS Furious bombed the zeppelin halls.

   Zeppelin LZ109 (L64) was a V Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 11th of March 1918 It flew 13 reconnaissance missions over the North Sea and along with L 60, L 61, L 62 and L 63 raided the North of England dropping 2800 kg in bombs. In 1920 it was transferred to Britain as war reparations. It was scrapped at short notice when the hangar was required for the damaged British R36.

   Zeppelin LZ110 (L63) was a V Class military Zeppelin with its first flight on the 4th March 1918. It dropped a total of 8,915 kilograms (19,654 lb) of bombs in three attacks on England and participated in the last raid over England on the 6th of August 1918. It was destroyed by its crew on the 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ111 (L65) was a V Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 17th of April 1918 It participated in the last raid over England on the 6th of August 1918 and was destroyed by its crew on the 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ112 (L70) was a X Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 1st of July 1918 It directed the last raid over England on the 6th of August 1918, with KK Peter Strasser, Commander of the Navy Airship Department on board. It was intercepted and destroyed over North Sea by British DeHavilland DH-4 flown by Major Egbert Cadbury, with Captain Robert Leckie (later Air Vice-Marshal) as gunner. Both these men shot down two Zeppelins. Prior to L 70, Cadbury had downed L 21 and Leckie had downed L 22.

   Zeppelin LZ43 (L12) was a P Class Military Zeppelin, it had its first flight on the 21st of June 1915. It flew on 5 reconnaissance missions. After being damaged by Anti Aircraft fire during a raid in which it bombed Dover, it came down in the English Channel and was towed back to Ostend on the 10th August 1915, but caught fire during the salvage operation.

   Zeppelin LZ44 (LZ74) was a P Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 8th of July 1915. It carried out two attacks on England dropping a total of 3,500 kg (7,700 lb) of bombs. It was wrecked when it flew into a mountain in the Schnee Eifel on the 8th October 1915.

   Zeppelin LZ45 (L13) was a P Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 23rd of July 1915. It carried out 45 reconnaissance missions, including one in which it played a significant part in the action of 19 August 1916. It took part in 15 attacks on England dropping a total of 20,667 kg (45,563 lb) of bombs. It was decommissioned on 25th of April 1917.

   Zeppelin LZ47 (LZ77) was a P Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 24th of August 1915. It took part in 6 attacks on England and France dropping a total of 12,610 kg (27,800 lb) of bombs, but was destroyed by enemy fire on the 21st February 1916 in the Battle of Verdun, killing the crew of 15. Reports at the time indicated LZ77 had searchlights, eight machine guns, two so-called 'revolver' guns in the top lookout post. It was accompanied by fixed-wing aircraft and at least one other Zeppelin and had orders to bomb the nearby railway lines.

   Zeppelin LZ48 (L15) was a P Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 9th of September 1915. It flew 8 reconnaissance missions and 3 attacks on England dropping a total of 5,780 kg (12,740 lb) of bombs. It was damaged by ground fire from Dartford AA battery during a raid on London on the 1st of April 1916 and came down at Kentish Knock Deep in the Thames estuary. One crew member was killed and the other 17 were taken prisoner.

   Zeppelin LZ53 (L17), Production Ref: LZ53 was a P Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 20th October 1915. L17 completed 27 reconnaissance missions and 9 attacks on England dropping a total of 10,724 kg (23,642 lb) bombs. It was destroyed in its hangar on the 28th December 1916 when LZ69 (L24) broke its back and caught fire.

   

LZ59 L20

Zeppelin LZ59 (L20) was a Q Class Military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 21st of November 1915 It carried out 6 reconnaissance missions and 2 attacks on England dropping a total 2,864 kilograms (6,314 lb) bombs. Ran out of fuel after raiding Scotland on 3rd of May 1916, drifted and stranded near Stavanger, Norway. The crew destroyed the airship. 16 were captured and 3 died. Kapitänleutnant Stabbert escaped six months later.

   Zeppelin LZ62 (L30) was a Class R Military craft which had its first flight on the 28th of May 1916 It was the first of the Type R "Super-Zeppelins" with a volume of 55,200 m3. It carried out 10 raids on England dropping a total of 23,305 kilograms (51,379 lb) of bombs. It also completed 31 reconnaissance missions above the North and Baltic Seas and at the Eastern Front. It was retired on the 17th November 1917 and laid up at Seerappen. In 1920 it was ordered to be transferred to Belgium as part of war reparations, where it was dismantled. Some components, including an engine car, are preserved at the Royal Army and Military History Museum, Brussels.

   Zeppelin LZ68 (LZ98) was a Q Class military craft which had its first flight on the 28th of April 1916. It made one attack on London dropping 1,513 kilograms (3,336 lb) bombs, plus several flights which were aborted due to bad weather. It was handed over to the German Navy in November 1916 and carried out 15 reconnaissance missions around the Baltic Sea before being decommissioned in August 1917.

   Zeppelin LZ71 (LZ101) was a Q Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 29th of June 1916, It was stationed in Yambol, Bulgaria. It carried out seve attacks dropping a total of 11,934 kg (26,310 lb) of bombs on Bucharest, Ciulnita, Fetesti, Galati, Odessa, Mytilene, Iasi and Mudros. The craft was dismantled in September 1917.

   

LZ76 L33 Wreckage.

Zeppelin LZ76 (L33) was a R Class Super Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 30th of August 1916. L33 was part of the Zeppelin group that bombed London and surrounding counties (L31, L32, L33 and L34) on the night of the 23rd September 1916. During its first mission, in which 3200 kg bombs had been dropped, an anti-aircraft shell seriously damaged it. Commander Kapitan-Leutnant Alois Bocker turned over Essex and was attacked by 39 Home Defence Squadron night fighters from Hainault Farm and hit several times (credit for disabling was given to B.E.2c No. 4544), but even after dropping guns and equipment Bocker decided he would not make it back across the North Sea. They made a forced landing in Little Wigborough, Essex on the 24th September 1916 with no fatalities. The crew were only partly successful in burning the hull and British engineers examined the skeleton and later used the plans as a basis for the construction of airships R33 and R34.

   Zeppelin LZ79 (L41) was an R Class Super Zeppelin which has its first flight on the 15th of January 1917. It carried out 15 reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and four attacks on England dropping a total of 6,567 kilograms (14,478 lb)of bombs. It was used as a training school ship from the 11th December 1917. Destroyed by its crew on the 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ85 (L45) was an R Class Super Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 12th of April 1917. It carried out 12 reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and 3 attacks on England, dropping a total of 4,700 kilograms (10,400 lb) of bombs. It ran out of fuel on the 20th of October 1917 and was destroyed in a forced landing near Sisteron, France, the crew being taken captive.

   Zeppelin LZ86 (L39) was an R Class Super Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 11th of December 1916 It carried out two reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and one attack on England dropping 300 kg bombs. On return it was destroyed by French flak fire near Compiègne on the 17th of March 1917.

   Zeppelin LZ87 (L47) was an R Class Super Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 11th of May 1917. It carried out 18 reconnaissance missions and three attacks dropping a total of 3,240 kilograms (7,140 lb) of bombs around the North Sea and England. On the 5th January 1918, a giant explosion in the air base in Ahlhorn destroyed four Zeppelins (including L47) and one non-Zeppelin built airship, housed in three adjacent hangars. This was presumed to have been an accident, though sabotage could not be ruled out.

   Zeppelin LZ89 (L50) was an R Class Super Zeppelin, which had its first flight on the 9th of June 1917 It carried out 5 reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and two attacks on England dropping a total of 4,135 kilograms (9,116 lb) of bombs. It ran out of fuel on the 20th of October 1917 and was driven to the Mediterranean Sea after a forced landing near Dammartin, France.

   Zeppelin LZ91 (L42) was an S Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 21st of February 1917. It was the first of the Height-Climber S class, which had a lightened structure to improve maximum altitude. The strength of the structure was therefore compromised, which proved disastrous when unwittingly copied, as with the British R38 (ZR-2), and USS Shenandoah. L42 carried out 20 reconnaissance missions and 4 attacks on England dropping a total of 6,030 kilograms (13,290 lb) of bomb. It was used as a training school ship from 6 June 1918 and destroyed by its crew on 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ92 (L43) was an S Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 6th of March 1917. It carried out 6 reconnaissance missions and one attack on English docks, dropping 1,850 kilograms (4,080 lb) of bombs. Shot down by British fighter aircraft on the 14th of June 1917 during a reconnaissance mission.

   Zeppelin LZ93 (L44) was a T Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 1st of April 1917. It carried out 8 reconnaissance missions and 4 attacks on England and British Royal Navy units. It was driven south to France by a heavy storm and shot down over Lunéville on the 20th of October 1917.

   Zeppelin LZ94 (L46) was a T Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 24th of April 1917. It carried out 19 reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and 3 raids on England dropping a total of 5,700 kilograms (12,600 lb) of bombs. It was destroyed in the Ahlhorn explosion.

   Zeppelin LZ95 (L48) was a U Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 22nd of May 1917. Several of the L11 crew transferred to the L48 which flew one successful reconnaissance mission. As part of an attempted attack on London with 3 others it became lost and was then intercepted and destroyed by British fighters over the sea near Great Yarmouth on the 17th June 1917, crashing near Leiston. There were only three survivors and the remainder of the crew were buried at Theberton, Suffolk.

   

LZ96 L49

Zeppelin LZ96 (L49) was a U Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 13th of June 1917. It carried out two reconnaissance missions around the North Sea and one raid on England dropping 2,100 kilograms (4,600 lb) of bombs. While returning, it was forced to land near Bourbonne-les-Bains on the 20th of October 1917 and was captured almost undamaged by French forces.

Plans derived from the LZ96 were later used in the United States for construction of the first US Zeppelin, the USS Shenandoah (ZR-1),they were also used for the design of the British R38.

   Zeppelin LZ97 (L51) was a U Class Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 6th of June 1917. It carried out 3 reconnaissance missions and one raid on the English coast, dropping 280 kg bombs. It was destroyed in the Ahlhorn explosion along with LZ87 (L47).

   Zeppelin LZ98 (L52) was a U Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 14th of July 1917. It carried out 20 reconnaissance missions and was accidentally flown above London by an unexpected storm during a raid and dropped 2,020 kilograms (4,450 lb) of bombs there. It was destroyed by its crew on the 23rd of June 1919.

   Zeppelin LZ99 (L54) was a U Class military Zeppelin which had its first flight on the 13th of August 1917 It carried out 14 reconnaissance missions and two attacks on England dropping a total of 5,840 kilograms (12,870 lb) of bombs. It was destroyed together with L60 when seven British Sopwith Camel fighters from the first aircraft carrier, HMS Furious, bombed the halls in Tondern. (Only two fighters returned to the Furious, though three of the others landed in Denmark after running low on fuel).

   Penally Camp is situated on the coast near Tenby, Pembrokeshire, Wales and the firing range at Giltar Point, built in the 19th century is still in use by the MOD today. To the east of Giltar Point, remains of WW1 practice trenches are visible.

   The 4th Battalion Wiltshire Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force based at The Drill Hall, Bath Road Chippenham (now The Chippenham Youth & Community Centre) with the South-Western Brigade, Wessex Division. Just before war broke out in August 1914 the units of the Division gathered on Salisbury Plain for their annual summer camp and ordered arrived for precautionary measures to be taken. On the 3rd of August they broke camp and moved to take up defensive positions at the ports. The division was mobilised for full time war service on the 5th of August and by the 10th had returned to Salisbury Plain to prepare for service overseas. The Wessex Division was ordered to India to replace British and Indian regular army units who were to be deployed to the Western Front. They sailed from Southampton on the 19th of October, via Malta and Suez, arriving at Bombay on the 9th of November. They joined Dehra Dun Brigade and served in the 7th (Meerut) Divisional Area, until March 1917 when they transferred to Poona Brigade and moved to 6th (Poona) Divisional Area. In September they were orded to Egypt to join 233rd Brigade, 75th Division. They were in action during Third Battle of Gaza, The Capture of Gaza, The Capture of Junction Station and The Battle of Nabi Samweil. In 1918 they saw action in The Battle of Tell'Asur, The Battle of Berukin, and The Battle of Sharon. In September the Division was withdrawn for rest at Tyre until the 22nd of October, when they moved to Haifa and was there when Turkey signed an Armistice on the 31st. They moved back to Egypt and the last of the division were demoblised in April 1920.

   Schütte-Lanz SL3 had its first flight on the 4th of February 1915

  • Length: 153.1 metres (502 ft)
  • Diameter: 19.75 metres (65 ft)
  • Gas Capacity: 32,390 cubic meters
  • Performance: 84.6 km/h
  • Payload: 13.2 tonnes
  • Engines: 4 Maybach 840 hp/626 kW total

SL3 naval airship was based at Seddin and flew 30 reconnaissance missions and one bombing mission over England. The highlight of SL3's career was the attack on the British submarine E4 on the 24th of September 1915. The structure of the ship degraded because of atmospheric exposure and the ship was stranded near Riga on the 1st May 1916.

    The Air Ship Schütte-Lanz SL7 had it's first flight on 3rd September 1915 Measuring 162.1 metres (532 ft) long with a diameter of 19.75 metres (65 ft) and a Gas Capacity of 35,130 cubic meters, she was capable of 92.9 km/h, with a payload of 15.6 tonnes. She was powered by 4 Maybach 840 hp/626 kW Engines

The Army airship was based at Königsberg and carried out three reconnaissance missions and three bombing raids before suffering structural failure. The ship was repaired and possibly enlarged before being decommissioned on the 6th March 1917 when the army terminated airship operations.

   3rd South Midland Royal Field Artillery Brigade, were based at The Drill Hall, Stoney Lane, Birmingham. later renamed 242 Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, they served as Divisional artillery with 48th (South Midland) Division. The South Midland Division was a formation of the Territorial Force formed in 1908 The units had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out in August 1914 and they were at once recalled. They mobilised for war service on 5 August 1914 and moved to concentrate in the Chelmsford area by the second week of August 1914 and commenced training. They proceeded to France in March 1915 with the Divisional HQ, the Gloucester & Worcester and South Midland Brigades embarking from Folkestone and sailing to Boulogne whilst the remainder sailed from Southampton to Le Havre. The Division had concentrated near Cassel. In 1916 They were in action in the Battle of the Somme, suffering hevy casualties on the 1st of July in assaulting the Quadrilateral (Heidenkopf). They were also in action at The Battle of Bazentin Ridge, capturing Ovillers, The Battle of Pozieres Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre Heights and The Battle of the Ancre. They left the Division on the 20th of January 1917.

   1st South Midland Mounted Brigade Company ASC were based at The Drill Hall, Taunton Road, Birmingham (now an Asian Supermarket)

   Staffordshire Yeomary were a mounted unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ at Bismark Road, Wolverhampton.

   Norfolk & Suffolk Brigade, Army Service Corps were a unit of the Territorial Force with their Headquarters at Purfleet Quay, King's Lynn.

   

   4th Battalion Border Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force. C Coy were based at The Volunteer Assembly Rooms, Southey Street, Keswick.

   3rd Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers were based at Fenham Barracks, Newcastle upon Tyne.

   3rd Battalion Durham Light Infantry were based at Fenham Barracks, Newcastle upon Tyne.

   

The 4th Battalion Durham Light Infantry were based at Fenham Barracks, Newcastle upon Tyne. They were at Barnard Castle when war broke out in August 1914 and were at once mobilised and moved the Tyne defences.

In December the battalion moved to Killingworth then to Forest Hall in January 1915 and finally to Seaham Harbour in September 1915, where it then remained as part of the Tyne Garrison.

   Horncastle Voluntary Aid Detachment used the Drill Hall on the Wong as a Red Cross Hospital, with much of the equipment and furniture and being donated or lent by locals.

   2/8th Battalion, Sherwood Foresters were a second line territorial unit, formed in September 1914 at Newark. They were stationed home defence duties in Norfolk and made up from a core of men of the 1/8th Battalion who had not volunteered for Imperial Service. The battalion was also engaged in training new recruits who would join their sister battalion as reinforcements. They saw action in Dublin during the Easter Rising and completed their training in Ireland before proceeding to France in January 1917. They were in action during the German retreat to the Hindenburg Line and the Third Battle of Ypres.

   The 8th (Service) Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment was raised at Preston in September 1914 as part of Kitchener's Third New Army and joined 74th Brigade, 25th Division. They trained at Codford and spent the winter in billets in Bournemouth from November 1914, when they became Divisional Troops with 25th Division. In March 1915 they transferred to the newly formed 112th Brigade, 37th Division at Ludgershall and proceeded to France in late July, concentrating near Tilques. They went into action in The Battle of the Ancre. In 1917 they fought in The First Battle of the Scarpe, including the capture of Monchy-le-Preux, The Second Battle of the Scarpe and The Battle of Arleux. They were in action during the Third Battles of Ypres. In early 1918 the army was reorganised and on the 21st of February 1918 the 8th East Lancashires were disbanded in France with the officers and men transferring to the 11th East Lancashires.

   11th (Accrington) Battalion East Lancashire Regiment, more commonly known as The Accrington Pals, was raised in September 1914 in Accrington, Lancashire. After training in the local area the Battalion departed with a great send off in February 1915 for Caernarvon. In May they moved to Penkridge Bank Camp near Rugeley and joined the 94th Brigade, 31st Division. In July they moved to Ripon and then in September to Hurdcott Camp near Salisbury and in December the Division proceeded Egypt to defend the Suez Canal against the Turkishh threat. At the end of February 1916, the 31st Division was ordered to France, to prepare for the attack on the Somme. They were in action at Serre in The Battle of The Somme, suffering very heavy casualties. In 1917 they were in action in the Battle of Arras and in 1918 they transferred to 92nd Brigade, 31st Division and fought at St Quentin, Bapaume and Arras before moving north to counter the German Spring Offensive on the Lys. Towards the end of the conflict they were in action in the the Final Advance in Flanders.

   

The 10th (Service) Battalion, Durham Light Infantry was raised at Newcastle on the 22nd of August 1914 as part of Kitchener's First New Army and joined 43rd Brigade, 14th (Light) Division.

They trained at Woking, moved to Aldershot, then to Witley in November 1914 for the winter and returned to Aldershot in February 1915 for final training. They proceeded to France on the 21st of May 1915, landing at Boulogne. They fought in the The Action of Hooge, being the first division to be attacked by flamethrowers. They were in action in The Second Attack on Bellewaarde. In 1916 they were on the Somme seeing action in The Battle of Delville Wood and The Battle of Flers-Courcelette.

In 1917 they fought in The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, The First and Third Battle of the Scarpe at Arras, The Battle of Langemark and The First and Second Battle of Passchendaele. On the 12th of February 1918 the 10th DLI was disbanded in France when the army was reorganised.

   The West Riding Batteries, Royal Field Artillery were units of the Territorial Force. 1st Brigade had their HQ in Fenton Street, Leeds and was made up of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd (Leeds) West Riding Batteries and the Leeds Ammunition Column. 2nd Brigade had their HQ in Valley Parade, Bradford and consisted of the 4th (Bradford), 5th (Halifax), 6th (Heckmondwike) West Riding Batteries and the Bradford and Halifax Ammunition Column. 3Rd Brigade had their HQ at Norfolk Barracks, Sheffield and consisted of the 7th, 8th and 9th (Sheffield) West Riding Batteries and the Sheffield Ammunition Column. 4th (Howizter) Brigade had their HQ at The Drill Hall, Otley (opposite the Bus station) and was made up of the 10th (Otley), 11th (Burley and Ilkley) West Riding Batteries and the Burley and Ilkley Ammunition Column.

   6th (Glamorgan) Battalion Welch Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Richardson Steeet, Swansea, next to the Vetch football ground. B, C and D Coy's were based in Swansea, and there were Drill Halls at 220 Oxford Street and in Strathen Place. E Coy had their Drill Hall at 128 Neath Road, Hafod. They proceeded to France on the 29th of October 1914, landing at Le Havre and took up a role working in the Lines of Communication. On the 5th of July 1915 they joined 84th Brigade, 28th Division and on the 23rd of October transferred to 3rd Brigade, 1st Division. On the 15th of May 1916 the 1/6th became a Pioneer Battalion to 1st Division and saw action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they saw action in The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line and the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 the Battles of the Lys, the Second Battles of Arras, the Battles of the Hindenburg Line, The Battle of the Selle and The Battle of the Sambre, in which the Division fought the Passage of the Sambre-Oise Canal. At the Armistice, 1st Division was selected to advance into Germany and formed part of the Occupation Force at Bonn.

   5th Battalion York and Lancaster Regiment were a unit of the Territorial Force with their HQ in Rotherham. A and B Coys were based in Rotherham, C Coy in Barnsley, their Drill Hall is now used by the Barnsley Chronicle. D Coy were based in Wath on Dearne, E Coy in Barnsley, F Coy in Rotherham , G Coy in Treeton and H Coy in Birdwell with their Drill Hall in Sheffield Road (now a hair salon). When war broke out in August 1914, the units of the Division had just departed for their annual summer camp, they were at once recalled to their home base and mobilised for war service, moving to Doncaster. In November they moved to Gainsborough and in in February 1915 to York to prepare for service overseas, those men who had not volunteered for Imperial Service transferred tp the newly formed 2/4th Battalion. They proceeded to France on the 14th of April 1915, sailing from Folkestone to Boulogne. The Division concentrated in the area around Estaires. On the 15th of May the formation was renamed 148th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division. Their first action was in the The Battle of Aubers Ridge in May 1915. In 1916 They were in action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in the Operations on the Flanders Coast and the The Battle of Poelcapelle during the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action during the Battles of the Lys, The pursuit to the Selle and the Final Advance in Picardy. At the Armistice, The 49th Division was resting at Douai, demobilisation began in early 1919.

 Zeppelin Raids on Britain  German strategic bombing during World War I

The best-known German strategic bombing campaign during World War One was the campaign against England, although strategic bombing raids were carried out or attempted on other fronts. The main campaign against England started in January 1915 using airships. From then until the end of World War I the German Navy and Army Air Services mounted over 50 bombing raids on the United Kingdom. These were generally referred to as "Zeppelin raids", although both Zeppelin and Schütte-Lanz airships were used. The Zeppelin company was much better known and was responsible for producing the vast majority of the airships used. Weather conditions and night flying conditions made airship navigation and therefore bombing accuracy difficult. Bombs were often dropped miles off target (one raid on London actually bombed Hull) and accurate targeting of military installations was impossible. The civilian casualties made the Zeppelins an object of hatred, and they were widely dubbed “baby-killers”.

With the development of effective defensive measures the airship raids became increasingly hazardous, and in 1917 the airships were largely replaced by aeroplanes. Although the direct military effect of the raids was small, they caused widespread alarm, leading to the diversion of substantial resources from the Western Front and some disruption to industrial production. Concern about the conduct of defence against the raids, the responsibility for which was divided between the Admiralty and the Army, led to a parliamentary inquiry under Jan Smuts, whose report was to lead to the creation of the Royal Air Force on 1 April 1918. The defence organisation developed by the British was an important precursor of the fighter direction system that would prove vital in winning the Battle of Britain. The raids were also influential because they led to an overestimation of both the material and psychological effects of the bombing of cities. Airships made about 51 bombing raids on England during the war. These killed 557 and injured another 1,358 people. More than 5,000 bombs were dropped on towns across Britain, causing £1.5 million in damage. 84 airships took part, of which 30 were lost, either shot down or lost in accidents. Aeroplanes carried out 27 raids, dropping 246,774 lb (111,935 kg) of bombs for the loss of 62 aircraft, resulting in 835 deaths, 1972 injured and £1,418,272 material damage



 Australian Troop Transports  

HMAT A74 Marathon Picture from: Clydebuilt Ships Database.

The HMAT A74 Marathon weighed 7,827 tons with an average cruise speed of 16 knots or 29.63 kmph. It was owned by the G Thompson & Co Ltd, London, and leased by the Commonwealth until the 28th July 1917.

 Australian Troop Transports  

HMAT A8 Argyllshire

The HMAT A8 Argyllshire weighed 10,392 tons with an average cruise speed of 14 knots or 25.92 kmph. It was owned by the Scottish Shire Line Ltd, London, and leased by the Commonwealth until the 24th January 1918.

   HMS Zinnia was a Flower-class, Azalea-type, minesweeping sloop. She was built by Swan Hunter and launched on 12th August 1915. She served through the War, and was sold to Belgium on 19th April 1920.

   

   

The 14th (Service) Battalion, Durham Light Infantry was raised at Newcastle upon Tyne in September 1914 as part of Kitchener's Third Army.

The new Battalion joined 64th Brigade, 21st Division and moved to Aylesbury for training, then to Halton Park in October. They spent the winter in billets in High Wycombe from November 1914, training in the local area and returned to Halton Park in April 1915, where they were billetted in huts. They moved to Witley in July for final preparation and proceeded to France on the 11th of September 1915, landing at Boulogne.

After a long march the division was brought up as reserve for the British assault at Loos and they saw their first action on the 26th of September, the second day of the battle. The division suffered over 3,800 casualties, many cut down by machinegun fire as they advanced on the Germans who had brought in large numbers of troops overnight for a counterattack.

On the 28th of November 1915 the 14th DLI transferred to 18th Brigade in 6th Division. In 1916 they were again in action at Battle of Flers-Courcelette on The Somme, in 1917 they were in action at Hill 70 and Cambrai. The Battalion was disbanded in February 1918.

   

RMS Andania

RMS Andania was a passenger and cargo ship from Great Britain launched 22 March 1913. She was 13,405 tons and built in the Greenock Dockyard Company by Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Ltd and completed 13 July 1913. The Andania made its maiden voyage on 14th of July 1913 from Liverpool via Southampton to Quebec and Montreal.

In August 1914 she was requisitioned as a troopship and made several trips carrying Canadian troops. For a few weeks in 1915 the Andania was used to accommodate German POWs in the Thames. In the summer of 1915 it was used in the Gallipoli campaign when she was used to transport the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers to Cape Helles for the landings at Suvla.

After transporting more Canadian troops in 1916, it returned to passenger service in 1917 on the Liverpool-New York route. The Andania left Liverpool on 26th of January 1918 with 40 passengers and a crew of around 200. On the 27th of January the ship was hit amidships by a torpedo from German submarine U-46 captained by Leo Hillebrand two miles north-northeast of Rathlin East (Altacarry Head) lighthouse on Rathlin Island (County Antrim). The ship immediately took a list to starboard and began to sink. Attempts were made to tow the ship but it sank after a few hours. A great deal of the people on board were saved, but Andania's sinking killed seven crew members. The wreck is lying at a depth of between 175 and 189 metres.

   

   

HMHS Britannic

HMHS Britannic was the third and largest Olympic-class ocean liner of the White Star Line. She was the sister ship of RMS Olympic and RMS Titanic, and was intended to enter service as the transatlantic passenger liner, RMS Britannic. She was launched just before the start of the First World War and was laid up at her builders in Belfast for many months before being put to use as a hospital ship in 1915.

The keel for Britannic was laid on 30 November 1911 at the Harland and Wolff shipyard in Belfast, 13 months after the launch of the Olympic. Due to improvements introduced as a consequence of the Titanic disaster, Britannic was not launched until 26 February 1914, which was filmed along with the fitting of a funnel. Fitting out began subsequently. She was constructed in the same gantry slip used to build RMS Olympic. Reusing Olympic's space saved the shipyard time and money by not clearing out a third slip similar in size to those used for Olympic and Titanic. In August 1914, before Britannic could commence transatlantic service between New York and Southampton, the First World War began. Immediately, all shipyards with Admiralty contracts were given top priority to use available raw materials. All civil contracts (including the Britannic) were slowed down. The military authorities requisitioned a large number of ships as armed merchant cruisers or for troop transport. The Admiralty was paying the companies for the use of their ships but the risk of losing a ship in military operations was high. However, the big ocean liners were not taken for military use, because the smaller ships were much easier to operate. White Star decided to withdraw RMS Olympic from service until the danger had passed. RMS Olympic returned to Belfast on 3 November 1914, while work on her sister continued slowly. All this would change in 1915.

The need for increased tonnage grew critical as military operations extended to the Eastern Mediterranean. In May 1915, Britannic completed mooring trials of her engines, and was prepared for emergency entrance into service with as little as four weeks notice. The same month also saw the first major loss of a civilian ocean ship when the Cunard liner RMS Lusitania was torpedoed near the Irish coast by SM U-20. The following month, the British Admiralty decided to use recently requisitioned passenger liners as troop transports in the Gallipoli campaign (also called the Dardanelles service). The first to sail were Cunard's RMS Mauretania and RMS Aquitania. As the Gallipoli landings proved to be disastrous and the casualties mounted, the need for large hospital ships for treatment and evacuation of wounded became evident.

RMS Aquitania was diverted to hospital ship duties in August (her place as a troop transport would be taken by the RMS Olympic in September). Then on 13 November 1915, Britannic was requisitioned as a hospital ship from her storage location at Belfast. Repainted white with large red crosses and a horizontal green stripe, she was renamed HMHS (His Majesty's Hospital Ship) Britannic and placed under the command of Captain Charles A. Bartlett (1868–1945).

She had a Medical Staff strength of 53 Officers, 101 Nurses and 336 auxiliaries and other medical staff. She had an accommodation capacity. of 169 Officers, with 32 cots, and 2074 berths. She began life as a hospital ship on the 13th of November 1915.

 British Troopship  

RMS Andania

RMS Andania was a passenger and cargo ship from Great Britain launched 22 March 1913. She was 13,405 tons and built in the Greenock Dockyard Company by Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company Ltd and completed 13 July 1913.

In World War I the Andania was used to transport the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers to Cape Helles for the landings at Suvla. The landing at Suvla Bay by the British IX Corps was part of the August Offensive during the Battle of Gallipoli.

The Andania measured 158.58 by 19.50 meters (520.3 ft × 64.0 ft) and had twin funnels and masts. The hull was made of steel and the vessel was propelled by a twin propellers configaration, powered by eight quadruple-expansion engines creating a service speed of 15 knots. The Andania held accommodations for 520 second-class and 1,540 third-class passengers. Her sister ships were the Alaunia and Aurania which were almost identical and "catered only for second and third class passengers". The old-style third class dormitories were replaced by four or six-berth cabins.

History.

The Andania made its maiden voyage on 14 July 1913 from Liverpool via Southampton to Quebec and Montreal. In August 1914 it was requisitioned as a troopship and made several trips carrying Canadian troops. For a few weeks in 1915 the Andania was used to accommodate German POWs in the Thames. In the summer of 1915 it was used in the Gallipoli campaign when she was used to transport the Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers and Royal Dublin Fusiliers to Cape Helles for the landings at Suvla.

After transporting more Canadian troops in 1916, it returned to passenger service in 1917 on the Liverpool-New York route. The Andania left Liverpool on 26 January 1918 with 40 passengers and a crew of around 200. On the 27 January the ship was hit amidships by a torpedo from German submarine U-46 captained by Leo Hillebrand two miles north-northeast of Rathlin East (Altacarry Head) lighthouse on Rathlin Island (County Antrim). The ship immediately took a list to starboard and began to sink. Attempts were made to tow the ship but it sank after a few hours. A great deal of the people on board were saved, but Andania's sinking killed seven crew members. The wreck is lying at a depth of between 175 and 189 metres.

   3rd Battalion, King's Royal Rifle Corps were in Meerut, India, part of Bareilly Brigade, Meerut Division when war broke out in August 1914. They returned to England arriving on the 18th of November and joined 80th Brigade, 27th Division at Magdalen Hill Camp near Winchester. They proceeded to France via Southampton on the 21st of December 1914 landing at Le Havre. The Division concentrated in the area between Aire and Arques being joined by Territorial units taken from other Divisions. In 1915 they saw action at St Eloi and in The Second Battle of Ypres. In November they were ordered to Salonika in November 1915 and on the 18th the 3rd KRRC sailed from Marseilles, arriving on the 5th of December. Between the 30th of September and 2nd of October 1916 they were engaged in the capture of Karajakois, followed swiftly by the capture of Yenikoi and then the battle of Tumbitza Farm In 1917 they were in action durinhg the capture of Homondos. In mid 1918 a number of units returned to France and in Sepetember the remaining units of the 27th Division were in action in the final offensive in Salonika, including the capture of the Roche Noir Salient, the passage of the Vardar river and the pursuit to the Strumica valley. Hostilities with Bulgaria ceased on the 30th of September, the 27th Division continued to advance and war wasordered to halt and turn about on the 2nd of November, being ordered to the Black Sea. The Division reached Constantinople on the 19th of December and set up a HQ at Tiflis in January 1919. The Division was finally disbanded on the 24th of September 1919 at Batum.

   

USS Von Steuben

SS Kronprinz Wilhelm was a German passenger liner built for the Norddeutscher Lloyd, a former shipping company now part of Hapag-Lloyd, by the AG Vulcan shipyard in Stettin, in 1901. She took her name from Crown Prince Wilhelm, son of the German Emperor Wilhelm II, and was a sister ship of the SS Kaiser Wilhelm der Grosse.

She had a varied career, starting off as a world-record-holding passenger liner, then becoming an auxiliary warship from 1914–1915 for the Imperial German Navy, sailing as a commerce raider for a year, and then interned in the United States when she ran out of supplies. When the U.S. entered World War I, she was seized and served as a United States Navy troop transport until she was decommissioned and turned over to the United States Shipping Board, where she remained in service until she was scrapped in 1923.

Kronprinz Wilhelm was launched on 30 March 1901 and started her transatlantic maiden voyage on 17 September 1901 from Bremerhaven via Southampton and Cherbourg to New York. She was one of the fastest and most luxurious liners on the North Atlantic and stayed on that run until 1914. The ship had a Marconi telegraph, electric central heating and electric light of 1,900 lamps on board. About 60 electric motors worked bridge cranes, fans, elevators, refrigerators and auxiliary machinery. Kronprinz Wilhelm had a control panel in the map room to close or open the 20 watertight doors. If a door was closed, this was shown by a lamp. This security system alone needed 3.2 km (2.0 mi) of special cables and 1.2 km (0.75 mi) of normal cables.

In September 1902, captained by August Richter, Kronprinz Wilhelm won the Blue Riband for the fastest crossing yet from Cherbourg to New York in a time of five days, 11 hours, 57 minutes, with an average speed of 23.09 kn (42.76 km/h; 26.57 mph).

In her time as a passenger liner, many famous international personalities sailed on Kronprinz Wilhelm. These included the lawyer and politician Lewis Stuyvesant Chanler Jr. (1903), the opera singer Lillian Blauvelt (1903), the theatrical manager and producer Charles Frohman (1904); the inventor and author John Jacob Astor (1906) who died in 1912 aboard the RMS Titanic; the most picturesque woman in America, Rita de Acosta Lydig and her second husband, Captain Philip M. Lydig (1907); the author Lloyd Osbourne (1907); the star conductor Alfred Hertz (1909); the ballerina Adeline Genée (1908); the theatrical and opera producer Oscar Hammerstein together with the conductor Cleofonte Campanini and the opera singers Mario Sammarco, Giuseppe Taccani and Fernando Gianoli-Galetti (1909); and the multi-millionaire, politician and lawyer Samuel Untermyer (1910).

In 1902, Prince Heinrich of Prussia (1862–1929)—brother of Kaiser Wilhelm II—made a state visit to New York, where he was received by President Theodore Roosevelt. Media-oriented, he sailed on the new, impressive Kronprinz Wilhelm, on which a huge number of reporters could accompany him, and not the imperial yacht. There were also 300 passengers and 700 Steerage passengers aboard. This state visit was also an early example of film reporting. This was also the ship's first voyage under Captain August Richter, who was the captain until August 1907.'

When Germany entered World War I, Kronprinz Wilhelm was on the western side of the Atlantic, under the command of Captain Grahn. She was commissioned into the Imperial German Navy, and ordered to rendezvous with SMS Karlsruhe to take on two 88 mm (3.46 in) rapid-firing guns, 290 rounds of 88 mm ammunition, a machine gun, and 36 rifles as well as one officer, two non-commissioned officers, and 13 ratings. She was commissioned as an auxiliary cruiser. Lieutenant Commander (Kapitanleutnant) Paul Thierfelder—formerly Karlsruhe's navigation officer—became her commander, and Grahn was made 1st Officer.

The close proximity of the British cruiser HMS Suffolk abbreviated the rendezvous, forcing the two German ships to cast off hastily and speed away in different directions. Kronprinz Wilhelm took a meandering course towards the Azores, arriving on 17 August and rendezvousing with the German steamer SS Walhalla off São Miguel Island.

Walhalla and Kronprinz Wilhelm headed south from the Azores, while transferring coal from Walhalla to Kronprinz Wilhelm. She then learned from German representatives at Las Palmas in the Canary Islands that no further coal would be available in the neighborhood of the Azores and the Canaries. Consequently, her commanding officer decided to head for the Brazilian coast, where he hoped to find sources of coal more friendly to Germany or at least a greater choice of neutral ports in which to intern his ship if she should find herself unable to replenish her supplies from captured ships.

During the voyage to the Azores and thence to the South American coast, Kronprinz Wilhelm had to avoid contact with all shipping since she was not ready to embark upon her mission raiding Allied commerce. The guns had to be emplaced and a target for gunnery practice constructed. The crew—mostly reservists and civilians—received a crash course in their duties in a warship and in general naval discipline. A "prize crew" was selected and trained in the techniques of boarding captured vessels (prizes), inspecting cargo and ship's papers, and using explosive charges to sink captured ships. Finally, all members of the crew were outfitted in some semblance of a naval uniform.

The crew worked at a feverish pace in order to be ready, and by the time Kronprinz Wilhelm met Karlsruhe's tender—SS Asuncion—near Rocas Reef north of Cape San Roque on 3 September, preparations were nearly complete. At 2030 the following evening, the auxiliary cruiser encountered a target, the British steamer SS Indian Prince. The merchantman stopped without the raider's firing a shot. Heavy seas, however, postponed the boarding until shortly after 0600 the following morning. The prize crew found a cargo composed largely of contraband, but before sinking the ship, Commander Thierfelder wanted to salvage as much of her supplies and fuel as he could. Continued heavy seas precluded the transfer until the afternoon of 8 September. Indian Prince's crew and passengers were brought over to Kronprinz Wilhelm at around 1400, and the two ships moved alongside each other immediately thereafter. Coaling started and continued throughout the night of 8/9 September. The following morning, the German prize crew detonated three explosive charges which sank Indian Prince. Kronprinz Wilhelm then headed south to rendezvous with several German supply ships.

Coal, more than any other factor, proved to be the key to the success of Kronprinz Wilhelm's cruise. The hope of finding that commodity had brought her to the coast of South America, and her success in locating sources of it kept her there. Initially, she replenished from German steamers sent out of South American ports specifically for that purpose. She spent the next month coaling from four such auxiliaries before she even contacted her next victim. That event occurred on 7 October, when she hailed the British steamer SS La Correntina well off the Brazilian coast at about the same latitude as Rio de Janeiro. The next day, the raider went alongside the captured ship to seize the prize's coal and cargo of frozen meat before sinking her. She took La Correntina's two ammunition-less 4.7 in (120 mm) guns and their splinter shields. The raider later mounted the additional guns aft, where they were used for gun drills and to fire warning shots with modified, blank salute cartridges. She continued coaling and provisioning operations from La Correntina until 11 October, when bad weather forced a postponement. On 14 October, she resumed the transfer of fuel but broke off again when she intercepted a wireless message indicating that her captive's sister ship SS La Rosarina had departed Montevideo two days earlier and would soon pass nearby. The prize crew placed the usual three explosive charges, and La Correntina sank that same day.

During the ensuing five months, Kronprinz Wilhelm cruised the waters off the coast of Brazil and Argentina. Allied newspapers often reported that Kronprinz Wilhelm had been sunk, torpedoed, or interned, but between 4 September 1914 and 28 March 1915, she was responsible for the capture (and often sinking) of 15 ships—10 British, four French, and one Norwegian—off the east coast of South America. Thirteen of them sank from direct actions of Kronprinz Wilhelm; another she damaged severely by ramming, and it probably sank later. The remaining ship served to transport into port what had become an unbearable number of detainees on board after her 12th capture.

"Ships were usually captured either by Kronprinz Wilhelm simply overtaking them with superior speed and size, ordering them to stop, and then sending over a boarding party, or by pretending to be a ship in distress (or of a friendly nationality) and luring unsuspecting prey to her in that way. The targeted ships were usually caught by surprise (some did not even yet know that war had been declared), and their captain had to make the quick decision of whether to run, fight, or surrender. Since the captured ships were no match in speed, and usually had few or no arms, the unpleasant but expedient choice was to surrender. Kronprinz Wilhelm would send over a boarding party to search the captured vessel. If it appeared to have nothing of value or military significance, it was released and sent on its way. If it did have valuable (or contraband) cargo, or was a warship or a ship that might someday be converted to military use, the crew of Kronprinz Wilhelm would then systematically (and quite politely) transfer all of the crew, passengers, and their baggage and other valuable cargo from the captured ship to their own, including coal and other supplies. Then they would usually scuttle the captured vessel by opening up the seacocks (valves in the hull below the waterline), thereby causing the captured ship to fill with water after small charges were detonated, and sink. Throughout the entire journey, not a single life was lost." Lieutenant Alfred von Niezychowski, author of The Cruise of the Kronprinz Wilhelm, the book about her 251 days as a commerce raider in World War I. In this way she took the following:

  • SS Highland Brae, United Kingdom
  • Schooner Wilfred M., United Kingdom
  • Barque Semantha, Norway
  • Barque Anne de Bretagne France
  • SS Guadeloupe, France
  • SS Tamar, United Kingdom
  • SS Coleby, United Kingdom
  • Schooner Pittan, Russia (released)
  • SS Chasehill, United Kingdom
  • SS Indian Prince, United Kingdom
  • SS La Correntina, United Kingdom
  • Four-mast Barque Union, France
  • SS Bellevue, United Kingdom
  • SS Mont Agel, France
  • SS Hemisphere, United Kingdom
  • SS Potaro, United Kingdom
She missed one potential success, when on 14 September 1914 she came across the British armed merchant cruiser RMS Carmania, already badly crippled following a battle with the German auxiliary cruiser SMS Cap Trafalgar, which had sunk shortly before Kronprinz Wilhelm's arrival. However, Kronprinz Wilhelm's commander chose to be cautious, and believing it to be a trap, steamed away without attacking the severely damaged Carmania.

Late in March 1915, the auxiliary cruiser headed north to rendezvous with another German supply ship at the equator. She arrived at the meeting point on the morning of 28 March and cruised in the neighborhood all day. That evening, she sighted a steamer in company with two British warships 20 mi (17 nmi; 32 km) distant. Though Kronprinz Wilhelm did not know it at the time, she had just witnessed the capture of her supply ship—SS Macedonia—by two British cruisers. The raider steamed around in the general vicinity for several days, but the passage of each succeeding day further diminished her hopes of a successful rendezvous.

Finally, a dwindling coal supply and an alarming increase in the sick list forced Kronprinz Wilhelm to make for the nearest neutral port. The apparent cause of the illness was malnutrition from their diet consisting mainly of beef, white bread, boiled potatoes, canned vegetables, and oleomargarine. The few fresh vegetables they seized from the captured vessels were reserved for the officers' mess.

Dr. Perrenon—the ship's surgeon—is reported to have said, "We had many cases of pneumonia, pleurisy and rheumatism among the men. They seemed to lose all resistance long before the epidemic broke out. We had superficial wounds, cuts, to deal with. They usually refused to heal for a long time. We had much hemorrhage. There were a number of accidents aboard, fractures, and dislocations. The broken bones were slow to mend." Slow healing is an early symptom of scurvy.

Early in the morning of 11 April, she stopped off Cape Henry, Virginia, and took on a pilot. At 1012 that morning, she dropped anchor off Newport News, and ended her cruise, during which she steamed 37,666 mi (32,731 nmi; 60,618 km) and destroyed just under 56,000 long tons (57,000 t) of Allied shipping. She and her crew were interned, the ship was laid up at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth, and her crew lived in a camp nearby, as "guests". During their internment, the crews of these vessels—numbering about 1,000 officers and men—built in the yard—from scrap materials—a typical German village named "Eitel Wilhelm", which attracted many visitors.

The name Kronprinz Wilhelm was reclaimed by the German navy in 1918 when it renamed its battleship SMS Kronprinz as SMS Kronprinz Wilhelm. This ship was scuttled in June 1919 with the remainder of the High Seas Fleet at Scapa Flow.

   Rohilla was a steamship of the British India Steam Navigation Company which ran aground in 1914 while serving as HMHS Rohilla (His Majesty's Hospital Ship Rohilla). The steamship was named Rohilla in honour of Rohillas, Afghan highlanders (Roh means mountains and Rohilla literally means mountaineer or highlander) who entered India with Nadir Shah Durrani and were awarded territory in northern India later renamed Rohilkhand, in the modern Uttar Pradesh state. Rohilla (7,114 tons gross) was built in 1906 in Belfast by Harland & Wolff. It was called up at the outset of World War I and converted into a naval hospital ship.

   

HS Anglia

Anglia was built by Wm Denny & Brothers of Dumbarton, Scotland for the London and North Western Railway and was delivered in 1900. At first she was used on the Holyhead to Dublin North Wall service, then from 1908 on the Holyhead to Kingstown (later named Dún Laoghaire) service.

SS Anglia was a steam ship requisitioned for use as a hospital ship during the First World War and refitted as an auxiliary hospital ship the H.M.H.S. Anglia, under the command of Captain Lionel J. Manning. With a Medical Staff strength of 3 Officers, 4 Nurses and 28 Orderlies. He patient accommodation capacity was 6 Officers, 25 Cots and 244 Berths. Her period of Service as Hospital Ship or Ambulance Transport was from 25th April 1915 to 17th November 1915.

On November 17th 1915 the Anglia was returning to Dover from Calais, and was loaded with 390 injured officers and soldiers, and their doctors and nurses. In addition there were 56 crew - predominantly Anglesey men - on board. They could not know that the German submarine UC-5 had been laying mines in the English Channel. At around 12:30 pm, one mile east of Folkestone Gate, H.M.H.S. Anglia struck a mine, and quickly began to sink. The Royal Navy ship H.M.S. Hazard raced to her aid. It took the Anglia just 15 minutes to sink, and during that time many acts of bravery were witnessed. The total loss of life is not truly known, but estimates vary between 120 and 164 personnel - including 25 of her crew - who were either killed by the explosion, or by drowning. The tragedy had occurred only 12 days after her sister ship - H.M.S. Tara (renamed from the S.S. Hibernia) - had been sunk off Tripoli by a torpedo from a German U-boat. The people of Anglesey, and in particular the town of Holyhead, were distraught.

   

HS Dover Castle

SS Dover Castle was built by Barclay Curle & Company Glasgow, Yard No 443. Her propulsion was steam, with quadruple expansion engines, 969 nhp, 14.5 knots. She was launched on Thursday, 04/02/1904 as a Passenger/Cargo Vessel, Tonnage: 8271, Length 476.4ft, Breadth 56.7ft, Draught 31.9 ft. She was owned by the Union-Castle Mail Steamship Co Ltd, London and was Torpedoed & Sunk on the 26th of May 1917

The Dover Castle was converted to a hospital ship in WW1 and had a Medical Staff strength of 11 Officers, 9 Nurses and 60 other staff. Her accommodation capacity was 5 Officers, 286 Cots, 316 Berths. She served as a Hospital Ship from:11th August 1915 to 26th May 1917.

 Hospital ship  

HMHS Aquitania

RMS Aquitania was a Cunard Line ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by John Brown & Company in Clydebank, Scotland. She was launched on 21 April 1913 and sailed on her maiden voyage to New York on 30 May 1914. Aquitania was the third in Cunard Line's "grand trio" of express liners, preceded by the RMS Mauretania and RMS Lusitania, and was the last surviving four-funnelled ocean liner. Widely considered one of the most attractive ships of her time, Aquitania earned the nickname "Ship Beautiful".

In her 36 years of service, Aquitania survived military duty in both world wars and was returned to passenger service after each. Aquitania's record for the longest service career of any 20th-century express liner stood until 2004, when the Queen Elizabeth 2 (ultimate career service of 40 years) became the longest-serving liner.

Aquitania's maiden voyage was under the command of Captain William Turner on 30 May 1914. This event was overshadowed by the sinking of the RMS Empress of Ireland in Quebec the previous day with over a thousand drowned. The following month Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, and the world was plunged into World War I, interrupting Aquitania's civilian career. After only three round trips she was taken over for military use. At first "Aquitania" was converted into an armed merchant cruiser, for which provision had been made in her design. The Admiralty found that large liners were too profligate in their use of fuel to act as cruisers, so Aquitania did not serve long in that role. After being idle for a time, in the spring of 1915 the Cunarder was converted into a trooper, and made voyages to the Dardanelles, sometimes running alongside Britannic or Mauretania. Aquitania then was converted into a hospital ship, and acted in that role in during the Dardanelles campaign. In 1916, the year that White Star's third ship, Britannic, was sunk, Aquitania was returned to the trooping front, and then in 1917 was again laid up. In 1918, the ship was back on the high seas in troopship service, conveying North American troops to Britain. Many of these departures were from the port of Halifax, Nova Scotia where the ships spectacular dazzle paint scheme was captured by artists and photographers, including Antonio Jacobsen. On one occasion "Aquitania" transported over 8,000 men.

  • Hospital Ship or Ambulance Transport Service during WW1.
  • Medical Staff strength.
  • Officers:41
  • Nurses:102
  • Other:351
  • Accommodation capacity.
  • Officers:196
  • Cots:893
  • Berths:3093
  • Period of Service as Hospital Ship or Ambulance Transport.
  • Date From:4th September 1915
  • Date To:27th December 1917
  • Ships Crew details:

After the end of hostilities, in June 1919, "Aquitania" ran a Cunard "austerity service" between Southampton and New York. In December of that year Aquitania was docked at the Armstrong Whitworth yards in Newcastle to be refitted for post-war service. The ship was converted from coal burner to oil-fired, which greatly reduced the number of engine room crew required. The original fittings and art pieces, removed when refitted for military use, were brought out of storage and re-installed. At some point around this time during the ship's history, the wheelhouse was moved up one deck as the officers had complained about the visibility over the ships bow. The second wheelhouse can be seen in later pictures of the era and the old wheelhouse area below has had the windows plated in.

   

HMT Plassy

HM Troopship Plassy was built by Caird of Greenock for the P & O Steam Navigation Co., launched on 23rd November 1900 and delivered 9th January 1901. Her maiden voyage was 29th January 1901 from London to Shanghai. She was a 450 foot, 6,500 ton, steamship capable of carrying around 200 passengers.

Plassy operated mostly as a troop transport during the Boer War and then on the Indian Garrison rotation run. On 25th September 1906 she was seriously damaged in collision with the steamer Masterful while berthed at Southampton; she was repaired and returned to service.

During the First World War she was converted for use as a hospital ship and was present at the Battle of Jutland, taking on the wounded from the battle cruisers "Lion" and "Princess Royal". Decommissioned and scrapped at Genoa in 1924.

   

SS Gloucester Castle

SS Gloucester Castle was built in 1911 by Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering Co. at Glasgow with a tonnage of 7999grt, a length of 450ft 7in, a beam of 56ft 2in and a service speed of 13 knots. She was built for the Intermediate service. On 24th September, 1914 she was commissioned as a 410 bed hospital ship with 128 cots. She had a Medical Staff strength of 8 Officers, 10 Nurses and 41 other staff. Accommodation capacity was 40 Officers, 128 Cots and 242 Berths.

On 30th March 1917, although clearly identified as a hospital ship, she was torpedoed by UB-32 in the English Channel whilst on passage from Le Havre to Southampton. Fortunately, only 3 of the 399 passengers died during the transfer to rescuing trawlers but it took two weeks to tow the ship to safety for repair.

In April 1919 she resumed commercial operations on the Intermediate service and later on the Round Africa service. But her slow speed earned her the name 'Go Slowster Castle'.

In 1926 she was replaced by the Llandaff Castle and reverted to Intermediate status until 1939 when she was laid up at Netley in Southampton Water.



   6th (Service) Battalion, South Lancashire Regiment.

  • Formed at Warrington in August 1914 as part of K1 and moved to Tidworth, under command of 38th Brigade in 13th (Western) Division.
  • Moved to billets in Winchester in January 1915 before going next month to Blackdown.
  • Sailed from Avonmouth in June 1915. Landed at Cape Helles (Gallipoli) 7-31 July then moved to Mudros.
  • Landed at Anzac Beach 4 August 1915.
  • 20 December 1915 : evacuated from Gallipoli and went to Egypt via Mudros.
  • February 1916 : moved to Mesopotamia.

13th (Western) Division in 1916

  • The last Turkish attacks at Helles, 7 January 1916
  • On 8-9 January 1916, the Division was evacuated from Helles and by 31 January was concentrated at Port Said. The Division held forward posts in the Suez Canal defences.
  • 12 February 1916 : began to move to Mesopotamia, to strengthen the force being assembled for the relief of the besieged garrison at Kut al Amara.
  • By 27 March, the Division had assembled near Sheikh Sa'ad and came under orders of the Tigris Corps.
  • It then took part in the attempts to relieve Kut.
  • After these efforts failed and Kut fell, the British force in the theatre was built up and reorganised more successfully for 1917.


   1st Battalion, West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Wales's Own) was stationed at Whittington Barracks, Lichfield in August 1914 when war broke out, on the 7th August they moved to Dunfermline then six days later they transferred to Cambridge. They proceeded to France, landing at St Nazaire on the 10th of September 1914, with 18th Brigade in 6th Division to inforce the BEF on the Aisne. They remained on the Western Front throughout the conflict, seeing action the the Battle of the Somme, at Hill 70, on the Lys and the Hindeburg Line. After the Armistice, 6th Division were selected to join the occupation force and they moved into Germany in mid December, being based at Bruehl by Christmas 1918.

   6th (Service) Battalion, Yorkshire egiment (Green Howards) was a Kitchener Battalion, raised at Richmond on 25 August 1914. They joined 32nd Brigade, 11th (Northern) Division and underwent training at Belton Park near Grantham. In April 1915 the moved to Witley Camp near Godalming in Surrey. They embarked from Liverpool on the 3rd of July 1915 to Mudros. They saw action in the landings at Suvla bay, Gallipoli on the 6th and 7th of August 1915. In December 1915 the Division was evacuated from Gallipoli and sailed to Egypt via Imbros. They took over the Suez Defences in February. In June 1916 they received orders to move to France to reinforce the Divisions on The Somme. By the 7th of July Divisional HQ had been set up at Flesselles, and by the 27th the troops were in action on the front line.

In 1917 they saw action on the Ancre then moved to Flanders for the Battle of Messines and the Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they were in action in the Battles of Arras and on the 15th of May 1918 were reduced to cadre strength and attached to 66th (2nd East Lancashire) Division for ten days between the 19th and 29th June, before returning to England. They landed at Folkestone on the 30th of June and transferred to 75th Brigade, 25th Division, moving to Mytchett near Aldershot, then in July they moved to Margate. The Battalion absorbed 19th Bn during August and on the 9th of September 1918 the 75th Brigade was redesignated the 236th Brigade, for service in North Russia. They sailed from Dundee on the 17th of October and arrived at Murmansk on the 27th November 1918.

   1st Battalion, Royal Dublin Fusiliers were in Madras when war broke out in August 1914. They returned to Britain landing at Plymouth on the 21st of December 1914. They went into to billets in Torquay, moving in January 1915 to Nuneaton to join 86th Brigade, 29th Division. On the 16th of March 1915 they sailed from Avonmouth for Gallipoli, via Alexandria and Mudros. They landed at Cape Helles on the 25th of April 1915. After suffering heavy casualties and on the 30th of April they merged with the 1st Royal Dublin Fusiliers forming a unit nick named the 'Dubsters'. They resumed their own identity on the 19th of May 1915. They were evacuated from Gallipoli in the first week of January, returning to Egypt. On the 13th of March 1916 they sailed from Port Said for Marseilles, travelling by train to concentrate in the area east of Pont Remy by the end of March. In July they went into action in the Battles of the Somme. In 1917 they were in action in the The First, Second and Third Battle of the Scarpe during the Arras Offensive, then moved to Flanders and fought in the The Battle of Langemarck. On the 19th of October they transferred to 48th Brigade in 16th (Irish) Division. On the 10th of February 1918 they absorbed 200 men from the disbanding 8/9th Battalion. In 1918 they were in action on the Somme 1918 suffering very heavy casualties and on the 14th of April 1918 the battalion amalgamated with 2nd battalion. On the 26th of April 1918 the 1dt Dublin Fusiliers transferred to 86th Brigade, 29th Division. They were involved in The Action of Outtersteene Ridge, The capture of Ploegsteert and Hill 63 during the Advance in Flanders. At the Armistice the 29th Division was selected to march into Germany to occupy the Rhine bridgehead, they crossed the Belgian-German border at Malmedy on the 4th of December 1918. Demobilisation began in December.

   The 22nd (Service) Battalion (3rd County Pioneers) was formed at West Hartlepool on 1 October 1915 by the Durham Parliamentary Recruiting Committee and moved to Catterick on 9 March 1916.

  • 17 June 1916 : landed at Le Havre and then attached to 19th (Western) Division
  • 2 July 1916 : transferred to 8th Division and became Pioneer Battalion
  • 3 July 1918 : absorbed by 1/7th Bn.

       2/5th Battalion Royal Warwickshire Regiment was formed in Birmingham in October 1914 as a second line battalion and became part of 2nd Warwickshire Brigade, 2nd South Midland Division. August 1915 : redesignated as 182nd Brigade, 61st (2nd South Midland) Division. Landed in France on 21 May 1916. 20 February 1918 : disbanded in France.

       61st (2nd South Midland) Division. In February and early March 1916 the Division moved to Salisbury Plain. King George V inspected the Division at Bulford on 5 May 1916. The Division was warned in May that it would go on overseas service and entrainment began on the 21st. By 28 May the Division, less the Ammunition Column (which was still at Le Havre), had concentrated in the area of Merville - Gonnehem - Busnes - Thiennes. The Division then remained in France and Flanders and took part in the following engagements:

    1916 The Attack at Fromelles

    The first major action in which the Division was engaged turned out to be an unmitigated disaster. An attack was made on 19 July 1916 at Fromelles, a subsidiary action to the much larger battle taking place further south on the Somme. The Division suffered very heavy casualties for no significant gain and no enemy reserves were diverted from the Somme. Such was the damage to the Division and its reputation that it was not used again other than for holding trench lines until 1917.

    1917 The Operations on the Ancre

    The German Retreat to the Hindenburg Line The 61st was one of the Divisions employed in the cautious pursuit of the enemy, when the Germans carried out a deep withdrawal from the area of the Somme to formidable pre-prepared positions that the British called the Hindenburg Line, in March 1917. On 17 March, it captured Chaulnes and Bapaume.

    The Battle of Langemarck 916-18 August 1917)

    In late August and early September the Division was involved in the efforts to push the line forward at positions around Schuler Farm and Aisne Farm near Kerselaar.

    In late November 1917, the British Third Army made a highly successful attack, using massed tanks for the first time, near Cambrai. 61st Division was initially held in reserve and was still in the area when the enemy made a determined counterattack on 30 November. The Division was ordered up to reinforce the units under attack in the area of La Vacquerie and for some days was involved in a hard fight to stem the enemy attack.

       

    HMHS Valdivia

    H.M. Hospital Ship Valdivia was a French passenger ship, built 1911 by Chantiers & Ateliers de Provence, Port de Bouc for Societe Generale de Transports Maritimes a Vapeur, Marseilles. She was 7,137 gross tons, length 463ft x beam 54.4ft, two funnels, two masts, twin screw, speed 15½ knots and used on their South America service to Buenos Aires. She was loaned to the British Admiralty for use as a hospital ship, managed by Union-Castle Mail Steam Ship Company.

    Her Medical Staff strength was Officers:6, Nurses:12, Other:60. She had an a accommodation capacity of 24 Officers, 257 Cots and 270 Berths. Sh eserved as a Hospital Ship from:29th November 1914 to 22nd December 1919. In 1919 she was returned to her owners and in 1933 she was scrapped at Savona.

       1/5th Battalion, Kings Own Yorkshire Light Infantry.

    • August 1914 : in Doncaster. Part of 3rd West Riding Brigade, West Riding Division.
    • Moved on mobilisation to Doncaster and in November 1914 to Gainsborough.
    • Moved on to York in February 1915.
    • 12 April 1915 : landed at Boulogne.
    • 15 May 1915 : formation became 148th Brigade, 49th (West Riding) Division.
    • 2 February 1918 : transferred to 187th Brigade in 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division and absorbed 2/5th Bn. Renamed 5th Bn.

         25th (2nd Tyneside Irish) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers was a Pals Battalion, raised at Newcastle on the 9th of November 1914, by the Lord Mayor and City. In June 1915 the Battalion joined 103rd Brigade, 34th Division at Ripon and after further training they moved to Salisbury Plain in late August for final training. The proceeded to France in January 1916 where 34th Division concentrated at La Crosse, east of St Omer. They were in action during the Battles of the Somme, including the capture of Scots and Sausage Redoubts, The Battles of Bazentin Ridge and Pozieres Ridge. 103rd Brigade and the Divisional Pioneers also saw action in The Battle of Flers-Courcelette. In 1917 they fought in the The First and Second Battles of the Scarpe and the The Battle of Arleux during the Arras Offensive. In August they were involved in the fighting at Hargicourt and in October they took part in The Third Battles of Ypres at the Broenbeek. On the 3rd of February 1918 they transferred to 102nd Brigade, still with 34th Division. In 1918 they were in action in The Battle of St Quentin and then moved to Flanders seeing action in The Battle of Estaires, The Battle of Bailleul and The First Battle for Kemmel Ridge during the Battles of the Lys, suffering heavy losses. The 34th Division was then withdrawn from fighting and on the 21st of April they moved to the area west of Poperinge for reorganisation and was engaged in digging a new defensive line between Abeele and Watou. On the 13th of May the infantry units moved to the area around Lumbres and reduced to a cadre which was then employed in the training of newly arrived American troops. On the 17th of June 1918 they transferred to 116th Brigade, 39th Division and on the 29th July 1918 to 197th Brigade, in the reforming 66th Division. They returned to action in October in The Battle of Cambrai and The Pursuit to the Selle. They fought in The Battle of the Selle and on the 21st of October the Division was withdrawn for rest moving to the Serain area. On the 2nd of November they advanced through Le Cateau engaging in sharp fighting. On the 9th of November a number of units of the Division were selected to advance through Belgium to occupy the Rhone Bridgeheads and were placed under command of Bethell's Force. At the Armistice the advanced units of this Force were on the line of Pont de Republique through Grandrieu to Montbliart. They advanced into Germany and remained there until demobilised.

         6th (Service) Battalion Lincolnshire Regiment. Formed at Lincoln in August 1914 as part of K1 and came under command of 33rd Brigade in 11th (Northern) Division. Moved to Gallipoli in July 1915. Landed at Suvla Bay 7 August 1915. Went to Egypt in January 1916 and thence to France in July 1916.

         The 6th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry was a territorial battalion based at Bishop Auckland serving with DLI Brigade, Northumbrian Division. They had just departed for their annual summer camp when war broke out and they were at once recalled their home base.

      The 50th division was mobilised for war service on the 5th of August 1914 and took up their allotted positions on the Tyne defences with the 6th DLI being based at Bolden Colliery, then went on Ravensworth Park near Newcastle by October. They proceeded to France on the 17th of April 1915, landing at Boulogne, the division concentrating in the area of Steenvoorde just as the German army attacked Ypres, using poison gas for the first time.

      The 50th Division were rushed into the battle. On the 14th of May the formation was renamed 151st Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. They saw action in The Battle of St Julien, The Battle of Frezenburg Ridge and The Battle of Bellewaarde Ridge. On the 3rd of June after suffering heavy casualties, the 1/6th and 1/8th Battalions merged to form 6/8th Battalion and on the 15th of July the battalion was reduced to cadre strength and transferred to the Lines of Communication.

      They resumed their own identities on the 11th of August after recieving reinforcements and on the 16th the 6th DLI joined 117th Brigade 39th Division. They were in action during the Battles of the Somme, including, the fighting on the Ancre, The Battle of Thiepval Ridge, The Battle of the Ancre heights and the capture of Schwaben Reddoubt and Stuff Trench as well as The Battle of the Ancre.

      In 1917 they fought in The Battle of Pilkem Ridge, The Battle of Langemarck, The Battle of the Menin Road Ridge, The Battle of Polygon Wood and The Second Battle of Passchendaele. In 1918 they were in action at The Battle of St Quentin, The actions at the Somme crossings, The Battle of Bapaume and The Battle of Rosieres before moving to Flanders. They took part in The fighting on Wytschaete Ridge, The First and Second Battle of Kemmel and The Battle of the Scherpenberg.

      The Division had suffered heavy losses and they were reduced to a cadre by the 1st of June 1918 and took on a role supervising courses of instruction for newly arrived American troops, beginning with units of the 77th American Division at Wolphus. They moved to Varengeville on the 15th of August. By the Armistice the order had already been given to disband the training cadres and the 6th DLI were disbanded in France on the 6th of November 1918.

         Northern Cyclist Battalion 1/1st Battalion: Headquartered at the Drill Hall on Hutton Terrace, Sandyford Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, the battalion moved on mobilisation in early August 1914 to its pre-planned war station at Morpeth. By 1916 it had moved to nearby Alnwick where it remained as part of the Tyne Garrison. 2/1st Battalion: Formed in late 1914 as a second line unit. By 1916 was at Skegness and in June 1918 was at Burton Constable as part of the Humber Garrison. 3/1st Battalion: Formed in 1915 as a depot/training unit. Disbanded in March 1916 and its men posted to the 1/1st and 2/1st, with some going to the Machine Gun Corps.

         The Tank Corps was formed from the Heavy Branch MGC on 27 July 1917 and the Battalions adopted numbering rather than letter designations (although tank names followed the same lettering: for example, 7th Battalion tanks were all named with a letter G, like Grouse, Grumble, etc.) Each Tank Battalion had a complement of 32 officers and 374 men. Originally formed as Companies of the Heavy Section MGC, designated A, B, C and D, each Company consisted of 4 Sections of 3 tanks of each type (male and female Mk 1's). Companies also had another machine in reserve. In November 1916 the Companies were expanded to Battalions, carrying the same letter designations. A Battalion consisted of 3 Companies. Three mobile workshops provided the engineering back-up to service the tanks. An expansion programme was ordered by GHQ, to build a force of 14 additional Battalions.

          21st (2nd Tyneside Scottish) Battalion, Royal Northumberland Fusiliers was raised on the 26th of October 1914 in Newcastle mainly from men of Scottish decent from the North East. Initially training in Newcastle City centre the 2nd Tyneside Scottish moved to Alnwick camp, in the grounds of Alnwick castle on the 29th of January 1915. They joined 102nd Brigade, 34th Division at Ripon in June 1915. In late August they moved to Salisbury Plain to begin final training. They proceeded to France in January 1916 and concentrated at La Crosse, east of St Omer. They were in action during the Battles of the Somme, including the capture of Scots and Sausage Redoubts, attacking just north of the village of La Boisselle, not far from Albert. At 7.28 am on 1st July 1916 two great mines were detonated beneath the German positions, one to the north of the village and one to the south. At 7.30 am the whistles sounded and the attack began. The 2nd Tyneside Scottish had 500 yards to cover, under heavy machine gun fire, before reaching the German lines, and many men of the battalion lost thier lives. In 1917 they fought in the The First and Second Battles of the Scarpe and the The Battle of Arleux during the Arras Offensive. In August they were involved in the fighting at Hargicourt and in October they took part in The Third Battles of Ypres at the Broenbeek. In 1918 they were in action in The Battle of St Quentin and then moved to Flanders seeing action in The Battle of Estaires, The Battle of Bailleul and The First Battle for Kemmel Ridge during the Battles of the Lys, suffering heavy losses. The 34th Division was then withdrawn from fighting and on the 21st of April they moved to the area west of Poperinge for reorganisation and was engaged in digging a new defensive line between Abeele and Watou. On the 13th of May the infantry units moved to the area around Lumbres and reduced to a cadre which was then employed in the training of newly arrived American troops. By the 1st of July 1918 34th Division had been reconstituted and returned to action, at The Battles of the Soissonais, the Ourcq and the capture of Baigneux Ridge. They took part in the Final Advance in Flanders and at the Armistice was at rest in the area east of Courtrai. 34th Division was selected to join the Army of Occupation and began to move towards Germany on the 14th of November. On the 22nd of December a large number men with industrial and mining skills were demobilised. By the end of January 1919 the Division was occupying the Cologne bridgehead.

         9th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, was raised at Newcastle in September 1914 as a Kitchener Battalion. After training they proceeded to France in July 1915 with 52nd Brigade, 17th (Northern) Division, their first role being to hold front lines in the southern area of the Ypres salient. In 1916 they were involved in fighting at The Bluff in spring and moved south in early summer seeing action at the Battle of Albert and Delville Wood on The Somme. In 1917 they took part in the the Arras Offensive then in August 1917 transferred to 103rd Brigade, 34th Division, seeing action at Broenbeek in The Third Battles of Ypres in October. Having absorbed the 2/1st Northumberland Yeomanry and became the 9th (Northumberland Hussars Yeomanry) Bn. in September. In 1918 they saw action on The Somme and suffereed hevy losses in The Battles of the Lys. The division was reorganised and on the 26th of May they transferred to 183rd Brigade, 61st (2nd South Midland) Division, for the Final Advance in Picardy.

         18th (1st Tyneside Pioneers) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers was raised at Newcastle on the 14th October 1914, by the Lord Mayor and City. They converted to a Pioneer Battalion on the 8th of February 1915 and joined 34th Division in June. After further training at Ripon and Salisbury Plain, they proceeded to France, landing at Le Havre on the 8th of January 1916. They saw action in The Battle of the Somme in 1916, in the Arras Offensive and the Third Battle of Ypres in 1917.

      In June 1918 they joined 39th Division in an infrantry role following heavy losses in the 39th during the Battle of the Lys. The Division was then engaged in training the troops of the 77th American Division. In July the 1st Tyneside Pioneers resumed thier original role when they transferred to 66th Division for operations on the Flanders Coast and the Third Battle of Ypres, in 1918 they again saw action on The Somme.

         13th (Service) Battalion, Royal Scots was raised at Edinburgh September 1914, as part of Kitchener's First New Army. They moved to Aldershot and joined 45th Brigade, 15th (Scottish) Division. In November they went to billets in Bramshott for the winter, moving to Basingstoke in February 1915 and then to Chisledon for final training in March. They proceeded to France in the second week of July 1915. They were in action in the The Battle of Loos in 1915. In spring 1916, they were involved in the German gas attacks near Hulluch and the defence of the Kink position. They were in action duringthe Battles of the Somme, including The Battle of Pozieres, The Battle of Flers-Courcelette and the capture of Martinpuich, The Battle of Le Transloy and the attacks on the Butte de Warlencourt. In 1917 they were in action in The First and Second Battle of the Scarpe, including the capture of Guemappe during the Arras Offensive. They then moved north to Flanders and were in action during the The Battle of Pilckem and The Battle of Langemark. In 1918 they fought in The First Battle of Bapaume, The First Battle of Arras, The Battle of the Soissonnais and the Ourcq taking part in the attack on Buzancy, and The Final Advance in Artois.

         

      The 7th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry were a unit of the Territorial Force. HQ, A, B, C, D, E and F Companies were all based at the Drill Hall, Livinstone Rd, Sunderland with G and H Companies based in Stanhope Rd, South Shields.

      They were part of the DLI Brigade, Northumbrian Division. When war broke out in August 1914, they had just departed for their annual summer camp and were recalled immediately their home base. They were at once mobilsed and moved to the coastal defences by mid August, then to Ravensworth Park for training and by October were at Newcastle undertaking final training.

      They proceeded to France on the 17th of April 1915, landing at Boulogne and concentrating in the area of Steenvoorde, just as the German army attacked Ypres, using poison gas for the first time. The 50th Division were rushed into the battle.

      On the 14th of May 1915 the DLI Brigade was redesignated 151st Brigade, 50th (Northumbrian) Division. They saw action in The Battle of St Julien, The Battle of Frezenburg Ridge and The Battle of Bellewaarde Ridge.

      On the 16th of November 1915 the 7th Durhams left 151st Brigade and converted into a Pioneer Battalion for 50th (Northumbrain) Division. In 1916 They fought on the Somme at The Battle of Flers-Courcelette, The Battle of Morval and The Battle of the Transloy Ridges. In 1917 they were in action at Arras during The First Battle of the Scarpe, The Capture of Wancourt Ridge and The Second Battle of the Scarpe before moving north for the Third Battle of Ypres.

      In 1918 they fought on the Somme, in the Battles of the Lys and The Battle of the Aisne, leaving the troops exhausted. On the 20th of June 1918 they transferred to 8th Division and on the 3rd of July absorbed the 22nd Durhams taking their place as Pioneer Battalion of the 8th Division and were in action in The Final Advance in Artois including the capture of Douai.

         SS Hazelwood was built by Ropner & Son, Stockton in 1914 and owned at the time of her loss by Gascony SS Co Ltd (L Watford Ltd) was British Steamer of 3120 tons. On 19th October 1917, Hazelwood on a voyage from the Tyne with a cargo of coal was sunk by a mine from a German submarine UC-62 (Max Schmitz) 8 miles SxE1/2E from Anvil Point. 32 persons were lost.

         SM U-17

      Type U 17 Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 11) Ordered 6 May 1910 Laid down 1 Oct 1910 Launched 16 Apr 1912 Commissioned 3 Nov 1912.
      Commanders.
      1 Aug 1914 - 7 Mar 1915 Oblt. Johannes Feldkirchner.
      2 Mar 1915 - 9 Jan 1916 Hans Walther

      Career 4 patrols start date unknown - 10 Jan 1916 Baltic Flotilla 1 Aug 1914 - end date unknown II Flotilla 10 Jan 1916 - 11 Nov 1918 training Flotilla

      Successes 11 ships sunk with a total of 15,122 tons. 2 ships taken as prize with a total of 4,956 tons.

      • 20 Oct 1914 U 17 Johannes Feldkirchner Glitra 866 British
      • 12 Jun 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Cocos 85 Danish
      • 12 Jun 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Desabla 6,047 British
      • 18 Jun 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Ailsa 876 British
      • 8 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Glenravel 1,092 British
      • 8 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Malmland 3,676 Swedish
      • 10 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Utopia 155 British
      • 14 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Gloria 130 British
      • 15 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Götaland (p.) 3,538 Swedish
      • 15 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Marie 158 Danish
      • 16 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Romulus 819 Norway
      • 16 Aug 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Tello 1,218 Norway
      • 24 Oct 1915 U 17 Hans Walther Rumina (p.) 1,418 Swedish

      Fate 27 Jan 1919 - Stricken, broken up at the Imperial Dockyard, Kiel. Pressure hull sold to Stinnes, Hamburg on 3 Feb, 1920. .

      On 20 October, 1914 this boat was the first to sink a merchant vessel. This was the British steamer SS Glitra, which was sunk in strict accordance with prize rules.

         SM U-22 was a Type U 19 submarine built at the Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, in Danzig (Werk 16). She was Ordered on 25th Nov 1910, laid down on 14th of Nov 1911, launched on 6th Mar 1913 and commissioned 25th Nov 1913.
      Commanders:
      25 Nov 1913 - 22 Aug 1916 Bruno Hoppe.
      23 Aug 1916 - 31 May 1917 Oblt. Karl Scherb.
      1 Jun 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen

      She had a career of 14 patrols.
      1 Aug 1914 - 23 Aug 1916 III Flotilla.
      23 Aug 1916 - 16 Mar 1917 Baltic Flotilla.
      16 Mar 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 III Flotilla

      43 ships were sunk with a total of 46,570 tons, 3 ships were damaged with a total of 9,044 tons. 1 ship taken as prize with a total of 1,170 tons.

      • 21 Jan 1915 U 22 Misidentified and torpedoed the U7 off Dutch coast 24 dead and 1 survivor.
      • 21 Apr 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Ruth 867 sw
      • 22 Apr 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe St. Lawrence 196 br
      • 15 Jun 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Strathnairn 4,336 br
      • 16 Jun 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Trafford 215 br
      • 16 Jun 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Turnwell (damaged) 4,264 br
      • 20 Jun 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Premier 169 br
      • 8 Aug 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe India 7,940 br
      • 12 Aug 1915 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Grodno 1,955 br
      • 6 Apr 1916 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Vennacher (damaged) 4,700 br
      • 8 Apr 1916 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Adamton 2,304 br
      • 13 Apr 1916 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Chic 3,037 br
      • 21 Jun 1916 U 22 Bruno Hoppe Francoise D’amboise 1,973 fr
      • 2 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Vanadis 384 ru
      • 2 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Runhild (prize) 1,170 sw
      • 3 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Ägir 427 sw
      • 3 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Frans 134 sw
      • 3 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Jönköping 82 sw
      • 8 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Taimi 134 ru
      • 11 Nov 1916 U 22 Karl Scherb Astrid 191 sw
      • 7 Aug 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Jarl 1,643 sw
      • 11 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Elve 899 br
      • 16 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Jennie E. Righter 647 am
      • 17 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen California 5,629 br
      • 19 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Australdale 4,379 au
      • 19 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Staro 1,805 nw
      • 20 Oct 1917 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Snetinden 2,859 nw
      • 6 Jan 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Saint Mathieu 175 fr
      • 2 Mar 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Stina 1,136 sw
      • 11 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Michael 150 ru
      • 12 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Kong Raud 60 nw
      • 12 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Tennes 58 nw
      • 12 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Vea 40 nw
      • 14 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Stairs 54 nw
      • 16 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Polarstrommen 54 nw
      • 16 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Fedor Tschishoff 832 ru
      • 16 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Ukn fishing vessel 80 ru
      • 19 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Forsok 31 nw
      • 20 May 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Hertha 253 ru
      • 19 Aug 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Buoni Amici 265 it
      • 20 Aug 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Magalhaes Lima 196 pt
      • 22 Aug 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Maria Luiza 148 pt
      • 31 Aug 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Norte 254 pt
      • 1 Sep 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Libertador 185 pt
      • 4 Sep 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Santa Maria 48 pt
      • 4 Sep 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Villa Franca 46 pt
      • 4 Sep 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Unnamed Barge 300 pt
      • 4 Sep 1918 U 22 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen Ukn. sail. vsl (damaged) 80 pt
      U 22 surrendered on 1st of Dec 1918.

         SM U-23 was a Type U 23 built at Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 177). Ordered 18 Mar 1911, Laid down 21 Dec 1911, Launched 12 Apr 1912 and Commissioned 11 Sep 1913.
      Commanders.
      1 Aug 1914 - 25 Nov 1914 Erwin Weisbach.
      26 Nov 1914 - 17 Dec 1914 Hans Adam.
      18 Dec 1914 - 12 Jan 1915 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim.
      13 Jan 1915 - 20 Jul 1915 Oblt. Hans Schultheß

      Career 3 patrols.
      Start date unknown - 20 Jul 1915 III Flotilla.
      1 Aug 1914 - end date unknown IV Flotilla

      Successes 7 ships sunk with a total of 8,822 tons.

      • 13 Mar 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Invergyle 1,794 br
      • 15 Mar 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Fingal 1,562 br
      • 15 May 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Martha 1,182 da
      • 19 May 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Chrysolite 222 br
      • 19 May 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Crimond 173 br
      • 19 May 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Lucerne 154 br
      • 22 May 1915 U 23 Hans Schultheß Minerva 3,735 nw

      On the 20th of Jul 1915 U23 was Torpedoed by HM Sub C27 in connection with the decoy trawler Princess Louise at 58.55N, 00.14E. 24 dead and 10 survivors.

      There was another U 23 in World War Two.
      That boat was launched from its shipyard on 28 Aug 1936 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 24 Sep 1936.

         SM U-24 was a Type U 23, Built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 178) Ordered 18 Mar 1911, Laid down 5 Feb 1912, Launched 24 May 1913 and Commissioned 6 Dec 1913.
      Commanders.
      6 Dec 1913 - 3 Jun 1916 Rudolf Schneider.
      4 Jun 1916 - 10 Jul 1917 Walter Remy.
      11 Jul 1917 - 1 Aug 1917 Otto von Schubert

      Career 7 patrols.
      1 Aug 1914 - 11 Aug 1917 III Flotilla.
      24 Aug 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 training Flotilla

      Successes 34 ships sunk with a total of 106,122 tons.
      3 ships damaged with a total of 14,318 tons.
      1 ship taken as prize with a total of 1,925 tons.
      1 warship sunk with a total of 15,000 tons.

      • 26 Oct 1914 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Admiral Ganteaume (damaged)4,590 fr. The first to attack an unarmed merchant ship without warning. The SS Admiral Ganteaume was torpedoed but was able to be towed to port.
      • 1 Jan 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Formidable 15,000 br
      • 2 Apr 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Lochwood 2,042 br
      • 4 Apr 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider City Of Bremen 1,258 br
      • 10 Apr 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider The President 647 br
      • 11 Apr 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Frederic Franck (d.) 973 fr
      • 27 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Edith 97 br
      • 27 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Indrani 3,640 br
      • 27 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Lucena 243 br
      • 28 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Dumfriesshire 2,622 br
      • 28 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Armenian 8,825 br
      • 29 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Scottish Monarch 5,043 br
      • 30 Jun 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Thistlebank 2,411 nw
      • 1 Jul 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider L.C. Tower 518 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Sardomene 2,000 it
      • 1 Jul 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Welbury 3,591 br
      • 6 Jul 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Ellen 169 da
      • 7 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Geiranger 1,081 nw
      • 12 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Osprey 310 br
      • 13 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Cairo 1,671 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Arabic 15,801 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Dunsley 4,930 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider New York City 2,970 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider St. Olaf 277 br
      • 24 Aug 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Sinsen (prize) 1,925 nw
      • 25 Dec 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Van Stirum 3,284 br
      • 26 Dec 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Cottingham 513 br
      • 26 Dec 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Ministre Bernaert 4,215 be
      • 28 Dec 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider Huronian (damaged) 8,755 br
      • 28 Dec 1915 U 24 Rudolf Schneider El Zorro 5,989 br
      • 11 Jul 1916 U 24 Walter Remy Nellie Nutten 174 br
      • 30 Oct 1916 U 24 Walter Remy Nellie Bruce 192 br
      • 10 Dec 1916 U 24 Walter Remy Agder 305 nw
      • 21 Mar 1917 U 24 Walter Remy Stanley 3,987 br
      • 22 Mar 1917 U 24 Walter Remy Svendsholm 1,998 nw
      • 27 Mar 1917 U 24 Walter Remy Glenogle 7,682 br
      • 28 Mar 1917 U 24 Walter Remy Cannizaro 6,133 br
      • 18 Jun 1917 U 24 Walter Remy Elele 6,557 br
      • 18 Jun 1917 U 24 Walter Remy English Monarch 4,947 br

      Fate 22 Nov 1918 - Surrendered. Broken up at Swansea in 1922.

      There was another U 24 in World War Two.
      That boat was launched from its shipyard on 24 Sep 1936 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 10 Oct 1936.

         SM U-26 was a Type U 23 built at Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 180). Ordered 18 Mar 1911, Laid down 31 May 1912, Launched 16 Oct 1913 and Commissioned 20 May 1914.
      Commanders:
      1 Aug 1914 - 17 Dec 1914 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim.
      13 Jan 1915 - 30 Sep 1915 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim

      Career: 1 Aug 1914 - end date unknown IV Flotilla
      start date unknown - 30 Sep 1915 Baltic Flotilla.

      Successes 3 ships sunk with a total of 3,700 tons. 2 warships sunk with a total of 11,375 tons.

      • 11 Oct 1914 U 26 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim Pallada 7,775 ru
      • 23 Apr 1915 U 26 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim Fråck 849 ru
      • 4 Jun 1915 U 26 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim Yenisei 3,600 ru
      • 25 Aug 1915 U 26 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim Petshora 1,982 ru
      • 30 Aug 1915 U 26 Egewolf Freiherr von Berckheim Zemlya 869 ru

      On 4th od September 1915, she spotted a Russian transport ship north west of the island of Worms. The U-26 torpedoed the Russian ship, and then disappeared. It is believed she was the victim of a mine, laid near the larger island of Dago in The Gulf of Finland. 30 dead (all hands lost).

      There was another U 26 in World War Two.
      That boat was launched from its shipyard on 14 Mar 1936 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 6 May 1936.

         SM U-34 was a Type U 31 uboat built at Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 194) Ordered 29 Mar 1912, laid down 7 Nov 1912 she was launched 9 May 1914 and commissioned 5 Oct 1914.
      Her Commanders were: 5 Oct 1914 - 11 Dec 1916 Claus Rücker, 12 Dec 1916 - 17 Jan 1918 Johannes Klasing, 18 Jan 1918 - 13 Mar 1918 Wilhelm Canaris and 14 Mar 1918 - 21 Oct 1918 Johannes Klasing

      U34 undertook 17 patrols sailing with II Flotilla until 23 Aug 1915 then Pola Flotilla until 21 Oct 1918 She claimed 119 ships sunk with a total of 257,652 tons. and 5 ships damaged with a total of 14,208 tons.

      • 18 Mar 1915 Blue Jacket (damaged) 3,515 br
      • 18 Mar 1915 Glenartney 5,201 br
      • 21 Mar 1915 Cairntorr 3,588 br
      • 22 Mar 1915 Concord 2,861 br
      • 1 Jun 1915 Victoria 155 br
      • 2 Jun 1915 Delta B 220 be
      • 2 Jun 1915 Hirose 274 br
      • 3 Jun 1915 Penfeld 793 fr
      • 4 Jun 1915 Inkum 4,747 br
      • 7 Jun 1915 Superb 1,515 nw
      • 4 Sep 1915 Natal Transport 4,107 br
      • 8 Sep 1915 Indien 800 fr
      • 10 Nov 1915 Bosnia 2,561 it
      • 14 Nov 1915 Treneglos 3,886 br
      • 15 Nov 1915 Orange Prince 3,583 br
      • 19 Nov 1915 Hallamshire 4,420 br
      • 24 Dec 1915 Ville De La Ciotat 6,431 fr
      • 24 Dec 1915 Yeddo 4,563 br
      • 29 Dec 1915 Kenkoku Maru 3,217 jp
      • 30 Dec 1915 Abelia 3,650 br
      • 1 Jan 1916 Glengyle 9,395 br
      • 4 Jan 1916 Coquet 4,396 br
      • 3 Apr 1916 Ellaston 3,796 br
      • 3 Apr 1916 Sneaton 3,470 br
      • 5 Apr 1916 Chantala 4,951 br
      • 6 Apr 1916 Yonne 4,039 br
      • 8 Apr 1916 Zafra 3,578 br
      • 11 Apr 1916 Angus 3,619 br
      • 11 Apr 1916 Imperator (damaged) 394 ru
      • 12 Apr 1916 Orlock Head 1,945 br
      • 12 Apr 1916 Vega 2,957 fr
      • 15 May 1916 Mira 3,050 fr
      • 16 May 1916 San Andrea 225 it
      • 18 May 1916 Adamantios Korais 2,947 gr
      • 20 May 1916 Erminia 1,544 it
      • 20 May 1916 Fabbricotti F. 150 it
      • 20 May 1916 Languedoc 1,612 fr
      • 21 May 1916 Myosotis 356 fr
      • 21 May 1916 Tjømø 1,453 nw
      • 22 May 1916 Australia 1,586 it
      • 22 May 1916 Genista 1,856 it
      • 22 May 1916 Istros 1,891 gr
      • 22 May 1916 Orealla 1,876 it
      • 22 May 1916 Roberto G 587 it
      • 23 May 1916 Cornigliano 2,862 it
      • 23 May 1916 Regina 593 ru
      • 30 May 1916 Julia Park 2,900 br
      • 21 Aug 1916 Maria 242 it
      • 22 Aug 1916 San Pietro 53 it
      • 24 Aug 1916 Alix 141 it
      • 24 Aug 1916 Angelina 153 it
      • 25 Aug 1916 Socoa 2,772 fr
      • 27 Aug 1916 Torridon 1,526 it
      • 28 Aug 1916 Gorgona 861 it
      • 29 Aug 1916 Fede 1,273 it
      • 31 Aug 1916 Santa Maria 947 it
      • 31 Aug 1916 Nostra Signora Assunta 1,256 it
      • 31 Aug 1916 Quinto 836 it
      • 1 Sep 1916 Baron Yarborough 1,784 br
      • 1 Sep 1916 Giuseppe 180 it
      • 4 Sep 1916 Pasquale Lauro 1,188 it
      • 4 Sep 1916 Silverstream 1,224 it
      • 7 Sep 1916 Luigia 917 it
      • 8 Sep 1916 Elizabeth Iv 7,395 nw
      • 10 Sep 1916 Elli 631 gr
      • 10 Sep 1916 Spiridon 562 gr
      • 12 Sep 1916 Panaghia Akathistou 421 gr
      • 26 Oct 1916 Valborg 207 da
      • 28 Oct 1916 Germaine 2,573 gr
      • 29 Oct 1916 Marie Therese 219 fr
      • 2 Nov 1916 Giovanni Anteri Beretta 332 it
      • 4 Nov 1916 Mogador 1,364 fr
      • 8 Nov 1916 Luigi Pastro 3,228 it
      • 8 Nov 1916 Sheldrake 2,697 br
      • 19 Mar 1917 Angiolina (damaged) 3,541 it
      • 20 Mar 1917 Paul Et Marie 321 fr
      • 23 Mar 1917 Artemis 528 gr
      • 23 Mar 1917 Bellatrix 2,568 nw
      • 23 Mar 1917 Noli 1,569 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Antonietta R. 84 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Carlo T 134 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Giuseppina 223 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Giuseppina Rosa 132 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 La Maria 43 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Pietro Lofaro 291 it
      • 28 Mar 1917 Raffaele 53 it
      • 4 May 1917 Francesco C. 984 it
      • 9 May 1917 Harpagus 5,866 br
      • 10 May 1917 Carmen 319 sp
      • 11 May 1917 Lefkosia 1,087 gr
      • 11 May 1917 Medjerda 1,918 fr
      • 12 May 1917 Zanoni 3,851 br
      • 14 May 1917 Gravelinoise 129 fr
      • 14 May 1917 Tejo 201 pt
      • 15 May 1917 Tung Shan 3,999 br
      • 16 May 1917 Dorothy Duff 186 br
      • 16 May 1917 Patricio (damaged) 2,164 sp
      • 17 May 1917 Alfonso 230 it
      • 19 May 1917 Mardinian 3,322 br
      • 20 May 1917 Caspian 3,606 br
      • 21 May 1917 Saint Michel 175 fr
      • 28 Jun 1917 Minerve 723 fr
      • 30 Jun 1917 Mont Viso 4,820 fr
      • 3 Jul 1917 Marthe Roux 1,962 fr
      • 4 Jul 1917 Fratelli Bianchi 3,542 it
      • 7 Jul 1917 Wilberforce 3,074 br
      • 12 Jul 1917 Ondine 84 fr
      • 2 Dec 1917 Berwick Law 4,680 br
      • 2 Dec 1917 Minas 2,506 gr
      • 6 Dec 1917 Ilvington Court 4,217 br
      • 12 Dec 1917 Emanuele C. 284 it
      • 28 Jan 1918 Djibouti 4,305 fr
      • 30 Jan 1918 Maizar 7,293 br
      • 6 Feb 1918 Ville De Verdun 4,576 fr
      • 12 Apr 1918 Autolycus 5,806 br
      • 12 Apr 1918 Moyune 4,935 br
      • 19 Apr 1918 Elka 2,128 gr
      • 19 Apr 1918 Lord Charlemont 3,209 br
      • 22 Apr 1918 Dronning Maud 2,663 br
      • 28 Aug 1918 Emilia G. 246 it
      • 28 Aug 1918 Johanne 234 da
      • 4 Sep 1918 Richard 175 nw
      • 9 Sep 1918 Policastra (damaged) 4,594 br
      • 9 Sep 1918 War Arabis 5,183 br

      U34 Sailed on 18th of October 1918 and was never heard from again. 38 dead (all hands lost). It has been reported that U34 was depth charged by HMS Privet on 9th of November 1918 near Gibraltar. But U 34 was in all likelihood lost well before this date.

         SM U-35 was a Type U 31 u-boat built by Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 195). Ordered 29 Mar 1912, the hull was laid down 20 Dec 1912 , launched 18 Apr 1914 and Commissioned 3 Nov 1914.
      Her Commanders were, from 3 Nov 1914 to 12 Nov 1915 Waldemar Kophamel. From 13 Nov 1915 to 16 Mar 1918 Lothar von Arnauld de la Perière. From 17 Mar 1918 to 13 Aug 1918 Ernst von Voigt and from 14 Oct 1918 until 11 Nov 1918 Heino von Heimburg.

      U-35b had a career of 17 patrols, sailing until 1st of Aug 1915 with II Flotilla then from 23 Aug 1915 with Pola Flotilla until the end of the war She claimed 223 ships sunk with a total of 535,700 tons. 9 ships damaged with a total of 36,439 tons. 3 ships sunk with a total of 2,798 tons and 1 warship damaged with a total of 450 tons.

      • 9 Mar 1915 Blackwood 1,230 br
      • 9 Mar 1915 Gris Nez 208 fr
      • 15 Mar 1915 Hyndford (damaged) 4,286 br
      • 30 Apr 1915 Laila 748 nw
      • 2 Jun 1915 Cubano 4,352 nw
      • 4 Jun 1915 George & Mary 100 br
      • 6 Jun 1915 Sunlight 1,433 br
      • 7 Jun 1915 Trudvang 1,041 nw
      • 8 Jun 1915 Express 115 br
      • 8 Jun 1915 La Liberte 302 fr
      • 8 Jun 1915 Strathcarron 4,347 br
      • 8 Jun 1915 Susannah 115 br
      • 10 Jun 1915 Thomasina 1,869 ru
      • 12 Jun 1915 Bellglade 664 nw
      • 12 Jun 1915 Crown Of India 2,034 br
      • 13 Jun 1915 Diamant 324 fr
      • 13 Jun 1915 Hopemount 3,300 br
      • 13 Jun 1915 Pelham 3,534 br
      • 10 Aug 1915 Baltzer (damaged) 343 ru
      • 10 Aug 1915 Francois 2,212 fr
      • 10 Aug 1915 Morna 1,512 nw
      • 17 Sep 1915 Ravitailleur 2,815 fr
      • 19 Sep 1915 Ramazan 3,477 br
      • 20 Sep 1915 Linkmoor 4,306 br
      • 18 Oct 1915 Scilla 1,220 it
      • 23 Oct 1915 Marquette 7,057 br
      • 3 Nov 1915 Woolwich 2,936 br
      • 5 Nov 1915 Tara 1,862 br
      • 5 Nov 1915 Abbas 298 ag
      • 5 Nov 1915 Nour-el-bahr (damaged) 450 ag
      • 6 Nov 1915 Caria 3,032 br
      • 6 Nov 1915 Clan Macalister 4,835 br
      • 6 Nov 1915 Lumina 6,218 br
      • 7 Nov 1915 Moorina 4,994 br
      • 8 Nov 1915 Den Of Crombie 4,949 br
      • 8 Nov 1915 Sir Richard Awdry 2,234 br
      • 8 Nov 1915 Wacousta 3,521 nw
      • 9 Nov 1915 Californian 6,223 br
      • 17 Jan 1916 Sutherland 3,542 br
      • 18 Jan 1916 Marere 6,443 br
      • 20 Jan 1916 Trematon 4,198 br
      • 26 Feb 1916 La Provence 13,753 fr
      • 27 Feb 1916 Giava 2,755 it
      • 28 Feb 1916 Masunda 4,952 br
      • 29 Feb 1916 Primula 1,250 br
      • 23 Mar 1916 Minneapolis 13,543 br
      • 13 Jun 1916 Maria C. 77 it
      • 13 Jun 1916 Motia 500 it
      • 13 Jun 1916 San Francesco di Paola 43 it
      • 14 Jun 1916 Antonia V 132 it
      • 14 Jun 1916 Giosue 20 it
      • 14 Jun 1916 San Francesco 28 it
      • 14 Jun 1916 Tavolara 701 it
      • 15 Jun 1916 Adelia 170 it
      • 15 Jun 1916 Anette 112 it
      • 15 Jun 1916 Audace 144 it
      • 15 Jun 1916 S. Maria 515 it
      • 15 Jun 1916 Sardinia 1,119 br
      • 16 Jun 1916 Dolmetta M 48 it
      • 16 Jun 1916 Era 1,078 it
      • 16 Jun 1916 Eufrasia 71 it
      • 16 Jun 1916 Gafsa 3,922 br
      • 16 Jun 1916 Rondine 112 it
      • 17 Jun 1916 Poviga 3,360 it
      • 18 Jun 1916 Aquila 2,191 nw
      • 18 Jun 1916 Beachy 4,718 br
      • 18 Jun 1916 Olga 2,964 fr
      • 18 Jun 1916 Rona 1,312 br
      • 19 Jun 1916 France Et Russie 329 fr
      • 19 Jun 1916 Mario C. 398 it
      • 23 Jun 1916 Giuseppina 1,872 it
      • 23 Jun 1916 Herault 2,299 fr
      • 24 Jun 1916 Canford Chine 2,398 br
      • 24 Jun 1916 Checchina 184 fr
      • 24 Jun 1916 Daiyetsu Maru 3,184 jp
      • 24 Jun 1916 San Francesco 1,060 it
      • 24 Jun 1916 Saturnina Fanny 1,568 it
      • 25 Jun 1916 Clara 5,503 it
      • 25 Jun 1916 Fournel 2,047 fr
      • 27 Jun 1916 Mongibello 4,059 it
      • 27 Jun 1916 Pino 1,677 it
      • 27 Jun 1916 Roma 2,491 it
      • 27 Jun 1916 Windermere 2,292 br
      • 29 Jun 1916 Carlo Alberto 312 it
      • 29 Jun 1916 Giuseppina 214 it
      • 29 Jun 1916 Teano 1,907 br
      • 28 Jul 1916 Dandolo 4,977 it
      • 30 Jul 1916 Britannic 3,487 br
      • 30 Jul 1916 Ethelbryhta 3,084 br
      • 30 Jul 1916 Giuseppe Marta 111 tu
      • 30 Jul 1916 Katholm 1,324 da
      • 31 Jul 1916 Citta Di Messina 2,464 it
      • 31 Jul 1916 Einar 135 nw
      • 31 Jul 1916 Emilio G. 166 it
      • 31 Jul 1916 Erling 122 nw
      • 31 Jul 1916 Generale Ameglio 222 it
      • 1 Aug 1916 Heighington 2,800 br
      • 2 Aug 1916 Eugenia 550 it
      • 2 Aug 1916 Neptune 151 fr
      • 3 Aug 1916 Tricoupis 2,387 gr
      • 4 Aug 1916 Favonian 3,049 br
      • 4 Aug 1916 Siena 4,372 it
      • 4 Aug 1916 Teti 2,868 it
      • 4 Aug 1916 Tottenham 3,106 br
      • 5 Aug 1916 Achilleus 843 gr
      • 5 Aug 1916 Mount Coniston 3,018 br
      • 7 Aug 1916 Newburn 3,554 br
      • 7 Aug 1916 Trident 3,129 br
      • 8 Aug 1916 Imperial 3,818 br
      • 8 Aug 1916 Speme 1,229 it
      • 9 Aug 1916 Antiope 2,973 br
      • 9 Aug 1916 Ganekogorta Mendi 3,061 sp
      • 9 Aug 1916 Sebastiano 3,995 it
      • 10 Aug 1916 Temmei Maru 3,360 jp
      • 11 Aug 1916 Pagasarri 3,287 sp
      • 12 Aug 1916 Gina 443 it
      • 12 Aug 1916 Nereus 3,980 it
      • 12 Aug 1916 Regina Pacis 2,228 it
      • 12 Aug 1916 Saint Gaetan 125 fr
      • 13 Aug 1916 Balmoral 2,542 it
      • 13 Aug 1916 Eurasia 1,898 it
      • 13 Aug 1916 Francesco Saverio D 214 it
      • 13 Aug 1916 Ivar 2,139 da
      • 14 Aug 1916 Emilia 319 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Francesca 161 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Henriette B. 176 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Ida 242 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Lavinia 243 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Louis B. 212 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Pausania 107 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 Rosario 188 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 San Francesco di Paolo 112 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 San Giovanni Battista 1,066 it
      • 14 Aug 1916 San Giuseppe Patriarca 62 it
      • 15 Aug 1916 Augusta 523 it
      • 15 Aug 1916 Candida Altieri 282 it
      • 15 Aug 1916 Vergine Di Pompei 146 it
      • 16 Aug 1916 Madre 665 it
      • 17 Aug 1916 Swedish Prince 3,712 br
      • 18 Aug 1916 Erix 923 it
      • 19 Sep 1916 Doride 1,250 it
      • 19 Sep 1916 Teresa C. 270 it
      • 22 Sep 1916 Garibaldi 1,374 it
      • 22 Sep 1916 Giovanni Zambelli 2,485 it
      • 23 Sep 1916 Charterhouse 3,021 br
      • 24 Sep 1916 Bronwen 4,250 br
      • 24 Sep 1916 Bufjord 2,284 nw
      • 24 Sep 1916 Nicolo 5,466 it
      • 25 Sep 1916 Benpark 3,842 it
      • 26 Sep 1916 Newby 2,168 br
      • 26 Sep 1916 Roddam 3,218 br
      • 26 Sep 1916 Stathe 2,623 br
      • 27 Sep 1916 Rallus 1,752 br
      • 27 Sep 1916 Secondo 3,912 br
      • 27 Sep 1916 Vindeggen 2,610 nw
      • 29 Sep 1916 Venus 3,976 it
      • 2 Oct 1916 Rigel 1,250 fr
      • 3 Oct 1916 Samos 1,186 gr
      • 4 Oct 1916 Birk 715 nw
      • 4 Oct 1916 Gallia 14,966 fr
      • 5 Oct 1916 Aurora 2,806 it
      • 5 Oct 1916 Vera 2,308 sw
      • 5 Jan 1917 Lesbian 2,555 br
      • 5 Jan 1917 Salvatore Padre 200 it
      • 6 Jan 1917 Hudworth 3,966 br
      • 7 Jan 1917 Mohacsfield 3,678 br
      • 8 Jan 1917 Andoni 3,188 br
      • 8 Jan 1917 Lynfield 3,023 br
      • 11 Feb 1917 Assunta 132 it
      • 12 Feb 1917 Lyman M. Law 1,300 am
      • 13 Feb 1917 Percy Roy 110 br
      • 14 Feb 1917 Mery 178 ru
      • 14 Feb 1917 Oceania 4,217 it
      • 15 Feb 1917 Buranda (damaged) 3,651 br
      • 16 Feb 1917 Oriana 3,132 it
      • 16 Feb 1917 Prudenza 3,307 it
      • 17 Feb 1917 Pier Accavan Ubert 112 it
      • 18 Feb 1917 Giuseppe 1,856 it
      • 18 Feb 1917 Guido T 324 it
      • 18 Feb 1917 Skogland 3,264 sw
      • 23 Feb 1917 Longhirst 3,053 br
      • 23 Feb 1917 Mont Viso (damaged) 4,820 fr
      • 24 Feb 1917 Dorothy 3,806 br
      • 24 Feb 1917 Prikonisos 3,537 gr
      • 3 Apr 1917 Ardgask 4,542 br
      • 4 Apr 1917 Marguerite 1,553 am
      • 4 Apr 1917 Parkgate 3,232 br
      • 7 Apr 1917 Maplewood 3,239 br
      • 11 Apr 1917 Miss Morris 156 br
      • 12 Apr 1917 India 2,933 gr
      • 13 Apr 1917 Giuseppe Accame 3,224 it
      • 13 Apr 1917 Odysseus 3,463 gr
      • 13 Apr 1917 Stromboli 5,466 it
      • 14 Apr 1917 Patagonier 3,832 br
      • 15 Apr 1917 Panaghi Drakatos 2,734 gr
      • 17 Apr 1917 Brisbane River 4,989 br
      • 17 Apr 1917 Corfu 3,695 br
      • 17 Apr 1917 Fernmoor 3,098 br
      • 18 Apr 1917 Trekieve 3,087 br
      • 19 Apr 1917 Sowwell 3,781 br
      • 20 Apr 1917 Leasowe Castle (damaged) 9,737 br
      • 20 Apr 1917 Lowdale 2,260 br
      • 20 Apr 1917 Nentmoor 3,535 br
      • 23 Apr 1917 Bandiera E Moro 2,086 it
      • 24 Apr 1917 Bien Aime Prof. Luigi 265 it
      • 24 Apr 1917 Nordsøen 1,055 da
      • 24 Apr 1917 Torvore 1,667 nw
      • 24 Apr 1917 Vilhelm Krag 3,715 nw
      • 27 Apr 1917 Triana (damaged) 748 sp
      • 13 Oct 1917 Alavi 3,627 br
      • 13 Oct 1917 Despina G. Michalinos 2,851 gr
      • 13 Oct 1917 Doris 3,979 it
      • 13 Oct 1917 Lilla 2,819 it
      • 15 Oct 1917 City Of Belfast (damaged) 1,055 br
      • 18 Oct 1917 Lorenzo 2,498 it
      • 19 Oct 1917 Ikoma Maru 3,048 jp
      • 25 Oct 1917 Fannie Prescott 404 am
      • 29 Oct 1917 Namur 6,694 br
      • 31 Oct 1917 Cambric 3,403 br
      • 2 Nov 1917 Maria di Porto Salvo 91 it
      • 2 Nov 1917 San Francesco di Paola G. 91 it
      • 11 Dec 1917 Persier 3,874 br
      • 20 Dec 1917 Fiscus 4,782 br
      • 20 Dec 1917 Waverley 3,853 br
      • 23 Dec 1917 Pietro 3,860 it
      • 24 Dec 1917 Turnbridge 2,874 br
      • 25 Dec 1917 Argo 3,071 br
      • 25 Dec 1917 Cliftondale 3,811 br
      • 25 Dec 1917 Nordpol 2,053 nw
      • 23 Feb 1918 Humberto 274 pt
      • 26 Feb 1918 Pytheas 2,690 nw
      • 27 Feb 1918 Kerman (damaged) 4,397 br
      • 27 Feb 1918 Marconi (damaged) 7,402 br
      • 6 Mar 1918 Daiten Maru 4,555 jp
      • 7 Mar 1918 Begona No.4 1,850 sp
      • 9 Mar 1918 Silverdale 3,835 br

      On the 26th of November 1918 U35 surrendered. she was broken up at Blyth in 1919-20.

      There was another U 35 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 24 Sep 1936 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 3 Nov 1936.

         SM U-36 was a Type U 31 built at Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 196). Ordered 29 Mar 1912, Laid down 2 Jan 1913, Launched 6 Jun 1914 and Commissioned 14 Nov 1914.
      Commanded from the 14 Nov 1914 to 24 Jul 1915 by Ernst Graeff, she had a career of 2 patrols sailing with II Flotilla. Successes claimed include 14 ships sunk with a total of 12,674 tons and 3 ships taken as prize with a total of 3,466 tons.

      • 8 May 1915 Lilian Drost 1,966 da
      • 10 May 1915 Björn (prize) 1,241 sw
      • 10 May 1915 Niobe (prize) 654 nl
      • 19 Jul 1915 Nordlyset 82 nw
      • 22 Jul 1915 King Athelstan 159 br
      • 22 Jul 1915 Rubonia 3,644 ru
      • 22 Jul 1915 Star Of Peace 180 br
      • 23 Jul 1915 Danae 1,505 fr
      • 23 Jul 1915 Fimreite 3,819 nw
      • 23 Jul 1915 Hermione 210 br
      • 23 Jul 1915 Honoria 207 br
      • 23 Jul 1915 Sutton 332 br
      • 24 Jul 1915 Anglia 107 br
      • 24 Jul 1915 Cassio 172 br
      • 24 Jul 1915 Pass Of Balmaha (prize) 1,571 am
      • 24 Jul 1915 Roslin 128 br
      • 24 Jul 1915 Strathmore 163 br

      On the 24th of Jul 1915 she was sunk by gunfire from Q-Ship Prince Charles commanded by Lieutenant Mark Wardlaw RN, off the Hebrides 5907N 0530W. The first U-boat to be sunk by a Q-Ship. There were 18 dead and an unknown number of survivors.

      There was another U 36 in World War Two.
      That boat was launched from its shipyard on 4 Nov 1936 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 16 Dec 1936.

         Hepburn, Cole and Ross were based in Bermondsey and were engaged in the manufacture of 1914 Pattern equipment for the British Army. It was similar to the 1908 webbed version, with the exception of the pouches which were similar to the pre-Boer War pattern, designed to hold two 50 round bandoliers.

         

         SM U-38 was a Type U 31 built in the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 198) Ordered 12 Jun 1912, Laid down 25 Feb 1913, Launched 9 Sep 1914 and Commissioned 15 Dec 1914.
      Commanders.
      5 Dec 1914 - 15 Sep 1917 Max Valentiner.
      16 Sep 1917 - 15 Nov 1917 Wilhelm Canaris.
      16 Nov 1917 - 18 Jan 1918 Oblt. Hans Heinrich Wurmbach.
      19 Jan 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Clemens Wickel

      Career 17 patrols.
      start date unknown - 11 Nov 1915 II Flotilla.
      11 Nov 1915 - 22 May 1916 Pola Flotilla.
      22 May 1916 - 7 Sep 1918 Constantinople Flotilla
      7 Sep 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Pola/Mittelmeer I Flotilla

      Successes 138 ships sunk with a total of 292,445 tons: 6 ships damaged with a total of 26,139 tons, 3 ships taken as prize with a total of 3,550 tons, 1 warship sunk with a total of 680 tons, 1 warship damaged with a total of 10,850 tons.

      • 18 Apr 1915 Brilliant (prize) 1,441 nw
      • 22 Apr 1915 Eva 312 nw
      • 22 Apr 1915 Oscar 766 nw
      • 24 Apr 1915 Nidaros (prize) 1,024 da
      • 27 Apr 1915 Torwald (prize) 1,085 sw
      • 30 Apr 1915 Elida 1,693 sw
      • 20 Jun 1915 Roxburgh (damaged) 10,850 br
      • 21 Jun 1915 Carisbrook 2,352 br
      • 22 Jun 1915 Leo 269 ru
      • 23 Jun 1915 Elizabeth 94 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Four 84 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Josephine 85 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Piscatorial 84 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Research 89 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Uffa 79 br
      • 23 Jun 1915 Ugiebrae 79 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Commander 149 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 J. M. S. 78 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Lebanon 111 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Monarda 87 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Primrose 91 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Quiet Waters 63 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Star Of Bethlehem 77 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Viceroy 150 br
      • 24 Jun 1915 Vine 110 br
      • 5 Aug 1915 Hans Emil 106 da
      • 5 Aug 1915 Vanadis 484 nw
      • 6 Aug 1915 Ocean Queen 185 br
      • 6 Aug 1915 Westminster 252 br
      • 9 Aug 1915 Thrush 264 br
      • 10 Aug 1915 Oakwood 4,279 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Bonny 2,702 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 George Baker 91 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Glenby 2,196 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Isidoro 2,044 sp
      • 17 Aug 1915 Kirkby 3,034 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Maggie 269 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Paros 3,596 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Repeat 107 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 The Queen 557 br
      • 17 Aug 1915 Thornfield 488 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 Baron Erskine 5,585 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 Restormel 2,118 br
      • 19 Aug 1915 Samara 3,172 br
      • 20 Aug 1915 Bittern 1,797 br
      • 20 Aug 1915 Carterswell 4,308 br
      • 20 Aug 1915 Daghestan 2,817 be
      • 20 Aug 1915 Martha Edmonds 182 br
      • 21 Aug 1915 Cober 3,060 br
      • 21 Aug 1915 Ruel 4,029 br
      • 21 Aug 1915 San Melito (damaged) 10,160 br
      • 21 Aug 1915 Windsor 6,055 br
      • 22 Aug 1915 Diomed 4,672 br
      • 22 Aug 1915 Palmgrove 3,100 br
      • 23 Aug 1915 Silvia 5,268 br
      • 23 Aug 1915 Trafalgar 4,572 br
      • 3 Nov 1915 Woodfield 3,584 br
      • 3 Nov 1915 Yasukuni Maru 5,118 jp
      • 4 Nov 1915 Dahra 2,127 fr
      • 4 Nov 1915 Ionia 1,816 it
      • 4 Nov 1915 Le Calvados 1,658 fr
      • 4 Nov 1915 Mercian (damaged) 6,305 br
      • 5 Nov 1915 Buresk 3,673 br
      • 5 Nov 1915 Sidi Ferruch 2,797 fr
      • 6 Nov 1915 Elisa Francesca 208 it
      • 6 Nov 1915 Glenmoor 3,075 br
      • 6 Nov 1915 Ticino 1,470 it
      • 6 Nov 1915 Yser 3,545 fr
      • 7 Nov 1915 France Iv 4,025 fr
      • 8 Nov 1915 Ancona 8,210 it
      • 9 Nov 1915 Firenze 3,960 it
      • 21 Dec 1915 Yasaka Maru 10,932 jp
      • 30 Dec 1915 Clan Macfarlane 4,823 br
      • 30 Dec 1915 Persia 7,951 br
      • 9 Feb 1916 Springwell 5,593 br
      • 23 Feb 1916 Diadem 3,752 br
      • 23 Feb 1916 Roubine 327 fr
      • 24 Feb 1916 Denaby 2,987 br
      • 24 Feb 1916 Fastnet 2,227 br
      • 24 Feb 1916 Torborg 1,266 sw
      • 29 Feb 1916 Alexander Wentzel 2,832 ru
      • 29 Feb 1916 Elisa S 209 it
      • 1 Mar 1916 Kilbride 3,712 br
      • 16 May 1916 Clifford 487 br
      • 8 Jun 1916 Malorossija (damaged) 893 ru
      • 8 Jun 1916 Cementcrug 1,086 ru
      • 8 Jun 1916 Ekaterina 70 ru
      • 8 Jun 1916 Vera (damaged) 1,231 ru
      • 10 Jun 1916 Orion 429 ru
      • 2 Jul 1916 Rockcliffe 3,073 br
      • 9 Jul 1916 Vperied 859 ru
      • 10 Jul 1916 Florida 3,238 ru
      • 14 Aug 1916 Remembrance 3,660 br
      • 19 Aug 1916 Dea 166 it
      • 23 Aug 1916 Elios 190 it
      • 23 Aug 1916 Maria Brizzolari 152 it
      • 23 Aug 1916 Tanina 138 it
      • 24 Aug 1916 Isdalen 2,275 nw
      • 24 Aug 1916 Liegeoise 3,895 be
      • 25 Aug 1916 Leandros 1,658 gr
      • 25 Aug 1916 Nostra Signora Del Carmine 1,575 it
      • 26 Aug 1916 Atlantico 3,069 it
      • 29 Aug 1916 Antigoon 1,884 be
      • 29 Aug 1916 Francois Joseph 114 fr
      • 29 Aug 1916 Stella Del Mare 1,166 it
      • 30 Aug 1916 Nostra Signora Della Guardia 1,588 it
      • 31 Aug 1916 Bacchus 3,583 fr
      • 31 Aug 1916 Duart 3,108 br
      • 31 Aug 1916 Piero Maroncelli 3,225 it
      • 1 Sep 1916 San Francesco di Paola 68 it
      • 1 Sep 1916 Swift Wings 4,465 br
      • 2 Sep 1916 Strathallan 4,404 br
      • 2 Sep 1916 Uranie 109 fr
      • 3 Sep 1916 Villa D’oro 134 it
      • 4 Sep 1916 Laristan 3,675 br
      • 5 Sep 1916 Saint Marc 5,818 fr
      • 25 Nov 1916 Michael 2,410 gr
      • 26 Nov 1916 Chemung 3,062 am
      • 3 Dec 1916 Dacia 1,856 br
      • 3 Dec 1916 Kanguroo 2,493 fr
      • 3 Dec 1916 Surprise (mn) 680 fr
      • 8 Dec 1916 Brask 1,464 nw
      • 8 Dec 1916 Britannia 1,814 br
      • 9 Dec 1916 Brizella 282 pt
      • 10 Dec 1916 Esemplare 2,595 it
      • 13 Dec 1916 Angelo Parodi 3,825 it
      • 13 Dec 1916 Kaupanger 3,354 nw
      • 15 Dec 1916 Emmanuele Accame 3,242 it
      • 17 Dec 1916 Tripoli 56 it
      • 20 Dec 1916 Itonus 5,340 br
      • 25 Jan 1917 Sylvie 2,591 fr
      • 7 Feb 1917 Aphrodite 130 fr
      • 14 Feb 1917 Trowbridge (damaged) 3,712 br
      • 14 Feb 1917 Michele 41 it
      • 12 May 1917 Egyptian Prince 3,117 br
      • 13 May 1917 Rio Amazonas 2,970 it
      • 25 May 1917 Kohinur 2,265 br
      • 26 May 1917 Holmesbank 3,051 br
      • 1 Jul 1917 Corrado 120 it
      • 1 Jul 1917 Volto Santo G. 225 it
      • 7 Jul 1917 La Resolu 186 fr
      • 12 Jul 1917 Claire 1,157 be
      • 15 Jul 1917 Atalante 124 fr
      • 19 Jul 1917 Eloby 6,545 br
      • 20 Aug 1917 Incemore 3,060 br
      • 19 Apr 1918 Salambo 248 fr
      • 5 May 1918 Alberto Treves (damaged) 3,838 it
      • 8 May 1918 Ingleside 3,736 br

      On the 23rd of Feb 1919 U-38 surrendered to France, she was broken up at Brest during July 1921.

         SM U-39 was Type U 31 U-Boat built at Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 199). she was ordered on the 12th of Jun 1912, laid down on the 27th of Mar 1913, launched on the 26th of Sep 1914 and commissioned on the 13th of Jan 1915.
      Commanders:
      13 Jan 1915 - 9 Feb 1915 Hans Kratzsch.
      11 Feb 1915 - 14 Oct 1917 Walter Forstmann.
      15 Oct 1917 - 18 May 1918 Heinrich Metzger.

      U39 had a career of 19 patrols. sailing with II Flotilla and from the 15th of Sep 1915 to the 18th of May 1918 with Pola/Mittelmeer I Flotilla.

      She claimed 153 ships sunk with a total of 405,035 tons, 7 ships damaged with a total of 30,552 tons, 1 ship taken as prize with a total of 798 tons and 1 warship sunk with a total of 1,290 tons.

      • 1 May 1915 Balduin 1,059 nw
      • 1 May 1915 Elsa 120 sw
      • 2 May 1915 St. Louis No. 1 211 br
      • 2 May 1915 Sunray 165 br
      • 3 May 1915 Scottish Queen 125 br
      • 4 May 1915 Elsa 329 sw
      • 5 May 1915 Sceptre 166 br
      • 6 May 1915 Truro 836 br
      • 7 May 1915 Benington 131 br
      • 10 May 1915 Olga (prize) 798 da
      • 26 Jun 1915 Campania 167 br
      • 29 Jun 1915 Cambuskenneth 1,924 nw
      • 29 Jun 1915 Kotka (damaged) 952 nw
      • 30 Jun 1915 Lomas 3,048 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 Caucasian 4,656 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 Craigard 3,286 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 Gadsby 3,497 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 Inglemoor 4,331 br
      • 1 Jul 1915 Richmond 3,214 br
      • 2 Jul 1915 Hirondelle 183 fr
      • 2 Jul 1915 Boduognat 1,411 be
      • 2 Jul 1915 City Of Edinburgh (damaged) 6,255 br
      • 3 Jul 1915 Fiery Cross 1,448 nw
      • 3 Jul 1915 Larchmore 4,355 br
      • 3 Jul 1915 Renfrew 3,488 br
      • 4 Jul 1915 Anglo-Californian (damaged) 7,333 br
      • 2 Sep 1915 William T. Lewis (damaged) 2,166 br
      • 9 Sep 1915 Cornubia 1,736 br
      • 9 Sep 1915 L’Aude 2,232 fr
      • 9 Sep 1915 Ville De Mostaganem 2,648 fr
      • 28 Sep 1915 H. C. Henry 4,219 ca
      • 29 Sep 1915 Haydn 3,923 br
      • 30 Sep 1915 Cirene 3,236 it
      • 2 Oct 1915 Sailor Prince 3,144 br
      • 7 Oct 1915 Halizones 5,093 br
      • 8 Oct 1915 Thorpwood 3,184 br
      • 9 Oct 1915 Apollo 3,774 br
      • 12 Oct 1915 Restore 93 br
      • 30 Nov 1915 Middleton 2,506 br
      • 3 Dec 1915 Dante 889 it
      • 3 Dec 1915 Helmsmuir 4,111 br
      • 5 Dec 1915 Petrolite (damaged) 3,710 am
      • 5 Dec 1915 Pietro Lofaro 517 it
      • 6 Dec 1915 L. G. Goulandris 2,123 gr
      • 7 Dec 1915 Veria 3,229 br
      • 9 Dec 1915 Busiris 2,705 br
      • 9 Dec 1915 Orteric 6,535 br
      • 10 Dec 1915 Porto Said 5,301 it
      • 18 Dec 1915 Lottie Leask 94 br
      • 22 Jan 1916 Norseman 9,542 br
      • 31 Mar 1916 Egeo 1,787 it
      • 31 Mar 1916 Riposto 1,003 it
      • 2 Apr 1916 Simla 5,884 br
      • 3 Apr 1916 Clan Campbell 5,897 br
      • 4 Apr 1916 Giuseppe Padre 184 it
      • 4 Apr 1916 Maria Carmella Findari 42 it
      • 6 Apr 1916 Stjerneborg 1,592 da
      • 6 Apr 1916 Colbert (damaged) 5,394 fr
      • 9 Apr 1916 Caledonia 1,815 da
      • 13 Apr 1916 Lipari 1,539 it
      • 20 May 1916 Redentore 228 it
      • 20 May 1916 Valsesia 248 it
      • 21 May 1916 Birmania 2,384 it
      • 21 May 1916 Rosalia Madre 251 it
      • 23 May 1916 Hercules 2,704 it
      • 23 May 1916 Maria Porto di Salvezza 39 it
      • 23 May 1916 Teresa Accame (damaged) 4,742 it
      • 23 May 1916 Washington 2,819 it
      • 24 May 1916 Aurrera 2,845 sp
      • 25 May 1916 Fratelli Bandiera 3,506 it
      • 25 May 1916 Rita 200 it
      • 27 May 1916 Mar Terso 3,778 it
      • 27 May 1916 Trunkby 2,635 br
      • 28 May 1916 Lady Ninian 4,297 br
      • 29 May 1916 Baron Vernon 1,779 br
      • 29 May 1916 Elmgrove 3,018 br
      • 29 May 1916 Southgarth 2,414 br
      • 30 May 1916 Baron Tweedmouth 5,007 br
      • 30 May 1916 Dalegarth 2,265 br
      • 30 May 1916 Hermesberg 2,884 it
      • 30 May 1916 Rauma 3,047 nw
      • 1 Jun 1916 Dewsland 1,993 br
      • 1 Jun 1916 Salmonpool 4,905 br
      • 13 Jul 1916 Silverton 2,682 br
      • 14 Jul 1916 Antigua 2,876 br
      • 14 Jul 1916 Ecclesia 3,714 br
      • 15 Jul 1916 Sylvie 1,354 br
      • 16 Jul 1916 Euphorbia 3,837 br
      • 16 Jul 1916 Sirra 3,203 it
      • 16 Jul 1916 Wiltonhall 3,387 br
      • 17 Jul 1916 Angelo 3,609 it
      • 17 Jul 1916 Rosemoor 4,303 br
      • 18 Jul 1916 Llongwen 4,683 br
      • 20 Jul 1916 Cettois 974 fr
      • 20 Jul 1916 Grangemoor 3,198 br
      • 20 Jul 1916 Karma 3,710 br
      • 20 Jul 1916 Yzer 3,538 br
      • 21 Jul 1916 Wolf 2,443 br
      • 22 Jul 1916 Knutsford 3,842 br
      • 22 Jul 1916 Olive 3,678 br
      • 23 Jul 1916 Badminton 3,847 br
      • 24 Jul 1916 Maria 198 it
      • 29 Jul 1916 Letimbro 2,210 it
      • 29 Jul 1916 Rosarina G.V. 131 it
      • 19 Oct 1916 Penylan 3,875 br
      • 20 Oct 1916 Mombassa 4,689 br
      • 22 Oct 1916 Cluden 3,166 br
      • 22 Oct 1916 Nina 3,383 it
      • 22 Oct 1916 Ravn 998 nw
      • 22 Oct 1916 W. Harkess 1,185 br
      • 27 Nov 1916 Margarita 1,112 gr
      • 27 Nov 1916 Reapwell 3,417 br
      • 28 Nov 1916 King Malcolm 4,351 br
      • 28 Nov 1916 Moresby 1,763 br
      • 2 Dec 1916 Istrar 4,582 br
      • 3 Dec 1916 Plata 1,861 it
      • 9 Jan 1917 Baynesk 3,286 br
      • 15 Jan 1917 Garfield 3,838 br
      • 28 Jan 1917 Admiral Magon 5,566 fr
      • 14 Feb 1917 Torino 4,159 it
      • 15 Feb 1917 Minas 2,854 it
      • 17 Feb 1917 Ala 359 it
      • 20 Feb 1917 Rosalie 4,237 br
      • 21 Feb 1917 Wathfield 3,012 br
      • 22 Feb 1917 Ville De Bougie 508 fr
      • 23 Feb 1917 Trojan Prince 3,196 br
      • 26 Feb 1917 Burnby 3,665 br
      • 3 Mar 1917 Anna E. 41 it
      • 3 Jun 1917 Petronilla Madre 43 it
      • 6 Jun 1917 Diane 590 fr
      • 8 Jun 1917 Huntstrick 8,151 br
      • 8 Jun 1917 Isle Of Jura 3,809 br
      • 8 Jun 1917 Ml 540 37 br
      • 8 Jun 1917 Ml 541 37 br
      • 8 Jun 1917 Valdieri 4,637 it
      • 10 Jun 1917 Petrolite 3,710 am
      • 11 Jun 1917 Wera 476 ru
      • 12 Jun 1917 Gaita 396 ru
      • 15 Jun 1917 Espinho 740 pt
      • 19 Jun 1917 Kyma 3,420 gr
      • 20 Jun 1917 Eli Lindoe 1,116 nw
      • 22 Jun 1917 Toro 1,141 ur
      • 23 Jun 1917 Isere 2,159 fr
      • 29 Jul 1917 Manchester Commerce 4,144 br
      • 30 Jul 1917 Carlo 5,572 it
      • 30 Jul 1917 Ganges 4,177 br
      • 31 Jul 1917 Carolvore 1,659 nw
      • 31 Jul 1917 Ypres 305 br
      • 3 Aug 1917 Halldor 2,919 nw
      • 5 Aug 1917 Ryton 3,991 br
      • 27 Sep 1917 Swan River 4,724 br
      • 1 Oct 1917 Mersario 3,847 br
      • 1 Oct 1917 Normanton 3,862 br
      • 2 Oct 1917 Almora 4,385 br
      • 2 Oct 1917 Hikosan Maru 3,555 jp
      • 2 Oct 1917 Nuceria 4,702 br
      • 14 Nov 1917 Buenaventura 257 sp
      • 18 Nov 1917 Candytuft 1,290 br
      • 21 Nov 1917 Schuylkill 2,720 am
      • 23 Nov 1917 Markella 1,124 gr
      • 25 Nov 1917 Karema 5,263 br
      • 17 May 1918 Sculptor 4,874 br

      On the 18th of May 1918 U39 was interned at Cartagena, Spain after being damaged by allied escorts and aircraft that same day. She surrendered to France on the 22nd of Mar 1919 and was broken up at Toulon in 1923.

      There was another U 39 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 22nd of Sep 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 10th of Dec 1938.

         SM U-40 was a type U 31 u-boat built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 200), Ordered 12th of Jun 1912, Laid down 3rd of Apr 1913, Launched 22nd of Oct 1914 and Commissioned 14th of Feb 1915. From 14th of Feb 1915 to 23rd of Jun 1915 she was commanded by Gerhardt Fürbringer and sailed with II Flotilla

      On the 23rd of Jun 1915 the u-boat was torpedoed by HM Sub C24 in connection with decoy trawler Taranaki at 57.00N, 01.50W. with the loss of 29 of her crew with an unknown number of survivors.

      There was another U 40 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 9th Nov 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 11th Feb 1939.

         SB U-41 was a Type U 31 built at Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 201). Ordered 12 Jun 1912, Laid down 22 Apr 1913, Launched 10 Oct 1914 and Commissioned 1 Feb 1915.
      Commanders: 1 Feb 1915 - 24 Sep 1915 Claus Hansen

      Career 4 patrols: start date unknown to 24 Sep 1915 II Flotilla

      Successes 28 ships sunk with a total of 58,648 tons.
      1 ship damaged with a total of 4,409 tons.
      1 ship taken as prize with a total of 355 tons.

      • 2 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen America 3,706 nw
      • 2 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Cruiser 146 br
      • 2 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Martaban 148 br
      • 2 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Mercury 222 br
      • 2 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen St. George 215 br
      • 3 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Oscar 107 nw
      • 3 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Roxane (prize) 355 sw
      • 25 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Nebraskan (damaged) 4,409 am
      • 26 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Morwenna 1,414 br
      • 27 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Cadeby 1,130 br
      • 28 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Ethiope 3,794 br
      • 28 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Spennymoor 2,733 br
      • 28 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Tullochmoor 3,520 br
      • 29 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Cysne 623 pt
      • 29 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Dixiana 3,329 br
      • 29 May 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Glenlee 4,140 br
      • 16 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Balva 1,165 ru
      • 17 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen General Radetzky 2,118 ru
      • 24 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Grangewood 3,422 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Celtic 264 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Cydonia 259 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Emblem 157 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Gadwall 192 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Honoria 179 br
      • 25 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Leelenaw 1,923 am
      • 28 Jul 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Trondhjemsfjord 4,350 nw
      • 23 Sep 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Anglo-colombian 4,792 br
      • 23 Sep 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Chancellor 4,586 br
      • 23 Sep 1915 U 41 Claus Hansen Hesione 3,363 br

        Fate 24 Sep 1915 - Sunk by gunfire from Q-Ship Baralong in Western Approaches 49.10N 07.23W. 35 dead and 2 survivors.

        There was another U 41 in World War Two.
        That boat was launched from its shipyard on 28 Jan 1939 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 22 Apr 1939.

           SM U-164 was a Type U 93 built at the Shipyard Bremer Vulkan, Vegesack (Werk 651). Ordered 27 Jun 1917, Launched 7 Aug 1918 and Commissioned 17 Oct 1918 and sailed with IV Flotilla On the 22nd Nov 1918 the u-boat surrendered and was broken up at Swansea in 1922.

        There was another U 164 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 1 May 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 28 Nov 1941.

           

           SM U-154 was a Type U 151 u-boat built at the Shipyard Flensburger Schiffbau (Werk 381). Ordered 29th of Nov 1916, launched on the 10th of Sep 1917 and commissioned on the 12th of Dec 1917

        From the 12th of Dec 1917 to 11th of May 1918 she was commanded by Hermann Gercke and sailed with U-Kreuzer Flotilla She claimed 5 ships sunk with a total of 8,132 tons and 4 ships damaged with a total of 18,220 tons.

        • 12 Mar 1918 Nordkyn 3,244 nw
        • 17 Mar 1918 Guadalquivir 2,078 sp
        • 21 Mar 1918 Chincha (damaged) 6,371 am
        • 26 Mar 1918 Beira Alta 101 pt
        • 7 Apr 1918 La Bruyere (damaged) 2,198 fr
        • 9 Apr 1918 President Howard 73 lib
        • 10 Apr 1918 Burutu (damaged) 3,902 br
        • 25 Apr 1918 Kawachi Maru (damaged) 5,749 jp
        • 25 Apr 1918 Michelet 2,636 fr

        On the 11th of May 1918 U154 was torpedoed in the Atlantic at 3651N 1150W by HM Sub E35. 77 dead (all hands lost).

        There was another U 154 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 21 Apr 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 2 Aug 1941.

           SM U-106 was a Type U 93 built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 275) Ordered 5 May 1916, Launched 12 Jun 1917 and Commissioned 28 Jul 1917 Her commander was Hans Hufnagel and she undertook a single patrol sailing on the 2nd of Sep 1917 with IV Flotilla

        She claimed one 1 ship damaged with a total of 5,867 tons and 1 warship sunk with a total of 957 tons.

        • 18 Sep 1917 Contest 957 br
        • 18 Sep 1917 City Of Lincoln (damaged) 5,867 br

        On the 7th of Oct 1917 she was lost in a minefield about 40 miles north of Terschelling while homeward bound. 41 dead (all hands lost).

        The U 106 was located and identified on the 16th of March 2011 off the Dutch coast. Apparently the boat was found in Oct 2009 by Dutch ship HMS Snellius and then the wreck was checked by HMS Maassluis and HMS Hellevoetsluis with their Seafox equipment. An air bottle was retrieved and identified from a number on its air bottles.

        There was another U 106 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 17 Jun 1940 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 24 Sep 1940.

           SM U-105 was a Type U 93 built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 274) Ordered 5 May 1916, Launched 16 May 1917 and Commissioned 4 Jul 1917. She was commanded by Friedrich Strackerjan and had a career of 6 patrols sailing with IV Flotilla. She claimed 19 ships sunk with a total of 55,834 tons and 2 ships damaged with a total of 0 tons.

        • 14 Oct 1917 Ecaterini C. D. 3,739 gr
        • 15 Oct 1917 Saint Paul 79 fr
        • 15 Oct 1917 St. Helens 1,497 am
        • 17 Oct 1917 Antilles 6,878 am
        • 19 Dec 1917 Vinovia 7,046 br
        • 22 Dec 1917 Colemere 2,120 br
        • 24 Dec 1917 Canova 4,637 br
        • 28 Dec 1917 Lord Derby 3,757 br
        • 24 Feb 1918 Sarpfos 1,458 nw
        • 26 Feb 1918 Dalewood 2,420 br
        • 27 Feb 1918 Largo 1,764 br
        • 1 Mar 1918 Penvearn 3,710 br
        • 2 Mar 1918 Carmelite 2,583 br
        • 29 Apr 1918 Christiana Davis 86 br
        • 29 Apr 1918 Johnny Toole 84 br
        • 7 May 1918 Nantes 1,580 br
        • 7 May 1918 Saxon 1,595 br
        • 2 Jul 1918 Pieuse Paysanne (damaged) unknown fr
        • 2 Jul 1918 Albert 1er (damaged) unknown fr
        • 31 Aug 1918 Milwaukee 7,323 br
        • 7 Sep 1918 Ruysdael 3,478 br

        On the 20th of Nov 1918 U105 was urrendered to France and later became the french submarine Jean Autric, sailing with the French navy until 27 Jan 1937. Broken up in 1938.

        There was another U 105 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 15 Jun 1940 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 10 Sep 1940.

           SM U-104 was a Type U 57 uboat built at Shipyard A.G. Weser, Bremen (Werk 255) Ordered 15 Sep 1915, Laid down 4 Aug 1916, Launched 3 Jul 1917 and Commissioned 12 Aug 1917 Commanded by Kurt Bernis, U104 had a career of 4 patrols between 1st of October 1917 and 25th of Apr 1918 with II Flotilla She claimed 8 ships sunk with a total of 10,795 tons.

        • 26 Oct 1917 Sapele 4,366 br
        • 15 Dec 1917 Maidag 1,253 nw
        • 21 Dec 1917 Spro 1,507 nw
        • 25 Dec 1917 Ajax 1,018 da
        • 2 Mar 1918 Kenmare 1,330 br
        • 12 Apr 1918 Njaal 578 ru
        • 16 Apr 1918 Widwud 299 ru
        • 22 Apr 1918 Fern 444 br

        On the 25th of April 1918 u104 was epth charged by HMS Jessamine in the St George's Channel and sank at 5159N 0626W with 41 lost and 1 survivor

        There was another U 104 in World War Two, was launched from its shipyard on 25 May 1940 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 19 Aug 1940.

           SM U-98 was a Type U 93 Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 262), Ordered 15 Sep 1915, Launched 28 Feb 1917 and Commissioned 31 May 1917

        Her Commanders were from 31 May 1917 until 24 Nov 1917 Curt Beitzen, from 25 Nov 1917 to 21 Dec 1917 Oblt. Walter Strasser and between 22 Dec 1917 and 11 Nov 1918 Rudolf Andler Her career spanned 5 patrols with IV Flotilla

        U-98 claimed 3 ships sunk with a total of 1,799 tons plus 1 ship damaged with a total of 5,430 tons.

        • 24 Mar 1918 Anchoria (damaged) 5,430 br
        • 26 May 1918 Janvold 1,366 nw
        • 14 Jul 1918 Maurice 164 fr
        • 31 Jul 1918 Alkor 269 nw

        The uboat was surrendered on the 16 Jan 191 and was broken up at Blyth in 1919-20.

        There was another U 98 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 31 Aug 1940 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 12 Oct 1940.

         U-Boat Index - WW1  SM U-91

        Type U 87 Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 35) Ordered 23 Jun 1915 Laid down 1 Aug 1916 Launched 14 Apr 1917 Commissioned 17 Sep 1917

        Commanders.
        17 Sep 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 Alfred von Glasenapp

        Career 8 patrols.
        13 Dec 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 III Flotilla

        Successes 37 ships sunk with a total of 87,119 tons.
        2 ships damaged with a total of 11,821 tons.

        • 24 Dec 1917 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Elmleaf (damaged) 5,948 br
        • 28 Dec 1917 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Robert Eggleton 2,274 br
        • 2 Jan 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Boston City 2,711 br
        • 4 Jan 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Otto 139 br
        • 5 Jan 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Knightsgarth 2,889 br
        • 7 Jan 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Premier 89 br
        • 19 Feb 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Beacon Light 2,768 br
        • 22 Feb 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Haileybury 2,888 br
        • 23 Feb 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Birchleaf (damaged) 5,873 br
        • 23 Feb 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp British Viscount 3,287 br
        • 24 Feb 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Renfrew 3,830 br
        • 2 Mar 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Bessy 60 br
        • 20 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Florrieston 3,366 br
        • 20 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Lowther Range 3,926 br
        • 21 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Landonia 2,504 br
        • 21 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Normandiet 1,843 br
        • 22 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Baron Herries 1,610 br
        • 26 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Ethel 100 br
        • 27 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Gresham 3,774 br
        • 27 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Walpas 312 ru
        • 28 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Damao 5,668 pt
        • 28 Apr 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Oronsa 8,075 br
        • 1 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Westmoor 4,329 br
        • 6 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Port Hardy 6,533 br
        • 9 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Silvia 3,571 it
        • 13 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Badagri 2,956 br
        • 16 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Fisherman 136 br
        • 25 Jul 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Tippecanoe 6,187 am
        • 1 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Therese et Marthe 32 fr
        • 2 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Maia 185 fr
        • 2 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Marie Emmanuel 32 fr
        • 2 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Ave Maris Stella 22 fr
        • 4 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Mercedes 2,164 sp
        • 5 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Heathpark 2,205 br
        • 5 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Erindring 1,229 br
        • 8 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Cazengo 3,009 pt
        • 9 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Pierre 354 fr
        • 11 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Luksefjell 2,007 nw
        • 14 Oct 1918 U 91 Alfred von Glasenapp Bayard 55 fr

        Fate 26 Nov 1918 - Surrendered to France. Broken up at Brest during July 1921.

        There was another U 91 in World War Two.
        That boat was launched from its shipyard on 30 Nov 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 28 Jan 1942.

           SM U-46 was a Type U 43 built at the Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 24). She was ordered on the 4th of Aug 1914, launched on the 18th of May 1915 and commissioned on the 17th of Dec 1915

        Her commanders were:
        17 Dec 1915 - 6 Dec 1917 Leo Hillebrand
        7 Dec 1916 - 15 Jan 1917 Alfred Saalwächter
        16 Jan 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Leo Hillebrand

        U-46 had a career of 11 patrols between the 29th of Mar 1916 and 11 of Nov 1918 she sailed with III Flotilla She claimed 52 ships sunk with a total of 140,314 tons and 1 ship damaged with a total of 7,378 tons.

        • 29 Sep 1916 Ravn 1,260 nw
        • 29 Sep 1916 Sinsen 1,925 nw
        • 30 Sep 1916 Hafnia 962 nw
        • 30 Sep 1916 Hekla 950 nw
        • 4 Oct 1916 Brantingham 2,617 br
        • 6 Oct 1916 Erika 2,430 ru
        • 9 Oct 1916 Astoria 4,262 br
        • 11 Oct 1916 Iolo 3,903 br
        • 16 Dec 1916 Chassie Maersk 1,387 da
        • 16 Dec 1916 Taki Maru 3,208 jp
        • 16 Dec 1916 Gerda 775 da
        • 17 Dec 1916 Bayhall 3,898 br
        • 19 Dec 1916 Falk 948 nw
        • 23 Dec 1916 Marques De Urquijo 2,170 sp
        • 25 Dec 1916 Marie Pierre 166 fr
        • 27 Dec 1916 Aislaby 2,692 br
        • 27 Dec 1916 Goulfar 259 fr
        • 21 Mar 1917 Hindustan 3,692 br
        • 23 Mar 1917 Argo 1,563 pt
        • 24 Mar 1917 Montreal 3,342 fr
        • 1 Apr 1917 Aztec 3,727 am
        • 3 Apr 1917 Hesperus 2,231 ru
        • 5 Apr 1917 Benheather 4,701 br
        • 7 Apr 1917 Fiskaa 1,700 nw
        • 15 May 1917 Grosholm 1,847 nw
        • 17 May 1917 Lewisham 2,810 br
        • 18 May 1917 Llandrindod 3,841 br
        • 18 May 1917 Penhale 3,712 br
        • 20 May 1917 Lady Patricia 1,372 br
        • 22 May 1917 Tansan Maru 2,443 jp
        • 24 May 1917 Jersey City 4,670 br
        • 24 Jul 1917 Brumaire 2,324 br
        • 24 Jul 1917 Zermatt 3,767 br
        • 25 Jul 1917 Peninsula 1,384 br
        • 25 Jul 1917 Purley 4,500 br
        • 27 Jul 1917 Begona No. 4 2,407 br
        • 31 Jul 1917 Shimosa 4,221 br
        • 22 Oct 1917 Zillah 3,788 br
        • 24 Oct 1917 Ilderton 3,125 br
        • 28 Oct 1917 Baron Balfour 3,991 br
        • 4 Nov 1917 Irina 2,210 ru
        • 7 Nov 1917 Obj 1,829 nw
        • 27 Jan 1918 Andania 13,405 br
        • 31 Jan 1918 Towneley 2,476 br
        • 1 Feb 1918 Cavallo 2,086 br
        • 3 Feb 1918 Lutece 1,346 fr
        • 5 Feb 1918 Cresswell 2,829 br
        • 13 Mar 1918 Crayford 1,209 br
        • 18 Mar 1918 Atlantic Sun 2,333 am
        • 30 Mar 1918 Stabil 538 nw
        • 25 May 1918 Rathlin Head (damaged) 7,378 br
        • 16 Sep 1918 Tasman 5,023 br
        • 25 Sep 1918 Gloire a Jesus 60 fr

        On the 26th of Nov 1918, U46 surrendered to Japan. She was in Japanese service as the O2 during 1920 and 1921, before being partially dismantled at Kure Navy Yard in April 1921. she wa then rebuilt at Yokosuka Navy Yard 1925 as a testbed for submarine salvage operations carried out by the tender ASAHI. During her transfer from Yokosuka to Kure on 21st of April 1925 she was caught by a storm and lost. On the 5th of Aug 1927 her hulk was spotted by a U.S. merchant, west of Oahu and she was later scuttled.

        There was another U 46 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 10th of Sep 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 2nd of Nov 1938.

           SM U-45 was a type U 43 u-boat built at Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 23). Ordered 22 Jun 1914, Launched 15 Apr 1915 and Commissioned on the 9th of Oct 1915.

        Commanded by Erich Sittenfeld U-45 undertook 7 patrols between the 11th of Nov 1916 and 12th of Sep 1917 with III Flotilla. Successes amounted to 27 ships sunk with a total of 47,286 tons and 1 ship damaged with a total of 3,891 tons.

        • 27 Apr 1916 Industry 4,044 br
        • 30 Apr 1916 Vinifreda 1,441 sp
        • 2 May 1916 Le Pilier 2,427 fr
        • 2 May 1916 Maud 120 br
        • 5 Jul 1916 Geertruida 140 nl
        • 28 Sep 1916 Fuchsia 145 br
        • 21 Jan 1917 Gladys 275 br
        • 21 Jan 1917 Lucy 280 br
        • 21 Jan 1917 Star Of The Sea 197 br
        • 26 Jan 1917 Tabasco 2,987 br
        • 2 Feb 1917 Garnet Hill 2,272 ru
        • 3 Feb 1917 Belford 1,905 br
        • 3 Feb 1917 Eavestone 1,858 br
        • 4 Feb 1917 Eridania 3,171 it
        • 4 Feb 1917 Thor Ii 2,144 nw
        • 10 Feb 1917 Ostrich 148 br
        • 28 Apr 1917 Olga 1,672 ru
        • 3 May 1917 Palm Branch (damaged) 3,891 br
        • 3 May 1917 Truvor 2,462 ru
        • 11 May 1917 Hermes 3,579 ru
        • 19 May 1917 Elise 137 da
        • 1 Jul 1917 Eclipse 185 br
        • 15 Jul 1917 Mariston 2,908 br
        • 16 Jul 1917 Ribston 3,372 br
        • 17 Jul 1917 Haworth 4,456 br
        • 20 Jul 1917 Nevisbrook 3,140 br
        • 21 Jul 1917 Dafila 1,754 br
        • 24 Jul 1917 Zateja 67 ru

        On the 12th of Sep 1917 U45 was torpedoed by HM Sub D7 west of the Shetlands at 5548N 0730W with the loss of 43 of her crew, there were only 2 survivors.

        There was another U 45 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 27 Apr 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 25 Jun 1938.

           U48 was a Type U 43 built at the Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft in Danzig (Werk 26). Ordered on the 4th of Aug 1914, the vessel was launched on the 3rd of Oct 1915 and commissioned on the 22nd of Apr 1916

        Commanders:
        22 Apr 1916 - 9 Mar 1917 Berndt Buß.
        10 Mar 1917 - 16 Mar 1917 Hinrich Hermann Hashagen.
        17 Mar 1917 - 24 Nov 1917 Karl Edeling

        U48 under took 8 patrols between 8 Jun 1916 and 24 Nov 1917 with III Flotilla Successes amounted to 34 ships sunk with a total of 104,558 tons. 1 ship damaged with a total of 180 tons. 2 ships taken as prize with a total of 5,904 tons.

        • 6 Aug 1916 Pendennis (prize) 2,123 br
        • 2 Oct 1916 Lotusmere 3,911 br
        • 4 Oct 1916 Brink 1,391 nw
        • 6 Oct 1916 Suchan (prize) 3,781 ru
        • 6 Oct 1916 Tuva 2,270 sw
        • 29 Dec 1916 Tuskar 3,042 ru
        • 6 Jan 1917 Alphonse Conseil 1,591 fr
        • 6 Jan 1917 Ville Du Havre 5,026 fr
        • 7 Jan 1917 Borgholm 1,719 nw
        • 7 Jan 1917 Evangelos 3,773 gr
        • 8 Jan 1917 Tholma 1,896 nw
        • 12 Jan 1917 Emeraude 183 fr
        • 12 Jan 1917 Vestfold 1,883 nw
        • 14 Jan 1917 Sydney 2,695 fr
        • 16 Jan 1917 Esperanca 4,428 nw
        • 19 Jan 1917 Nailsea Court 3,295 br
        • 3 Mar 1917 Connaught 2,646 br
        • 4 Mar 1917 Adelaide (damaged) 180 br
        • 4 Mar 1917 The Macbain 291 br
        • 7 Mar 1917 Navarra 1,261 nw
        • 9 Mar 1917 Abeja 174 br
        • 9 Mar 1917 East Point 5,234 br
        • 12 Mar 1917 Guerveur 2,596 fr
        • 12 May 1917 San Onofre 9,717 br
        • 13 May 1917 Jessmore 3,911 br
        • 15 May 1917 Meuse 4,075 fr
        • 17 May 1917 Margareta 1,873 ru
        • 21 May 1917 Lynton 2,531 ru
        • 21 May 1917 Madura 1,096 nw
        • 13 Jul 1917 Gibel-Yedid 949 br
        • 14 Jul 1917 Exford 5,886 br
        • 15 Jul 1917 Torcello 2,929 br
        • 16 Jul 1917 Asama 284 br
        • 31 Aug 1917 Westbury 3,097 br
        • 7 Sep 1917 Minnehaha 13,714 br
        • 9 Sep 1917 Elsa 1,236 da
        • 15 Sep 1917 Rollesby 3,955 br

        On the 24th of Nov 1917 while waiting for the moon to set, U 48 drifted and eventually went aground at high tide on the Goodwin Sands. She was discovered at dawn by British patrol craft. After a brief exchange of gunfire, scuttling charges were set and the crew abandoned the boat. 19 of the crew lost their lives with 17 survivors. The shifting of the Goodwin Sands occasionally exposes the wreck of U 48.

        There was another U 48 in World War Two.
        That boat was launched from its shipyard on 8 Mar 1939 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 22 Apr 1939.

           12th (Service) Battalion (Teesside Pioneers) Yorkshire Regiment was raised at Middlesbrough on 21 December 1914 by the Mayor and Town. They underwent training at Gosforth and in August 1915 moved to Cannock Chase. Being adopted by War Office on the 27th of August 1915. In September 1915 they arrived at Badajoz Barracks at Aldershot and converted to a Pioneer Battalion, joining 40th Division. They proceeded to France on the 2nd of June 1916, landing at Le Havre. They went into the front line near Loos in October 1915. In 1916 they saw action in the Battle of the Somme. In 1917 they were involved in action in The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line in March, the capture of Fifteen Ravine, Villers Plouich, Beaucamp and La Vacquerie during April and early May and the Cambrai Operations, in November which including the capture of Bourlon Wood. Early 1918 they were in action on the Somme and then in the Battles of the Lys where the Division suffered heavy casualties and on the 5th of May they were reduced to cadre strength, on the 28th June 1918 those remaining transferred to 17th Battalion, The Worcestershire Regiment.

           SM U-89 was a Type U 87 uboat built at the Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 33). She was Ordered on 23 Jun 1915, Laid down 15 Dec 1915, Launched 6 Oct 1916 and Commissioned 21 Jun 1917.

        Commanders.
        21 Jun 1917 - 15 Jan 1918 August Mildenberger
        16 Jan 1918 - 12 Feb 1918 Wilhelm Bauck

        Her career spanned 3 patrols, from the 6 Sep 1917 - 12 Feb 1918 she sailed with III Flotilla Her recorded successes amount to 4 ships sunk with a total of 8,496 tons and 1 ship damaged with a total of 324 tons.

        • 2 Oct 1917 Trafaria 1,744 pt
        • 3 Oct 1917 Baron Blantyre 1,844 br
        • 6 Oct 1917 Victorine 1,241 fr
        • 12 Dec 1917 Reine D'arvor (damaged) 324 fr
        • 21 Dec 1917 Boa Vista 3,667 pt

        On the 12th of Feb 1918 she was rammed North of Malin Head by HMS Roxburgh and sank at 5538N 0732W. 43 dead (all hands lost).

        There was another U 89 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 20 Sep 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 19 Nov 1941.

           

        SM U-86 was a Type U 81, built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 256). Ordered 23 Jun 1915, Laid down 5 Nov 1915, Launched 7 Nov 1916 and Commissioned 30 Nov 1916. Commanders were from 30 Nov 1916 to 22 Jun 1917 Friedrich Crüsemann. Froto 23 Jun 1917 to 25 Jan 1918 Alfred Götze and from 26 Jan 1918 to 11 Nov 1918 Oblt. Helmut Patzig U86 undertook 12 patrols sailing with IV Flotilla, claiming 33 ships sunk with a total of 117,583 tons and 1 ship damaged with a total of 163 tons.

        • 23 Mar 1917 Queenborough 165 br
        • 5 Apr 1917 Dunkerquoise 127 fr
        • 5 Apr 1917 Marie Celine 142 fr
        • 5 Apr 1917 Siberier 2,968 be
        • 6 Apr 1917 Rosalind 6,535 br
        • 18 Apr 1917 Atalanta 1,091 sw
        • 28 May 1917 Antinoe 2,396 br
        • 28 May 1917 Limerick 6,827 br
        • 29 May 1917 Oswego 5,793 br
        • 31 May 1917 N. Hadzikyriakos 3,533 gr
        • 2 Jul 1917 Bessie 66 sw
        • 10 Aug 1917 Capella I 3,990 nw
        • 13 Aug 1917 Turakina 9,920 br
        • 15 Dec 1917 Baron Leopold Davilliers (damaged) 163 fr
        • 20 Dec 1917 Polvarth 3,146 br
        • 14 Feb 1918 Bessie Stephens 119 br
        • 17 Feb 1918 Pinewood 2,219 br
        • 19 Feb 1918 Wheatflower 188 br
        • 20 Feb 1918 Djerv 1,527 br
        • 23 Feb 1918 Ulabrand 2,011 nw
        • 30 Apr 1918 Kafue 6,044 br
        • 30 Apr 1918 Kempock 255 br
        • 2 May 1918 Medora 5,135 br
        • 5 May 1918 Tommi 138 br
        • 6 May 1918 Leeds City 4,298 br
        • 11 May 1918 San Andres 1,656 nw
        • 12 May 1918 Inniscarra 1,412 br
        • 16 May 1918 Tartary 4,181 br
        • 22 May 1918 Meran 656 nw
        • 21 Jun 1918 Eglantine 339 nw
        • 26 Jun 1918 Atlantian 9,399 br
        • 27 Jun 1918 Llandovery Castle 11,423 br
        • 1 Jul 1918 Covington 16,339 am
        • 1 Jul 1918 Origen 3,545 br

        On 27 June, 1918 this boat sank the hospital ship Llandovery Castle in violation of international law, and fired on the survivors, killing most of them. The commander and his watch officers were tried and convincted for this incident after the war.

        On the 20th of Nov 1918 U86 surrendered. The uboat sank in the English Channel on the way to be broken up in 1921.

        There was another U 86 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 10 May 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 8 Jul 1941.

         U-Boat  SM U-82 was a Type U 81, built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 252) Ordered 23 Jun 1915, Laid down 31 Aug 1915, Launched 1 Jul 1916 and Commissioned 16 Sep 1916 From her launch until the 29th of Apr 1918 she was commanded by Hans Adam then from the 30th of Apr 1918 to the 11th of Nov 1918 she was commanded by Heinrich Middendorff. Her career spanned 11 patrols with IV Flotilla Claiming 36 ships sunk with a total of 110,160 tons and 3 ships damaged with a total of 32,914 tons.

        • 5 Dec 1916 Dorit 242 da
        • 5 Dec 1916 Ella 879 nw
        • 6 Dec 1916 Christine 196 da
        • 6 Dec 1916 Robert 353 da
        • 10 Dec 1916 Gerda 287 da
        • 2 Jan 1917 Omnium 8,719 fr
        • 3 Jan 1917 Viking 761 da
        • 4 Jan 1917 Calabro 1,925 it
        • 5 Jan 1917 Ebro 1,028 da
        • 6 Jan 1917 Beaufront 1,720 br
        • 23 Apr 1917 Marita 1,759 nw
        • 24 Apr 1917 Thistleard 4,136 br
        • 25 Apr 1917 Hackensack 4,060 br
        • 4 May 1917 Ellin (damaged) 4,577 gr
        • 11 Jun 1917 Zylpha 2,917 br
        • 13 Jun 1917 Storegut 2,557 nw
        • 14 Jun 1917 Highbury 4,831 br
        • 14 Jun 1917 Ortolan 1,727 br
        • 15 Jun 1917 Albertine Beatrice 1,379 nl
        • 15 Jun 1917 Westonby 3,795 br
        • 16 Jun 1917 Jessie 2,256 br
        • 18 Jun 1917 Thistledhu 4,026 br
        • 25 Jul 1917 Monkstone 3,097 br
        • 31 Jul 1917 Orubian 3,876 br
        • 31 Jul 1917 Quernmore 7,302 br
        • 19 Sep 1917 Saint Ronald 4,387 br
        • 15 Nov 1917 De Dollart 243 nl
        • 19 Feb 1918 Glencarron 5,117 br
        • 19 Feb 1918 Philadelphian 5,165 br
        • 8 Apr 1918 Tainui (damaged) 9,965 br
        • 10 Apr 1918 Westfield 3,453 br
        • 5 Jun 1918 Argonaut 4,826 am
        • 7 Jun 1918 Brisk 1,662 nw
        • 8 Jun 1918 Hunsgrove 3,063 br
        • 8 Jun 1918 Saima 1,147 br
        • 4 Sep 1918 Dora 7,037 am
        • 5 Sep 1918 Mount Vernon (uss) (damaged) 18,372 am
        • 12 Sep 1918 Galway Castle 7,988 br
        • 16 Sep 1918 Madryn 2,244 br

        On the 16th of Jan 1919 U82 surrendered. She was broken up at Blyth in 1919-20.

        There was another U 82 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 15 Mar 1941 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 14 May 1941.

           J.C. & J Field Ltd was a candle manufacturer situated in Ferry Lane at Rainham on the banks of the Thames in Essex. During the Great War the factory was rented by the nearby Rainham Chemical Works as an extension to the HM Explosives Factory at their premises.

           SM U-73 was a type UE1 u-boat, built at Shipyard Kaiserliche Werft, Danzig (Werk 29). She was ordered on the 6th of Jan 1915 , launched on the 16th of Jun 1915 and commissioned on 9th of Oct 1915

        Her Commanders were:.
        9 Oct 1915 - 21 May 1917 Gustav Sieß.
        22 May 1917 - 15 Jan 1918 Ernst von Voigt.
        16 Jan 1918 - 15 Jun 1918 Karl Meusel.
        16 Jun 1918 - 15 Sep 1918 Oblt. Carl Bünte.
        16 Sep 1918 - 30 Oct 1918 Fritz Saupe

        U-73 undertook 2 patrols and from 30 Apr 1916 to 30 Oct 1918 she served with the Pola/Mittelmeer II Flotilla Her successes included 18 ships sunk with a total of 86,849 tons, 3 ships damaged with a total of 8,067 tons and 3 warships sunk with a total of 28,750 tons.

        • 11 Apr 1916 Inverlyon 1,827 br
        • 17 Apr 1916 Terje Viken 3,579 nw
        • 27 Apr 1916 Nasturtium 1,250 br
        • 27 Apr 1916 Russell 14,000 br
        • 28 Apr 1916 Aegusa 1,242 br
        • 4 May 1916 Crownsin 137 br
        • 3 Aug 1916 Clacton 820 br
        • 9 Aug 1916 Lorenzo Donato 140 it
        • 24 Oct 1916 Propontis 700 gr
        • 31 Oct 1916 Kiki Issaias 2,993 gr
        • 14 Nov 1916 Burdigala 12,009 fr
        • 20 Nov 1916 Spetzai (damaged) 788 gr
        • 20 Nov 1916 Sparti (damaged) 961 gr
        • 21 Nov 1916 Britannic 48,158 br
        • 23 Nov 1916 Braemar Castle (damaged) 6,318 br
        • 21 Dec 1916 Murex 3,564 br
        • 23 Dec 1916 Thistleban 4,117 br
        • 2 Jan 1917 Peresvyet 13,500 ru
        • 12 Mar 1917 Bilswood 3,097 br
        • 29 Sep 1917 R 235 15 fr
        • 30 Sep 1917 Midlothian 1,321 br
        • 30 Sep 1917 Nicolosa 50 gr
        • 1 Oct 1917 Ludvicos 50 br
        • 19 Oct 1918 Almerian 3,030 br

        On the 30th of Oct 1918 U73 was scuttled at Pola in position 44.52N, 13.50E during the evacuation from there.

        There was another U 73 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 27 Jul 1940 and was commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 30 Sep 1940.

           

        HMS Russell

        HMS Russell, was a Battleship of 14,000 tons, built in 1901, byPalmer & Co., Jarrow, for the Royal Navy. HMS Russell was commissioned for the Mediterranean Fleet in February 1903, returning to the UK and joining the Home Fleet in April 1904 and the Channel Fleet in April 1906, transferring to the Atlantic Fleet in February 1907. Russell returned to the Mediterranean in July 1909 until August 1912 when she became a unit of the 1st (Home) Fleet and the 2nd Fleet at The Nore in September 1913.

        On the outbreak of war Russell was with the 6th Battle Squadron in the Channel, but was later attached to the Grand Fleet carrying out patrols in the North Sea. On 22 November 1914 she bombarded Zeebrugge along with HMS Exmouth, before returning to the Grand Fleet for more North Sea patrols. Russell returned to the Mediterranean for the last time in November 1915, covering the withdrawal from Gallipoli on 7 January 1916.

        HMS Russell struck a mine at the entrance to Valetta Harbour, Malta on the 27th April 1916. The Mine had been laid by U73.

           SM U-75

        Type UE 1 Shipyard Vulcan, Hamburg (Werk 57) Ordered 9 Mar 1915 Launched 30 Jan 1916 Commissioned 26 Mar 1916

        Commanders.
        26 Mar 1916 - 1 May 1917 Curt Beitzen.
        2 May 1917 - 13 Dec 1917 Fritz Schmolling

        Career 7 patrols.
        29 Jun 1916 - 13 Dec 1917 I Flotilla

        Successes 11 ships sunk with a total of 18,347 tons.
        2 ships damaged with a total of 4,192 tons.
        1 ship taken as prize with a total of 1,700 tons.
        1 warship sunk with a total of 10,850 tons.

        • 5 Jun 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Hampshire 10,850 br
        • 22 Jun 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Laurel Crown 81 br
        • 7 Aug 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen John High 228 br
        • 12 Aug 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Kovda 1,125 ru
        • 20 Sep 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Etton 2,831 br
        • 16 Nov 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Fenja 433 da
        • 22 Nov 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Reserv (prize) 1,700 sw
        • 23 Nov 1916 U 75 Curt Beitzen Arthur 1,435 sw
        • 9 Apr 1917 U 75 Curt Beitzen Ganslei 1,273 ru
        • 15 Apr 1917 U 75 Curt Beitzen Arctic Prince (damaged) 194 br
        • 10 Aug 1917 U 75 Fritz Schmolling Solglimt 1,037 nw
        • 16 Aug 1917 U 75 Fritz Schmolling Palatine 2,110 br
        • 3 Sep 1917 U 75 Fritz Schmolling Treverbyn 4,163 br
        • 22 Nov 1917 U 75 Fritz Schmolling King Idwal 3,631 br
        • 10 Dec 1917 U 75 Fritz Schmolling Aureole (damaged) 3,998 br

        Fate 13 Dec 1917 - Struck a mine off Terschelling . 23 dead, unknown number of survivors.

        There was another U 75 in World War Two.
        That boat was launched from its shipyard on 18 Oct 1940 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 19 Dec 1940.

         HMS Hampshire  

        HMS Hampshire

        HMS Hampshire was an Armored cruiser of GRT 10,850 tons Built in 1903 at Armstrongs in Elswick.

        HMS Hampshire was commissioned into the 1st Cruiser Squadron, Channel Fleet in August 1905 until December 1908. She refitted at Portsmouth and recommissioned into the 3rd Cruiser Squadron of the Home Fleet in September 1908. She was present at the Coronation Fleet Review for King George V in June 1911. Later that year she transferred to the 6th C.S. Mediterranean Fleet and later the China Fleet.

        At the outbreak of war Hampshire was at Wei-hei-Wei. She took part in patrols in the South China Sea, searching for Emden and later Königsberg. On one of these patrols the German collier Elsbeth was sunk on 11 August 1914. These patrols were based on Hong Kong in August, Singapore in September and Colombo in October. In November she joined the escort of the first Australian troop convoy, escorting it as far as Alexandria.

        December 1914 was spent in the Mediterranean and Hampshire returned to Devonport in January 1915. From there she joined the 6th Cruiser Sqn. Grand Fleet.

        Hampshire took part in North Sea patrols based on Cromarty or Scapa Flow and in November - December 1915 undertook a voyage to Alexanddrovisk in Northern Russia. She was present at the Battle of Jutland and sank whilst taking Lord Kitchener to Russia in June 1916.

        Sank on the 15th June 1916 off the west coast of the Orkney Islands, after striking a mine laid by U-75, while en route to Russia with Lord Kitchener on board. The loss of life was extremely heavy as the warship sank in a heavy gale.

           SM U-52 was a Type U 51 built at Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 234) Ordered 23 Aug 1914, Laid down 13 Mar 1915, Launched 8 Dec 1915 and Commissioned 16 Mar 1916.

        Her commanders were:
        8 May 1916 - 18 Sep 1917 Hans Walther.
        19 Sep 1917 - 29 Oct 1917 Oblt. Johannes Spieß.
        17 Nov 1917 - 28 Feb 1918 Siegfried Claaßen.
        1 Mar 1918 - 5 May 1918 Waldemar Haumann.
        6 May 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Franz Krapohl.

        She had a career of 4 patrols, sailing with I Flotilla until 25th of May 1916, 25 May 1916 to 24 Dec 1916 with II Flotilla, 24 Dec 1916 to 27 Apr 1917 with Pola Flotilla and 27 Apr 1917 to 11 Nov 1918 with II Flotilla.

        Successes totalled 30 ships sunk with a total of 70,856 tons:

        • 11 Jul 1916 Onward 266 br
        • 19 Aug 1916 HMS Nottingham 5,400 br
        • 26 Sep 1916 Conqueror Ii 526 br
        • 26 Sep 1916 Sarah Alice 299 br
        • 26 Sep 1916 St. Gothard 2,788 br
        • 25 Nov 1916 Egyptiana (damaged) 3,818 br
        • 25 Nov 1916 Suffren 12,750 fr
        • 10 Dec 1916 Emma Laurans 2,153 fr
        • 30 Mar 1917 Michelina Catalano 78 it
        • 4 Apr 1917 Missourian 7,924 am
        • 4 Apr 1917 Ravenna 4,101 it
        • 5 Apr 1917 Angel Marina 257 it
        • 7 Apr 1917 Seward 2,471 am
        • 8 Apr 1917 Alba 1,639 it
        • 9 Apr 1917 Esterel 2,574 fr
        • 11 Apr 1917 Ansgar 301 da
        • 12 Apr 1917 Glencliffe 3,673 br
        • 14 Apr 1917 Tres Macs 163 pt
        • 15 Apr 1917 Cabo Blanco (damaged) 2,163 sp
        • 16 Apr 1917 Crios 4,116 gr
        • 19 Apr 1917 Senhora Da Conceicao 206 pt
        • 20 Apr 1917 Caithness 3,500 br
        • 21 Apr 1917 Heather (hms) (damaged) 1,250 br
        • 23 Apr 1917 Acadia 1,556 nw
        • 6 Jul 1917 Flora 818 nw
        • 9 Jul 1917 Prince Abbas 2,030 br
        • 11 Jul 1917 Vanda 1,646 sw
        • 12 Jul 1917 Fredrika 1,851 sw
        • 17 Jul 1917 C 34 321 br
        • 20 Aug 1917 Bulysses 6,127 br
        • 1 Sep 1917 Tarapaca 2,506 fr
        • 2 Sep 1917 Wentworth 3,828 br
        • 4 Sep 1917 Peerless 3,112 br
        • 5 Sep 1917 Echunga 6,285 br
        • 5 Sep 1917 San Dunstano (damaged) 6,220 br
        • 11 Sep 1917 Tobol 3,741 ru
        • 16 Aug 1918 Fylde (damaged) 256 br

        U52 Surrendered on the 21st of Nov 1918, she was broken up at Swansea in 1922.

        There was another U 52 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 21 Dec 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 4 Feb 1939.

           SM U-53 was a Type U 51 built in the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 235). Ordered 23 Aug 1914 the vessel was laid down 17 Mar 1915, launched 1 Feb 1916 and commissioned 22 Apr 1916

        Commanders.
        22 Apr 1916 - 17 Aug 1918 Hans Rose.
        18 Aug 1918 - 29 Nov 1918 Otto von Schrader.

        U53 undertook 13 patrols between 31 May 1916 and 11 Nov 1918 with II Flotilla Successes amounted to 87 ships sunk with a total of 224,314 tons. 10 ships damaged with a total of 46,339 tons. 1 warship sunk with a total of 1,050 tons.

        • 11 Jul 1916 Calypso 2,876 br
        • 8 Oct 1916 Blommersdijk 4,850 nl
        • 8 Oct 1916 Christian Knutsen 4,224 nw
        • 8 Oct 1916 Stephano 3,449 br
        • 8 Oct 1916 Strathdene 4,321 br
        • 8 Oct 1916 West Point 3,847 br
        • 22 Jan 1917 Anna 154 fr
        • 22 Jan 1917 Zeta 3,053 nl
        • 28 Jan 1917 Nueva Montana 2,039 sp
        • 29 Jan 1917 Algorta 2,117 sp
        • 31 Jan 1917 Hekla 524 nw
        • 2 Feb 1917 Odin 1,045 nw
        • 3 Feb 1917 Housatonic 3,143 am
        • 4 Feb 1917 Aimee Maria 327 fr
        • 4 Feb 1917 Bangpuhtis 259 ru
        • 5 Feb 1917 Bravalla 1,519 sw
        • 9 Feb 1917 Marian 71 nl
        • 2 Mar 1917 Gazelle 119 br
        • 2 Mar 1917 Utopia 184 br
        • 3 Mar 1917 Theodoros Pangalos 2,838 gr
        • 5 Mar 1917 Federico Confalonieri 4,434 it
        • 9 Mar 1917 Cavour 1,929 it
        • 9 Mar 1917 Lars Fostenes 2,118 nw
        • 10 Mar 1917 St. Feodor (damaged) 126 ru
        • 11 Mar 1917 Folia 6,705 br
        • 11 Mar 1917 Gracia 3,129 sp
        • 12 Mar 1917 Hainaut 4,113 be
        • 14 Mar 1917 Aquila 1,092 nw
        • 18 Apr 1917 Scalpa 1,010 br
        • 18 Apr 1917 Sculptor 3,846 br
        • 19 Apr 1917 Tempus 2,981 br
        • 21 Apr 1917 Pontiac 1,698 br
        • 22 Apr 1917 Neepawah 1,799 ca
        • 23 Apr 1917 Eptapyrgion 4,307 br
        • 24 Apr 1917 Anglesea 4,534 br
        • 24 Apr 1917 Ferndene 3,770 br
        • 25 Apr 1917 Elisabeth (damaged) 217 da
        • 25 Apr 1917 Laura 335 br
        • 26 Apr 1917 Hekla 169 da
        • 27 Jun 1917 Ultonia 10,402 br
        • 8 Jul 1917 Asheim 2,147 nw
        • 8 Jul 1917 Atlantic 1,087 da
        • 10 Jul 1917 Cedric 197 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Mabel 205 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Pacific 235 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Peridot 214 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Pretoria 283 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Romantic 197 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Sea King 185 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Stoic 200 br
        • 16 Aug 1917 Athenia 8,668 br
        • 21 Aug 1917 Devonian 10,435 br
        • 21 Aug 1917 Roscommon 8,238 br
        • 22 Aug 1917 Verdi 7,120 br
        • 23 Aug 1917 Boniface 3,799 br
        • 26 Aug 1917 Durango 3,008 br
        • 26 Aug 1917 Kenmore 3,919 br
        • 10 Oct 1917 Bostonian 5,736 br
        • 10 Oct 1917 Gowrie 1,031 br
        • 11 Oct 1917 Lewis Luckenbach 3,906 am
        • 15 Oct 1917 San Nazario (damaged) 10,064 br
        • 17 Oct 1917 Manchuria 2,997 br
        • 17 Oct 1917 Polvena 4,750 br
        • 19 Oct 1917 Parkhaven 2,635 nl
        • 20 Nov 1917 Megrez 2,695 nl
        • 20 Nov 1917 Nederland 1,832 nl
        • 23 Nov 1917 Westlands 3,112 br
        • 24 Nov 1917 Dunrobin 3,617 br
        • 1 Dec 1917 Helenus (damaged) 7,555 br
        • 5 Dec 1917 Earlswood (damaged) 2,353 br
        • 6 Dec 1917 Jacob Jones (uss) 1,050 am
        • 9 Dec 1917 Nyanza (damaged) 6,695 br
        • 9 Dec 1917 War Tune 2,045 br
        • 10 Dec 1917 Øiekast 605 nw
        • 4 Feb 1918 Treveal 4,160 br
        • 6 Feb 1918 Holkar 61 br
        • 6 Feb 1918 Marsouin 55 fr
        • 7 Feb 1918 Beaumaris 2,372 br
        • 8 Feb 1918 Basuta 2,876 br
        • 9 Feb 1918 Lydie 2,559 br
        • 11 Feb 1918 Merton Hall 4,327 br
        • 2 Apr 1918 Meaford 1,889 br
        • 7 Apr 1918 Cadillac (damaged) 11,106 br
        • 7 Apr 1918 Knight Templar (damaged) 7,175 br
        • 7 Apr 1918 Port Campbell 6,230 br
        • 20 Jun 1918 Aisne (damaged) 315 br
        • 27 Jun 1918 Keelung 6,672 br
        • 28 Jun 1918 Queen 4,956 br
        • 30 Jun 1918 W.m.l. 145 br
        • 2 Jul 1918 Erme 116 br
        • 6 Jul 1918 Gullfaxi 46 is
        • 28 Aug 1918 Pauline 134 ru
        • 1 Sep 1918 Ami De Dieu 45 fr
        • 1 Sep 1918 Etoile Polaire 51 fr
        • 2 Sep 1918 Hirondelle 38 fr
        • 2 Sep 1918 Nicolazic 42 fr
        • 4 Sep 1918 War Firth 3,112 br
        • 5 Sep 1918 Rio Mondego (damaged) 733 pt

        On 1 Dec 1918 U53 Surrendered and was broken up at Swansea in 1922.

        There was another U 53 in World War Two. That boat was launched from its shipyard on 6 May 1939 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 24 Jun 1939.

           SM U-55 was a Type U 51 u-boat, built at Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 237). Ordered 23 Aug 1914, Laid down 28 Dec 1914, Launched 18 Mar 1916 and Commissioned 8 Jun 1916

        Her Commanders were:
        9 Jun 1916 - 9 Aug 1918 Wilhelm Werner.
        10 Aug 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Alexander Weiß .
        15 Sep 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Oblt. Hans Friedrich

        Her career consisted of 14 patrols between the 29th of July 1916 and 11th of Nov 1918 with II Flotilla. Successes included, 64 ships sunk with a total of 133,742 tons, 7 ships damaged with a total of 26,161 tons and 2 ships taken as prize with a total of 3,466 tons.

        • 28 Sep 1916 Orsino 172 br
        • 30 Sep 1916 Atle (prize) 1,725 sw
        • 30 Sep 1916 Talavera (prize) 1,741 sw
        • 24 Oct 1916 Clearfield 4,229 br
        • 28 Oct 1916 Marina 5,204 br
        • 22 Jan 1917 Ethel 23 br
        • 23 Jan 1917 Eden 142 ru
        • 23 Jan 1917 Salland 3,657 nl
        • 27 Jan 1917 Artist 3,570 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 Euonymus 60 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 Helena And Samuel 59 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 Marcelle 219 be
        • 30 Jan 1917 Merit 39 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 Trevone 46 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 W.A.H. 47 br
        • 30 Jan 1917 Wetherill 46 br
        • 31 Jan 1917 Dundee 2,290 ca
        • 31 Jan 1917 Saint Leon 230 fr
        • 31 Jan 1917 Yvonne 87 fr
        • 1 Feb 1917 Ada 24 br
        • 1 Feb 1917 Essonite 589 br
        • 1 Feb 1917 Inverlyon 59 br
        • 2 Feb 1917 Pomoschnick 167 ru
        • 6 Feb 1917 Saxon Briton 1,337 br
        • 7 Feb 1917 Yola 3,504 br
        • 4 Apr 1917 H. B. Linnemann (damaged) 444 da
        • 5 Apr 1917 Vilja 1,049 nw
        • 6 Apr 1917 Vine Branch 3,442 br
        • 8 Apr 1917 Petridge 1,712 br
        • 8 Apr 1917 Torrington 5,597 br
        • 8 Apr 1917 Umvoti 2,616 br
        • 12 Apr 1917 Toro 3,066 br
        • 15 Apr 1917 Astræa 260 da
        • 17 Apr 1917 Cairnhill 4,981 br
        • 8 Jun 1917 Russian Prince (damaged) 4,158 br
        • 9 Jun 1917 Achilles 641 br
        • 11 Jun 1917 Ausonia (damaged) 8,153 br
        • 12 Jun 1917 Coronado (damaged) 6,539 br
        • 23 Jun 1917 Sophie 89 da
        • 23 Jun 1917 Star 120 da
        • 31 Jul 1917 Belgian Prince 4,765 br
        • 6 Aug 1917 Eugenia 4,835 it
        • 9 Aug 1917 Oakfield (damaged) 3,618 br
        • 12 Aug 1917 Falkland 4,877 nw
        • 17 Aug 1917 Edina 455 br
        • 18 Aug 1917 Benjamin Stevenson 255 br
        • 4 Jan 1918 Rewa 7,305 br
        • 5 Jan 1918 War Baron 6,240 br
        • 9 Jan 1918 Ula 839 nw
        • 16 Jan 1918 Genevieve 1,598 fr
        • 20 Jan 1918 Hirondell 28 fr
        • 21 Jan 1918 Maria Caterina 71 nl
        • 26 Feb 1918 Eumaeus 6,696 br
        • 26 Feb 1918 Mouche 65 fr
        • 1 Mar 1918 Borga 1,046 br
        • 7 Mar 1918 Brise 160 fr
        • 7 Mar 1918 Saint Georges 102 fr
        • 7 Mar 1918 Saint Joseph 434 fr
        • 8 Mar 1918 Madeline 2,890 br
        • 10 Mar 1918 Cristina 2,083 sp
        • 15 May 1918 War Grange (damaged) 3,100 br
        • 16 May 1918 Tagona 2,004 ca
        • 17 May 1918 Motricine 4,047 fr
        • 18 May 1918 Denbigh Hall 4,943 br
        • 18 May 1918 Scholar 1,635 br
        • 16 Jul 1918 Miefield 1,368 nw
        • 17 Jul 1918 Carpathia 13,603 br
        • 23 Jul 1918 Anna Sofie 2,577 br
        • 31 Jul 1918 Zwaantje Cornelia (damaged) 149 nl
        • 1 Oct 1918 Montfort 6,578 br
        • 2 Oct 1918 Keltier 2,360 be
        • 4 Oct 1918 Uranus 350 ru
        • 10 Oct 1918 Andre 160 fr

        On the 26th of November 1918 U55 surrendered to Japan. The u-boat was taken in japanese service and renamed the O3 in 1920. She was dismantled at Sasebo Navy Yard between March and June 1921.

        There was another U 55 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 19 Oct 1939 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 21 Nov 1939.

           SM U-56 was a Type U 51 u-boat, built at the Shipyard Germaniawerft, Kiel (Werk 238). Ordered 23 Aug 1914, Laid down 28 Dec 1914, Launched 18 Apr 1916 and Commissioned 23 Jun 1916

        Between the 24th of Feb 1916 and 3rd of Nov 1916 she was commanded by Hermann Lorenz, and from the 18th of Jun 1916 sailed with II Flotilla. Successes totalled 5 ships sunk with a total of 5,701 tons.

        • 22 Oct 1916 Theodosi Tschernigowski 327 ru
        • 23 Oct 1916 Rensfjell 781 nw
        • 25 Oct 1916 Dag 963 nw
        • 26 Oct 1916 Oola 2,494 br
        • 1 Nov 1916 Ivanhoe 1,136 nw

        U56 went missing on or after the 3rd of November 1916 with all 35 hands lost. It had been reported that U56 was sunk by gunfire from the Russian destroyer Grozovoi off Khorne Island, Norway (near Vardö), but the vessel survived this attack. U 56 had put the crew of the Norwegian merchant ship Ivanhoe ashore at 07:45 on 3rd of November at Lodsvik. The Norwegian sailors were aboard during the action the previous day and their description matches the Russian account.

        There was another U 56 in World War Two, launched from its shipyard on 3 Sep 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 26 Nov 1938.

           SM U-57 was built at the Shipyard of A.G. Weser, Bremen (Werk 212) Ordered 6 Oct 1914, Laid down 25 Aug 1915, Launched 29 Apr 1916 and Commissioned 6 Jul 1916.

        Her commanders were:
        6 Jul 1916 - 19 Dec 1917 Carl-Siegfried Ritter von Georg.
        20 Dec 1917 - 6 Mar 1918 Oblt. Günther Sperling.
        7 Mar 1918 - 11 Nov 1918 Walter Stein

        U57 had a Career of 7 patrols between 7th of Jul 1916 and 11th of Nov 1918 with II Flotilla She claimed 55 ships sunk with a total of 91,606 tons, 6 ships sunk with a total of 15,687 tons and 1 warship sunk with a total of 1,250 tons.

        • 24 Sep 1916 Ranee (Damaged) 194 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Albatross 158 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Aphelion 197 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Briton 134 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Devonshire 148 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Laila 807 nw
        • 24 Sep 1916 Marguerite 151 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Otter 123 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Sunshine 185 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Tarantula 155 br
        • 24 Sep 1916 Otterhound 150 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Cynthia 133 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Fisher Prince 125 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Gamecock 151 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Harrier 162 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Loch Ness 176 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Nil Desperandum 148 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Quebec 133 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Seal 135 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 St. Hilda 94 br
        • 25 Sep 1916 Trinidad 147 br
        • 23 Oct 1916 HMS Genista 1,250 br
        • 26 Oct 1916 Rowanmore 10,320 br
        • 30 Oct 1916 Floreal 163 br
        • 31 Oct 1916 Saturn 1,108 nw
        • 18 Jan 1917 Manchester Inventor 4,247 br
        • 22 Jan 1917 Euphrates 2,809 be
        • 22 Jan 1917 Minho 179 pt
        • 22 Jan 1917 Trevean 3,081 br
        • 26 Jan 1917 Bisagno 2,252 it
        • 22 Mar 1917 Sirius 1,053 nw
        • 27 Mar 1917 Holgate 2,604 br
        • 28 Mar 1917 Gafsa 3,974 br
        • 29 Mar 1917 Crispin 3,965 br
        • 29 Mar 1917 Lincolnshire 3,965 br
        • 30 Mar 1917 Lady Patricia (damaged) 1,372 br
        • 31 Mar 1917 Braefield 427 br
        • 5 Apr 1917 Ebenezer 181 da
        • 12 May 1917 Refugio 2,642 br
        • 14 May 1917 Arlington Court (damaged) 4,346 br
        • 19 May 1917 Farnham 3,102 br
        • 24 May 1917 Belgian 3,657 br
        • 1 Jun 1917 Teal 141 br
        • 2 Jul 1917 May Flower 55 sw
        • 5 Jul 1917 Cuyahoga 4,586 br
        • 7 Jul 1917 Tarquah 3,859 br
        • 8 Jul 1917 Pegu 6,348 br
        • 10 Jul 1917 Garmoyle 1,229 br
        • 16 Jul 1917 Benguela (damaged) 5,530 br
        • 8 Oct 1917 Aylevarroo 908 br
        • 8 Oct 1917 Richard De Larrinaga 5,591 br
        • 12 Oct 1917 Cape Corso (damaged) 3,890 br
        • 12 Oct 1917 Georgios Markettos 2,269 gr
        • 13 Oct 1917 Diu 5,556 pt
        • 14 Oct 1917 East Wales 4,321 br
        • 20 Oct 1917 Norden 703 sw
        • 28 Nov 1917 Perm 1,312 da
        • 29 Nov 1917 Pierre 112 fr
        • 30 Nov 1917 Courage 51 br
        • 30 Nov 1917 Gazelle 40 br
        • 3 Dec 1917 Copeland 1,184 br
        • 6 Dec 1917 Saint Antoine De Padoue (damaged) 355 fr

        On the 24th of Nov 1918 U57 was surrendered to France, she was broken up at Cherburg in 1921.

        There was another U 57 in World War Two.That boat was launched from its shipyard on 3 Sep 1938 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 29 Dec 1938.

           SM U-60 was a Type U 57 built by A.G. Weser, Bremen (Werk 215). Ordered 6 Oct 1914, Laid down 22 Jun 1915, Launched 5 Jul 1916 and Commissioned 1 Nov 1916.

        Commanders.
        1 Nov 1916 - 31 Oct 1917 Karlgeorg Schuster.
        1 Nov 1917 - 20 Nov 1917 Karl (i.V.) Jasper.
        21 Nov 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 Franz Grünert

        Career 10 patrols.
        13 Jan 1917 - 11 Nov 1918 II Flotilla

        Successes 52 ships sunk with a total of 107,940 tons.
        3 ships damaged with a total of 7,447 tons.

        • 4 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Ghazee 5,084 br
        • 5 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Lux 2,621 br
        • 5 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Warley Pickering 4,196 br
        • 7 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Storskog 2,191 nw
        • 14 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Hopemoor 3,740 br
        • 17 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Dalbeattie 1,327 nw
        • 17 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Iolo 3,840 br
        • 21 Feb 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Tecwyn 132 br
        • 29 Mar 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Os 637 nw
        • 4 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Domingo 2,131 it
        • 6 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Marion 1,587 nw
        • 7 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Salmo 1,721 br
        • 16 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Queen Mary 5,658 br
        • 19 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Howth Head 4,440 br
        • 20 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Torr Head 5,911 br
        • 23 Apr 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Svanen 1,807 da
        • 10 Jun 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Clan Alpine 3,587 br
        • 17 Jun 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Nostra Madre 649 it
        • 19 Jun 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Brookby 3,679 br
        • 27 Jun 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Armadale 6,153 br
        • 29 Jul 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Cesarevitch Alexei 2,387 ru
        • 30 Jul 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Canis 526 nw
        • 9 Aug 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Agne 1,010 sw
        • 9 Aug 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Export 2,712 ru
        • 22 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Mascotte 199 fr
        • 23 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Gloire 51 fr
        • 23 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Henry Lippitt 895 am
        • 23 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Jeune Mathilde 58 fr
        • 25 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Edouard Detaille 2,185 fr
        • 29 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Bon Premier 1,352 fr
        • 29 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Eugenie Fautrel 2,212 fr
        • 29 Sep 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Percy B. 330 br
        • 1 Oct 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Saint Pierre 277 fr
        • 2 Oct 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Eugene Louise (damaged) 283 fr
        • 3 Oct 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Saint Antoine 217 fr
        • 3 Oct 1917 U 60 Karlgeorg Schuster Stella 219 fr
        • 11 Dec 1917 U 60 Franz Grünert Bard 709 nw
        • 12 Dec 1917 U 60 Franz Grünert St. Croix 2,530 nw
        • 19 Dec 1917 U 60 Franz Grünert Ingrid Ii 1,145 nw
        • 22 Dec 1917 U 60 Franz Grünert Hunsbrook (damaged) 4,463 br
        • 21 Feb 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Hugin 1,667 sw
        • 25 Feb 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Apollo 242 da
        • 3 Mar 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Northfield 2,099 br
        • 4 Mar 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Quarnero 3,237 it
        • 28 Apr 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Poitiers 2,045 fr
        • 28 Apr 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Rimfakse 1,119 nw
        • 29 Apr 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Saint Chamond 2,866 fr
        • 2 May 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Girdleness 3,018 br
        • 4 May 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Polbrae 1,087 br
        • 5 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Vera Elizabeth 180 br
        • 13 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Plawsworth 4,724 br
        • 17 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Harlseywood (damaged) 2,701 br
        • 17 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Saint Georges 633 fr
        • 20 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Gemini 2,128 br
        • 20 Jul 1918 U 60 Franz Grünert Orfordness 2,790 br

        Fate 21 Nov 1918 - Surrendered. Ran aground on the English East coast on the way to be broken up in 1921.

        There was another U 60 in World War Two.
        That boat was launched from its shipyard on 1 Jun 1939 and commissioned into the Kriegsmarine on 22 Jul 1939.

           KUK U-15 Austrian submarine was a Type U-10 launched in April 1915 and commissioned on the 6th of October 1915

        Commanders:
        6 Oct 1915 - 18 Nov 1915 Friedrich Schlosser
        28 Nov 1915 - 25 Mar 1916 Friedrich Fähndrich
        25 Mar 1916 - 10 May 1916 Franz Rzemenowsky von Trautenegg
        10 May 1916 - 11 Dec 1916 Friedrich Fähndrich
        9 Oct 1916 - 28 Oct 1916 Franz Rzemenowsky von Trautenegg
        11 Dec 1916 - 12 Jun 1917 Otto Molitor
        12 Jun 1917 - 17 Jul 1917 Otto Molitor
        17 Jul 1917 - 9 Mar 1918 Ludwig Müller
        17 Mar 1918 - 31 Oct 1918 Andreas Korparic

        U15 claimed 5 ships sunk with a total of 8,044 tons

        • 18 Dec 1915 Erzen 25 al
        • 18 Dec 1915 Figlio Preligiona 80 al
        • 17 May 1916 Stura 2,237 it
        • 23 Jun 1916 Citta Di Messina 3,495 it
        • 23 Jun 1916 Fourche 745 fr
        • 25 Oct 1916 Polceverra 2,207 it

        U15 was scrapped in 1920.

           KUK U-4 Austrian Submarine, a type U-3 was launched on the 20th November 1908 and commissioned on 29th August 1909 She was commanded by: Hermann Jüstel 7 Jul 1913 - 2 Apr 1915, Edgar Wolf 2 Apr 1915 - 9 Apr 1915, Rudolf Singule 9 Apr 1915 - 30 Nov 1917 and Franz Rzemenowsky von Trautenegg from 30th of Nov 1917 onwards.

        She claimed 14 ships sunk with a total of 15,039 tons, 2 ships damaged with a total of 3,535 tons, 3 ships taken as prize with a total of 13 tons, 1 warship sunk with a total of 7,234 tons and 1 warship damaged with a total of 5,400 tons.

        • 28 Nov 1914 k.u.k. U4 Hermann Jüstel Fiore Del Mare (prize) 13 al
        • 9 Jun 1915 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Dublin (hms) (damaged) 5,400 br
        • 18 Jul 1915 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Giuseppe Garibaldi 7,234 it
        • 9 Dec 1915 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Gjovadje (prize) unknown al
        • 9 Dec 1915 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Papagallo 10 al
        • 3 Jan 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Halil (prize) unknown al
        • 2 Feb 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Jean Bart Ii 475 fr
        • 30 Mar 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule John Pritchard 118 br
        • 14 Aug 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Pantellaria 204 it
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Inverbervie 4,309 br
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Ml 246 (damaged) 37 br
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Italia (damaged) 3,498 it
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Ml 230 37 br
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Ml 253 37 br
        • 14 Sep 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Ml 255 37 br
        • 13 Oct 1916 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Margaretha 2,092 it
        • 4 May 1917 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Perseo 4,857 it
        • 30 May 1917 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Italia 1,305 fr
        • 19 Jun 1917 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Cefira 411 fr
        • 19 Jun 1917 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Edouard Corbiere 475 fr
        • 12 Jul 1917 k.u.k. U4 Rudolf Singule Berthilde 672 fr

        She was scrapped in 1920.

           

        HMS Dublin

        HMS Dublin, was a British Light cruiser of 5,400 tons. Built in 1911 by W. Beardmore & Co. Ltd. Glasgow for the Royal Navy She was damaged during attack by the Austrian Submarine KUK U4 commanded by Rudolf Singule off Cape Pali on the 9th of June 1915 with the loss of 12 lives.

           

        HMS Edgar

        HMS Edgar was a Protected Cruiser with a GRT of 7,350 tons. She was built 1890 at the Devonport Dockyard. Edgar was damaged during attack by the Austrian U-Boat KUK U29 commanded by Leo Prásil on the 4th April 1918 (35.06N, 14.24E). No casualties.

           Austrian Submarine KUK SM U-23 was a Type U-20 which was launched on the 5th of January 1917 and commissioned 1st September 1917. From the 15th of Apr 1917 to 21 Feb 1918 she was commanded by Klemens Ritter von Bezard. KUK SMU-23 was sunk on the 21st of February 1918.

           

           

        HMS Jupiter - Malta 1915

        HMS Jupiter was a Majestic class pre-dreadnought battleship, built under the Spencer Programme (named after the First Lord of the Admiralty, John Poyntz Spencer, 5th Earl Spencer) of 8 December 1893, which sought to counter the growing naval strength of France and the Russian Empire. With nine units commissioned, they were the largest class of battleships in history in terms of the number of member ships. This class was designed by Sir William White.

        • Ships in Majestic Class
        • Caesar
        • Hannibal
        • Illustrious
        • Jupiter
        • Magnificent
        • Majestic
        • Mars
        • Prince George
        • Victorious

        When the lead ship, Majestic, was launched in 1895, at 421 ft (128 m) long and with a full-load displacement of 16,000 tons, she was the largest battleship ever built at the time. The Majestics were considered good seaboats with an easy roll and good steamers, although they suffered from high fuel consumption. They began life as coal-burners, but HMS Mars in 1905–1906 became the first battleship converted to oil-burning, and the rest were similarly converted by 1907–1908. The class was the last to have side-by-side funnels, with successor battleship classes having funnels in a line. Except for Caesar, Hannibal, and Illustrious, they had a new design in which the bridge was mounted around the base of the foremast behind the conning tower to prevent a battle-damaged bridge from collapsing around the tower. Although the earlier ships had pear-shaped barbettes and fixed loading positions for the main guns, Caesar and Illustrious had circular barbettes and all-around loading for their main guns, which established the pattern for future classes. Although Harvey armour had been used on battleship HMS Renown of the Centurion class, in the Majestics it was used in an entire class of British battleships for the first time. It allowed equal protection with less cost in weight compared to previous types of armour, allowing the Majestic class to have a deeper and lighter belt than previous battleships without any loss in protection.

        The Majestics were given a new gun, the 46-ton BL 12 inch (305 mm) Mk VIII /35 gun. They were the first new British battleships to mount a 12 inch main battery since the 1880s. The new gun was a significant improvement on the 13.5 inch (343 mm) gun which had been fitted on the Admiral and Royal Sovereign classes that preceded the Majestics and was lighter. This saving in weight allowed the Majestic class to carry a secondary battery of twelve 6 inch (152 mm) 40-calibre guns, a larger secondary armament than in previous classes.

        The Majestics were to be a benchmark for successor pre-dreadnoughts. While the preceding Royal Sovereign-class battleships had revolutionized and stabilised British battleship design by introducing the high-freeboard battleship with four main-battery guns in twin mountings in barbettes fore and aft, it was the Majestics that settled on the 12 inch (305 mm) main battery and began the practice of mounting armoured gunhouses over the barbettes; these gunhouses, although very different from the old-style, heavy, circular gun turrets that preceded them, would themselves become known as "turrets" and became the standard on warships worldwide. More directly, the Majestic design itself also was adapted by the Imperial Japanese Navy for its own Shikishima-class pre-dreadnoughts, as well as Mikasa, which was largely based on the Shikishimas.

        When World War I broke out in August 1914, Jupiter was transferred to the 7th Battle Squadron of the Channel Fleet. During this service, she covered the passage of the British Expeditionary Force from England to France in September 1914. In late October 1914, Jupiter was reassigned to serve alongside her sister ship Majestic as a guard ship at the Nore. On 3 November 1914, Jupiter and Majestic left the Nore and relieved their sister ships Hannibal and Magnificent of guard ship duty on the Humber. In December 1914, Jupiter moved on to guard ship duty on the Tyne. On 5 February 1915, Jupiter was detached from her guard ship duty to serve temporarily as an icebreaker at Arkhangelsk, Russia, while the regular icebreaker there was under refit. In this duty, Jupiter made history by becoming the first ship ever to get through the ice into Arkhangelsk during the winter; her February arrival was the earliest in history there.

        Jupiter left Arkhangelsk in May 1915 to return to the Channel Fleet, and was paid off at Birkenhead on 19 May 1915. She then began a refit by Cammell Laird there that lasted until August 1915. Her refit completed, Jupiter was commissioned at Birkenhead on 12 August 1915 for service in the Mediterranean Sea on the Suez Canal Patrol. On 21 October 1915, she was transferred to the Red Sea to become guard ship at Aden and flagship of the Senior Naval Officer, Red Sea Patrol. She was relieved of flagship duty by the troopship RIM Northbrook of the Royal Indian Marine on 9 December 1915 and returned to the Suez Canal Patrol for Mediterranean service. This lasted from April to November 1916, with a home port in Port Said, Egypt.

        Jupiter left Egypt on 22 November 1916 and returned to the United Kingdom, where she was paid off at Devonport to provide crews for antisubmarine vessels. She remained at Devonport until April 1919, in commission as a special service vessel and auxiliary patrol ship until February 1918, when she was again paid off. After that she became an accommodation ship. In April 1919, Jupiter became the first Majestic-class ship to be placed on the disposal list. She was sold for scrapping on 15 January 1920, and on 11 March 1920 was towed from Chatham to Blyth to be scrapped.

           

           

        HMS London

        HMS London was a pre-dreadnought battleship of the Formidable class. She was laid down at Portsmouth Dockyard on 8th of December 1898, launched on 21st of September 1899, and completed in June 1902. After the first three Formidables, there was a change in design for the last five ships, starting with London; as a result they are often considered to constitute the London class, but also can be viewed as in effect a sub-class of the Formidable class. The main difference in the Londons was thinner deck armour, some other detail changes to the armour scheme and the consequent lower displacement.

        HMS London commissioned at Portsmouth Dockyard on 7th of June 1902 for service in the Mediterranean Fleet. Before departing home waters, she served as flagship for the Coronation Review for King Edward VII at Spithead on 16th of August 1902. While in the Mediterranean, she underwent refits at Malta in 1902–1903 and 1906. In March 1907, London transferred to the Nore Division, Home Fleet, at the Nore, then to the Channel Fleet on 2nd of June 1908, serving as Flagship, Rear Admiral, Channel Fleet. She underwent a refit at Chatham Dockyard in 1908, and paid off there on 19th of April 1909 to undergo an extensive refit. Her refit complete, London commissioned at Chatham on 8th of February 1910 to serve as Second Flagship, Rear Admiral, Atlantic Fleet. Under the fleet reorganisation of 1 May 1912, she became part of the Second Home Fleet at the Nore, reduced to a nucleus crew and assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron. She collided with the merchant steamer SS Don Benite on 11 May 1912. She transferred to the 5th Battle Squadron and was used in experiments with flying off aircraft from May 1912 until 1913, employing a ramp built over her forecastle which had been transferred from the battleship Hibernia. During these experiments, Commander Charles Rumney Samson – who had made the world's first takeoff from a moving ship in May 1912 from Hibernia using a Short Improved S.27 biplane and the same ramp—repeated his feat by taking off in the same aeroplane from London on 4th of July 1912 while London was underway.

        Upon the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the 5th Battle Squadron was assigned to the Channel Fleet and based at Portland. Their first task was to escort the British Expeditionary Force across the English Channel. A number of experimental paint schemes were tried during the first month of the war but these were quickly abandoned in favour of battleship grey. It was briefly planned to deploy the squadron to replace the ships lost during the Action of 22nd of September 1914 but the orders to transfer to the Medway were rescinded.

        The squadron transferred to Sheerness on the 14th of November 1914 to guard against a possible German invasion. While there HMS London was present when HMS Bulwark exploded and London's crew joined in the attempts to rescue survivors. The enquiry into the explosion was carried out aboard HMS London. The squadron returned to Portland on 30th of December 1914.

        On the 19th of March 1915, London was transferred for service in the Dardanelles Campaign. She joined the British Dardanelles Squadron at Lemnos on 23rd of March 1915, and supported the main landings at Gaba Tepe and Anzac Cove on 25th of April 1915.

        London, along with battleships HMS Implacable, HMS Queen, and HMS Prince of Wales, was transferred to the 2nd Detached Squadron, organised to reinforce the Italian Navy in the Adriatic Sea when Italy declared war on Austria-Hungary. She was based at Taranto, Italy, and underwent a refit at Gibraltar in October 1915 during her Adriatic service. In October 1916, London returned to the United Kingdom, paid off at Devonport Dockyard to provide crews for antisubmarine vessels, and was laid up. While inactive, she underwent a refit in 1916–1917.

        In February 1918, London moved to Rosyth and began conversion to a minelayer. The conversion included removal of all four of her 12-inch (305-mm) guns and her anti-torpedo nets, replacement of her after main-battery turret with a 6-inch (152-mm) gun, and installation of minelaying equipment on her quarterdeck, including rails for 240 mines, and of a canvas screen to conceal the entire quarterdeck from external view. The conversion was completed in April 1918, and on 18th of May 1918 London was recommissioned at Rosyth for service in the Grand Fleet's 1st Minelaying Squadron. Before the war ended on 11th of November 1918, London had laid 2,640 mines in the Northern Mine Barrage.

        In January 1919, London was reduced to reserve at Devonport as a depot ship. As part of a post-war fleet organisation, she was assigned to the 3rd Fleet there. London was placed on the disposal list at Devonport in January 1920, and on the sale list on 31st of March 1920. She was sold for scrapping to Stanlee Shipbreaking Company on 4th of June 1920. She was resold to the Slough Trading Company, then again resold to a German firm. She was towed to Germany for scrapping in April 1922.

         HMS Venerable  

        HMS Venerable at Malta 1915

        HMS Venerable (1902 - 1922) pre-dreadnought battleship.She was laid down at Chatham Dockyard on 2 January 1899, launched on 2 November 1899, and completed in November 1902. She was scrapped in 1922.

        London subclass

        After the first three Formidables, there was a change in design for the last five ships, starting with London; as a result they are often considered to constitute the London class, but also can be viewed as in effect a sub-class of the Formidable class. The main difference in the Londons was thinner deck armour, some other detail changes to the armour scheme and the consequent lower displacement.

        Pre-World War I

        After many delays due to difficulties with her machinery contractors, HMS Venerable commissioned on 12 November 1902 for service as Second Flagship, Rear Admiral, Mediterranean Fleet. During her Mediterranean service, she ran aground outside Algiers harbor, suffering slight hull damage, and underwent a refit at Malta in 1906–1907. On 12 August 1907 she was relieved as flagship by battleship HMS Prince of Wales, and her Mediterranean service ended on 6 January 1908, when she paid off at Chatham Dockyard.

        Venerable recommissioned on 7 January 1908 for Channel Fleet service. She paid off at Chatham for an extensive refit in February 1909.

        The refit complete, Venerable recommissioned on 19 October 1909 for service in the Atlantic Fleet. On 13 May 1912 she transferred to the Second Home Fleet at the Nore[6] and went into the commissioned reserve with a nucleus crew as part of the 5th Battle Squadron.

        World War I

        When World War I broke out in August 1914, the 5th Battle Squadron was assigned to the Channel Fleet, based at Portland. Returning to full commission, Venerable patrolled the English Channel, and on 25 August 1914 covered the movement of the Portsmouth Marine Battalion to Ostend, Belgium,

        In October 1914, Venerable was attached to the Dover Patrol for bombardment duties in support of Allied troops fighting on the front, and bombarded German positions along the Belgian coast between Westende and Lombardsijde from 27 October 1914 to 30 October 1914. She also served as flagship of the Commander-in-Chief, Dover Patrol, Rear Admiral Sir Horace Hood, from 27 October 1914 to 29 October 1914. On 3 November 1914, she was detached to support the East Coast Patrol during the Gorleston Raid, then returned to the 5th Battle Squadron.

        The 5th Battle Squadron transferred from Portland to Sheerness on 14 November 1914 to guard against a possible German invasion of the United Kingdom. The squadron returned to Portland on 30 December 1914. Venerable again bombarded German positions near Westende on 11 March 1915 and 10 May 1915.

        On 12 May 1915, Venerable was ordered to the Dardanelles to replace battleship HMS Queen Elizabeth in the Dardanelles Campaign. From 14 August 1915 to 21 August 1915, she supported Allied attacks on Ottoman Turkish positions at Suvla Bay.

        In October 1915, Venerable arrived at Gibraltar for a refit. Emerging from the refit in December 1915, she transferred to the Adriatic Sea to reinforce the Italian Navy against the Austro-Hungarian Navy, serving there until December 1916.

        Venerable then returned to the United Kingdom, arriving at Portsmouth Dockyard on 19 December 1916, where she was laid up. In February and March 1918 she was refitted there as a depot ship, and she moved to Portland on 27 March 1918 to serve as a depot ship for minelaying trawlers. She was attached to the Northern Patrol through August 1918, then to the Southern Patrol from September to December 1918.

        Disposal

        Venerable paid off into care and maintenance at Portland at the end of December 1918. She was placed on the disposal list there in May 1919 and on the sale list on 4 February 1920. She was sold to Stanlee Shipbreaking Company for scrapping on 4 June 1920, resold to Slough Trading Company in 1922, then resold again to a German firm in the middle of 1922. She was towed to Germany for scrapping.

           

        HMS Cornwallis

        HMS Cornwallis was laid down by Thames Ironworks and Shipbuilding Company at Leamouth, London on 19 July 1899 and launched on 17 July 1901, when she was christened by Mrs. William L. Ainslie, wife of one of the directors. The launching ceremony was subdued, due to the Court mourning, yet the launch was witnessed by a vast throng of spectators, including diplomats from the other naval powers at the time. After delays due to labour troubles, she was completed in February 1904. HMS Cornwallis commissioned on 9 February 1904 to relieve battleship Renown in the Mediterranean Fleet. In the Mediterranean Sea she collided with the Greek brigantine Angelica on 17 September 1904, but suffered no serious damage. She transferred to the Channel Fleet in February 1905, then to the Atlantic Fleet on 14 January 1907. During her Atlantic Fleet service, she underwent a refit at Gibraltar from January to May 1908, and became Second Flagship, Rear Admiral, on 25 August 1909. In August 1909, Cornwallis transferred back to the Mediterranean Fleet and was based at Malta. Under a fleet reorganization on 1 May 1912, the Mediterranean Fleet battle squadron became the 4th Battle Squadron, Home Fleet, based at Gibraltar rather than Malta, and Cornwallis thus became a Home Fleet unit at Gibraltar. She was reduced to a nucleus crew in the 6th Battle Squadron, Second Fleet, in March 1914.

        When World War I began in August 1914, plans originally called for Cornwallis and battleships Agamemnon, Albemarle, Duncan, Exmouth, Russell, and Vengeance to combine in the 6th Battle Squadron and serve in the Channel Fleet, where the squadron was to patrol the English Channel and cover the movement of the British Expeditionary Force to France. However, plans also existed for the 6th Battle Squadron to be assigned to the Grand Fleet, and, when the war began, the Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, requested that Cornwallis and her four surviving sister ships of the Duncan class (Albemarle, Duncan, Exmouth, and Russell) be assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron in the Grand Fleet for patrol duties to make up for the Grand Fleet's shortage of cruisers. Accordingly, the 6th Battle Squadron was abolished temporarily, and Cornwallis joined the 3rd Battle Squadron at Scapa Flow on 8 August 1914.

        Cornwallis and her four Duncan-class sisters, as well as the battleships of the King Edward VII class, temporarily were transferred to the Channel Fleet on 2 November 1914 to reinforce that fleet in the face of German Navy activity in the Channel Fleet's area. On 13 November 1914, the King Edward VII-class ships returned to the Grand Fleet, but Cornwallis and the other Duncans stayed in the Channel Fleet, where they reconstituted the 6th Battle Squadron on 14 November 1914. This squadron was given a mission of bombarding German submarine bases on the coast of Belgium, and was based at Portland, although it transferred to Dover immediately on 14 November 1914. However, due a lack of antisubmarine defenses at Dover, the squadron returned to Portland on 19 November 1914. The 6th Battle Squadron returned to Dover in December 1914. Cornwallis was detached from the squadron in late December 1914 and assigned to West Ireland, where she was based at Clew Bay and Killarney Bay. She remained there until January 1915.

        In January 1915, Cornwallis was ordered to the Dardanelles to participate in the Dardanelles Campaign. She departed Portland on 24 January 1915 and arrived at Tenedos to join the British Dardanelles Squadron on 13 February 1915. HMS Cornwallis participated in all the operations of the Dardanelles campaign. She took part in the opening bombardment of the Ottoman Turkish entrance forts on 18 February 1915 and 19 February 1915 (firing the first shell of the bombardment), combined with battleships Albion, Triumph, and Vengeance in using her secondary battery to silence forts Sedd el Bahr and Kum Kale on 25 February 1915, and took part in the main bombardment of the Narrows forts on 18 March 1915. She also supported the landings at Morto Bay on 25 April 1915. From 18 December 1915 through 20 December 1915, she covered the evacuation of Allied troops from Suvla Bay, firing 500 12-inch (305-mm) and 6,000 6-inch (152-mm) rounds, and was the last large ship to leave the Suvla Bay area.

        After the Suvla Bay evacuation was complete, Cornwallis was transferred to the Suez Canal Patrol, which she joined on 4 January 1916. She operated as part of this patrol and on the East Indies Station until March 1916, including convoy duty in the Indian Ocean. She returned to the eastern Mediterranean in March 1916, and underwent a refit at Malta in May and June 1916.

        On 9 January 1917, Cornwallis was hit on her starboard side by a torpedo from German submarine U-32, commanded by Kurt Hartwig, in the eastern Mediterranean, 60 nautical miles (110 km) east of Malta. Some of her stokeholds flooded, causing her to list about ten degrees to starboard, but counter flooding corrected the list. About 75 minutes after the first torpedo hit, another did, also on the starboard side, and Cornwallis rolled quickly to starboard. Fifteen men were killed in the torpedo explosions, but she stayed afloat long enough to get the rest of the crew off. She sank about 30 minutes after the second torpedo hit.

           

        HMS Exmouth

        HMS Exmouth was laid down by Cammell Laird at Birkenhead on 10 August 1899. She was floated out on 31 August 1901, when she was named by Lady Alice Stanley, wife of Lord Stanley, Financial Secretary to the War Office, who afterwards gave a speech. After delays due to labour problems, she was completed in May 1903. HMS Exmouth was commissioned at Chatham Dockyard on 2 June 1903 for service in the Mediterranean Fleet. She returned to the United Kingdom in May 1904, and on 18 May 1904 recommissioned as Flagship, Vice Admiral, Home Fleet, serving as flagship of Sir Arthur Wilson. When the Home Fleet was redesignated as the Channel Fleet, she continued in her capacity as flagship as a Channel Fleet unit. She transferred her flag in April 1907, was reduced to a nucleus crew, and entered the commissioned reserve to begin a refit at Portsmouth Dockyard. Her refit complete, she recommissioned on 25 May 1907 to serve as Flagship, Vice Admiral, Atlantic Fleet. On 20 November 1908 she transferred to the Mediterranean Fleet to serve as flagship there, and underwent a refit at Malta in 1908–1909. Under a fleet reorganization of 1 May 1912, the Mediterranean Fleet became the 4th Battle Squadron, First Fleet, Home Fleet, and changed its base from Malta to Gibraltar. Exmouth became Flagship, Vice Admiral, Home Fleet, in July 1912. In December 1912, battleship HMS Dreadnought replaced Exmouth in the 4th Battle Squadron, and Exmouth began a refit at Malta. Upon completion of her refit, Exmouth recommissioned on 1 July 1913 at Devonport Dockyard with a nucleus crew to serve in the commissioned reserve with the 6th Battle Squadron, Second Fleet. She was assigned duties as a gunnery training ship at Devonport.

        When World War I began in August 1914, plans originally called for Exmouth and battleships Agamemnon, Albemarle, Cornwallis, Duncan, Russell, and Vengeance to combine in the 6th Battle Squadron and serve in the Channel Fleet, where the squadron was to patrol the English Channel and cover the movement of the British Expeditionary Force to France. However, plans also existed for the 6th Battle Squadron to be assigned to the Grand Fleet, and, when the war began, the Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet, Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, requested that Exmouth and her four surviving sister ships of the Duncan class (Albemarle, Cornwallis, Duncan, and Russell) be assigned to the 3rd Battle Squadron in the Grand Fleet for patrol duties to make up for the Grand Fleet's shortage of cruisers. Accordingly, the 6th Battle Squadron was abolished temporarily, and Exmouth joined the 3rd Battle Squadron at Scapa Flow on 8 August 1914. She worked with the Grand Fleet's cruisers on the Northern Patrol. When the Grand Fleet dreadnought battleship HMS Audacious struck a mine north of Ireland on 27 October 1914, Exmouth was sent to tow her to safety, but Audacious had to be abandoned before Exmouth arrived; Audacious capsized and exploded just as Exmouth appeared on the scene.

        Exmouth and her four Duncan-class sisters, as well as the battleships of the King Edward VII class, temporarily were transferred to the Channel Fleet on 2 November 1914 to reinforce that fleet in the face of Imperial German Navy activity in the Channel Fleet's area. On 13 November 1914, the King Edward VII-class ships returned to the Grand Fleet, but Exmouth and the other Duncans stayed in the Channel Fleet, where they reconstituted the 6th Battle Squadron on 14 November 1914. This squadron was given a mission of bombarding German submarine bases on the coast of Belgium, and was based at Portland, although it transferred to Dover immediately on 14 November 1914. However, due a lack of antisubmarine defenses at Dover, the squadron returned to Portland on 19 November 1914.

        Exmouth and Russell bombarded Zeebrugge, which was used by German submarines on passage from their base at Bruges, on 23 November 1914, firing over 400 rounds in what was described as a highly successful action in contemporary Dutch reports but actually achieved very little and discouraged the Royal Navy from continuing such bombardments.

        The 6th Battle Squadron returned to Dover in December 1914, then transferred to Sheerness on 30 December 1914 to relieve the 5th Battle Squadron there in guarding against a German invasion of the United Kingdom. Between January and May 1915, the 6th Battle Squadron was dispersed. Exmouth left the squadron when she transferred to the Dardanelles on 12 May 1915 for service in the Dardanelles Campaign as Flagship, Rear Admiral, supporting squadron, flying the flag of Rear Admiral Nicholson. She was fitted with extra-heavy anti-torpedo nets for this service. After the torpedoing and sinking of battleships HMS Goliath, HMS Triumph, and HMS Majestic, all within the space of two weeks in May 1915, she was the only battleship allowed to remain off the Gallipoli Peninsula beaches. She supported the Allied attack on Achi Baba on 4 June 1915 and Allied attacks in the Cape Helles area in August 1915.

        Exmouth left the Dardanelles in November 1915 and transferred to the Aegean Sea to become Flagship, 3rd Detached Squadron, a force based at Salonika that had been organized to assist the French Navy in blockading the Aegean coast of Greece and Bulgaria and to reinforce the Suez Canal Patrol. On 28 November 1915, she took aboard personnel of the British Belgrade Naval Force as they were being evacuated from Serbia. From September to December 1916 she served in the Allied force supporting Allied demands against the government of Greece, participating in the seizure of the Greek fleet at Salamis and landing Royal Marines at Athens on 1 December 1916.

        Exmouth transferred to the East Indies Station in March 1917, where she performed convoy escort duties in the Indian Ocean between Colombo and Bombay. In June 1917, she ended this service to return to the United Kingdom, calling at Zanzibar, The Cape and Sierra Leone during the voyage. She arrived at Devonport in August 1917, and paid off to provide crews for antisubmarine vessels. Exmouth remained in reserve at Devonport until April 1919, and was used as an accommodation ship beginning in January 1918.

        Exmouth was placed on the sale list in April 1919 and sold for scrapping to Forth Shipbreaking Company on 15 January 1920. Her hull was scrapped in the Netherlands.

           

        HMS King Edward VII

        HMS King Edward VII was laid down at Devonport Dockyard on 8 March 1902. She was launched by King Edward VII on 23 July 1903, and completed in February 1905. Named after King Edward VII, was the lead ship of her class of Royal Navy pre-dreadnought battleships. King Edward VII consented to having King Edward VII carry his name on the condition that she always serve as a flagship. The Royal Navy honoured this wish throughout her career. She was commissioned in 1905, and entered service with the Atlantic Fleet as Flagship, Commander-in-chief (by request of the King, she was always to serve as a Flagship). Rendered obsolete in 1906 with the commissioning of the revolutionary Dreadnought, she underwent a refit in 1907, following which she was assigned to the Channel Fleet and then to the Home Fleet. In 1912, she, together with her sister ships, formed the 3rd Battle Squadron.

        At the outbreak of the Great War, the 3rd Battle Squadron was assigned to the Grand Fleet and based at Rosyth, with King Edward VII continuing her service as squadron flagship. The squadron was used to supplement the Grand Fleet's cruisers on the Northern Patrol. On 2 November 1914, the squadron was detached to reinforce the Channel Fleet and was rebased at Portland. The squadron returned to the Grand Fleet on 13 November, although King Edward VII remained behind temporarily, not returning to the Grand Fleet until 30 November 1914.

        King Edward VII served in the Grand Fleet until her loss in January 1916. During sweeps by the fleet, she and her sisters often steamed at the heads of divisions of the far more valuable dreadnoughts, where they could protect the dreadnoughts by watching for mines or by being the first to strike them.

        On 6 January 1916, King Edward VII — having transferred her flag temporarily – departed Scapa Flow at 07:12 on a voyage around the northern coast of Scotland to Belfast, where she was scheduled to undergo a refit. At 1047, she struck a mine that had been laid by the German auxiliary cruiser SMS Möwe off Cape Wrath. The explosion occurred under the starboard engine room, and King Edward VII listed 8° to starboard. Her commanding officer – Captain Maclachlan – ordered her helm put over to starboard to close the coast and beach the ship if necessary, but the helm jammed hard to starboard and the engine rooms quickly flooded, stopping the engines. Counterflooding reduced her list to 5°.

        Signals to the passing collier Princess Melita induced her to close with King Edward VII and attempt to tow the battleship; soon, flotilla leader Kempfenfelt also arrived and joined the tow attempt. Towing began at 14:15, but King Edward VII settled deeper in the water and took on a 15° list in a rising sea and strong winds and proved unmanageable. Princess Melita's towline parted at 1440, after which Captain Maclachlan ordered Kempfenfelt to slip her tow as well. With flooding continuing and darkness approaching, Captain Maclachlan ordered King Edward VII abandoned. The destroyer Musketeer came alongside at 14:45, and she and destroyers Fortune and Marne, took off the crew with the loss of only one life (a man fell between the battleship and one of the rescue vessels), the last man off being Captain Maclachlan, who boarded destroyer Nessus at 16:10. Fortune, Marne, and Musketeer departed to take the battleship's crew to port, while Nessus stayed on the scene until 1720 with tugs that had arrived to assist. After Nessus departed, the tugs continued to stand by, and saw King Edward VII capsize at 2010 and sink around nine hours after the explosion.

        At the time it was not clear whether King Edward VII had hit a naval mine or a been torpedoed. The presence of the minefield was determined from an examination of German records after the war.

        Divers first visited the wreck of King Edward VII, in 377 feet (115 meters) of water, in April 1997.

         HMS New Zealand  

        HMS New Zealand

        HMS New Zealand was one of three Indefatigable-class battlecruisers built for the defence of the British Empire. Launched in 1911, the ship was funded by the government of New Zealand as a gift to Britain, and she was commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1912. She had been intended for the China Station, but was released by the New Zealand government at the request of the Admiralty for service in British waters. During 1913, New Zealand was sent on a ten-month tour of the British Dominions, with an emphasis on a visit to her namesake nation. She was back in British waters at the start of World War I, and operated as part of the Royal Navy's Grand Fleet, in opposition to the German High Seas Fleet. During the war, the battlecruiser participated in all three of the major North Sea battles—Heligoland Bight, Dogger Bank, and Jutland—and was involved in the response to the inconclusive Raid on Scarborough, and the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. New Zealand contributed to the destruction of two cruisers during her wartime service and was hit by enemy fire only once, sustaining no casualties. Her status as a "lucky ship" was attributed by the crew to a Maori piupiu (warrior's skirt) and hei-tiki (pendant) worn by the captain during battle. After the war, New Zealand was sent on a second world tour, this time to allow Admiral John Jellicoe to review the naval defences of the Dominions. In 1920, the battlecruiser was placed in reserve. She was broken up for scrap in 1922 in order to meet Britain's tonnage limit in the disarmament provisions of the Washington Naval Treaty.

        • Name: HMS New Zealand
        • Namesake: Dominion of New Zealand
        • Builder: Fairfield Shipbuilding and Engineering, Govan
        • Laid down: 20 June 1910
        • Launched: 1 July 1911
        • Commissioned: 19 November 1912
        • Struck: 19 December 1922
        • Fate: Sold for scrap, 19 December 1922

        New Zealand was sent on a ten-month flag-waving tour of New Zealand via South Africa in 1913. During this tour, the ship was seen by an estimated half-million New Zealanders, almost half the population and her captain was presented with a Maori piupiu (a warrior's skirt made from rolled flax) together with a greenstone hei-tiki (pendant), which were intended to ward off evil. The Admiralty requested that New Zealand return to the United Kingdom when the tour concluded, rather than remain in the Pacific region as originally planned. The New Zealand Government acceded to the request and, upon her arrival on 8 December 1913, New Zealand joined the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (1st BCS) of the Grand Fleet. The squadron visited Brest in February 1914, and Riga, Reval and Kronstadt in the Russian Empire the following June. On 19 August 1914, shortly after World War I began, New Zealand was transferred to the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron (2nd BCS). HMS New Zealand became flagship of the 2nd Battlecruiser Squadron of the Grand Fleet on 15 January 1915, and saw action the following week in the Battle of Dogger Bank.

        The squadron joined the Grand Fleet in a sortie on 29 March, in response to intelligence that the German fleet was leaving port as the precursor to a major operation. By the next night, the German ships had withdrawn, and the squadron returned to Rosyth. On 11 April, the British fleet was again deployed on the intelligence that a German force was planning an operation. The Germans intended to lay mines at the Swarte Bank, but after a scouting Zeppelin located a British light cruiser squadron, they began to prepare for what they thought was a British attack. Heavy fog and the need to refuel caused Australia and the British vessels to return to port on 17 April and, although they were redeployed that night, they were unable to stop two German light cruisers from laying the minefield. From 26 to 28 January 1916, the 2nd BCS was positioned off the Skagerrak while the 1st Light Cruiser Squadron swept the strait in an unsuccessful search for a possible minelayer. On the morning of 21 April 1916, the 2nd BCS sailed again for the Skagerrak, this time to support efforts to disrupt the transport of Swedish ore to Germany. The planned destroyer sweep of the Kattegat was cancelled when word came that the High Seas Fleet was mobilising for an operation of their own (later learned to be timed to coincide with the Irish Easter Rising) and the British ships were ordered to a rendezvous point in the middle of the North Sea, while the rest of the Grand Fleet made for the south-eastern end of the Long Forties. On the afternoon of 22 April, the Battlecruiser Fleet was patrolling to the north-west of Horn Reefs when heavy fog came down. The ships were zigzagging to avoid submarine attack when Australia collided with sister ship New Zealand twice in three minutes. Australia was damaged badly enough to be put out of action for several months, but New Zealand returned to the fleet on 30 May, a day before the start of the Battle of Jutland. It relieved Indefatigable as flagship. New Zealand was relieved by Australia as flagship of the 2nd BCS on 22 February 1915, but took over again following a collision with the Australia.

        HMS New Zealand saw action in the Battle of Jutland and was again New Zealand was relieved by Australia as flagship on 9 June and temporarily attached to the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, until HMS Renown relieved her in September. On the evening of 18 August, the Grand Fleet put to sea in response to a message deciphered by Room 40 that indicated that the High Seas Fleet, minus II Squadron, would be leaving harbour that night. The German objective was to bombard Sunderland on 19 August, based on extensive reconnaissance provided by airships and submarines. The Grand Fleet sailed with 29 dreadnought battleships and six battlecruisers. Throughout the next day, Jellicoe and Scheer received conflicting intelligence; after reaching the location in the North Sea where they expected to encounter the High Seas Fleet, they turned north in the erroneous belief that they had entered a minefield. Scheer turned south again, then steered south-eastward to pursue a lone British battle squadron sighted by an airship, which was in fact the Harwich Force of cruisers and destroyers under Commodore Tyrwhitt. Realising their mistake, the Germans changed course for home. The only contact came in the evening when Tyrwhitt sighted the High Seas Fleet but was unable to achieve an advantageous attack position before dark, and broke off contact. The British and the German fleets returned home. The British lost two cruisers to submarine attacks and one German dreadnought had been torpedoed. New Zealand underwent a refit at Rosyth in November 1916. She temporarily replaced Australia as squadron flagship between 29 November and 7 January 1917. The ship's company were firm believers both in the old chief's prophecy and in the ability of the piu piu and tiki to ward off trouble. More than a year after the Battle of Jutland, on the last occasion that New Zealand sighted enemy ships and went to action stations, a seaman was seen to climb a ladder to the bridge and take a quick look around. "It's all right," he called to his mates below, "he's got them on" – a shout that assured them that the captain was wearing the piu piu and tiki.

        German minesweepers and escorting light cruisers were attempting to clear British-laid minefields in the Heligoland Bight in late 1917. The Admiralty planned a large operation for 17 November to destroy the ships, and allocated two light cruiser squadrons and the 1st Cruiser Squadron covered by the reinforced 1st Battlecruiser Squadron and, more distantly, the 1st Battle Squadron of battleships. New Zealand was attached to the 1st BCS for this operation, which became known as the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight. New Zealand did not fire her guns during the battle. As in previous engagements, Captain Green wore the piupiu and tiki for luck.

        During 1918, New Zealand and the Grand Fleet's other capital ships were used on occasion to escort convoys between Britain and Norway. The 2nd BCS spent the period from 8 to 21 February covering these convoys in company with battleships and destroyers, and put to sea on 6 March in company with the 1st BCS to support minelayers. The 2nd BCS again supported minelayers in the North Sea from 25 June or 26 June to the end of July. During September and October, New Zealand and the 2nd BCS supervised and protected minelaying operations north of Orkney. The battlecruiser was present at the surrender of the High Seas Fleet as part of the 2nd BCS.

        Dominion tour

        Following the war, Admiral Jellicoe was tasked with helping to plan and coordinate the naval policies and defences of the British Dominions. New Zealand was made available for his transportation, and was refitted between December 1918 and February 1919 for the tour. The main changes were the removal of her flying-off platforms and the lower forward four-inch guns. The first stop was India, with New Zealand arriving in Bombay on 14 March 1919 and departing six weeks later. The battlecruiser arrived at Albany, Western Australia, on 15 May, where Jellicoe and his staff disembarked to take an overland route across the country. New Zealand sailed via Melbourne and Hobart to depart from Sydney for New Zealand on 16 August. The ship was particularly popular in New Zealand, where crowds flocked to visit her as they had done in 1913. Jellicoe, too, was popular and he later returned to New Zealand to serve as Governor-General from 1920 to 1924. The ship stopped off at Fiji and Hawaii before arriving on 8 November in Canada, the final country to be assessed. After returning to the United Kingdom, the battlecruiser was paid off into reserve on 15 March 1920. New Zealand was regarded as obsolete by the Royal Navy, because her 12-inch guns were inferior to the 15-inch guns deployed on the latest generation of battlecruisers. She was sold for scrap on 19 December 1922 to meet the tonnage restrictions set on the British Empire by the Washington Naval Treaty. The New Zealand Government completed paying off the loan used to fund the ship in the 1944/45 financial year.

        Many items from the battlecruiser were sent to New Zealand after she was scrapped. Equipment including several 4-inch guns, a range finder and laundry equipment, were used by military units while other artifacts were placed on display in museums. During World War II, the 4-inch guns were the main armament of the land batteries which protected the entrances to the harbours at Auckland, Wellington and Lyttelton. The captain's piupiu was returned to New Zealand in 2005 and is on display at the Torpedo Bay Navy Museum in Auckland alongside the ship's bell and other artifacts. The Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa in Wellington also holds several items from the ship in its collection.

           

        HMS Bellerophon

        HMS Bellerophon was the first of the class of three dreadnought battleships in the Bellerophon class. The cost of building was £1,763,491, making her the most expensive of her class. She was laid down built Portsmouth Dockyard on 6th of December 1906, launched 27 July 1907 and commissioned into the fleet on 20 February 1909. On trials she made 21.25 knots, a speed lower than that of her sisters due to inferior shp; she developed 25,061 shp, as opposed to HMS Superb's 27,407 shp and HMS Temeraire's 26,966 shp. Upon completion she joined the 1st Battle Squadron of the Home Fleet. On 26 May 1911 she was in a collision with the battlecruiser HMS Inflexible. Bellerophon received damage whilst Inflexible took bow damage which put her in the dockyard until November.

        On the 1st of August 1914, after the Fleet Mobilisation and the formation of the Grand Fleet, she joined the 4th Battle Squadron. On the 27th of August during the journey to the fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow, Bellerophon collided with the vessel SS St Clair off the Orkney Islands but sustained no major damage. In May 1915, she headed to the Royal Dockyard, Devonport for a refit.

        At the Battle of Jutland in May 1916, the vessel was under the command of Captain Edward F. Bruen in the Fourth Division (commanded by Rear Admiral Alexander Duff) of the 4th Battle Squadron under Vice Admiral Doveton Sturdee. The 4th Battle Squadron deployed behind the 2nd Battle Squadron in line ahead during the main part of the battle, and Bellerophon fired 62 12 inch rounds without receiving one hit. After the battle she swept with the other vessels of the Grand Fleet regularly. Between June and September 1917 she served as the flagship of the 2ic of the 4th Battle Squadron, carrying the flag of Rear Admiral Roger Keyes and then Rear Admiral Douglas Nicholson. Unlike her sister ships she was not deployed to the Eastern Mediterranean Squadron in October 1918.

        Placed in reserve in 1919 by dint of their less powerful main armament (in comparison to the later super-dreadnought-type ships of the Orion, King George V, Iron Duke, Queen Elizabeth, and Revenge classes), she and sister ship Superb were used as Gunnery Schools (Turret Drills); her sister Temeraire became a cadet training ship (seagoing). With a view towards both the relative obsolescence of the class and the need for compliance with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty that was shortly to be signed by Great Britain, HMS Bellerophon was sold to the breakers in November 1921 and broken up in 1923. The ship in profile can be seen on the ten-dollar note from the Royal Bank of Canada issued in 1913.

           

           

        HMS Superb

        HMS Superb was a Bellerophon-class battleship of the British Royal Navy. She was built in Elswick at a cost of £1,744,287, and was completed on 19 June 1909. She was only the fourth dreadnought-type battleship to be completed anywhere in the world, being preceded only by HMS Dreadnought and by her two sister ships HMS Bellerophon and HMS Temeraire Having been ordered on 26 December 1906 and laid down on 6 February 1907 she was only completed in May 1909. Her building was significantly delayed by labour disputes in the dockyard. She was commissioned at Portsmouth on 29 May 1909 into the first division of the Grand Fleet. She undertook normal peacetime exercises with other units of the fleet, and on 24 June 1911 was present at the Coronation fleet review. On 1 May the first division became the First Battle Squadron.

        She continued routine peacetime activity until 29 July 1914 when the Grand Fleet relocated to its war base at Scapa Flow. On 10th of November 1915 Superb was transferred to the Fourth Battle Squadron, which changed her place in the command structure but not her geographical location. At the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916 Superb was the flagship of the fourth battle squadron, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral Alexander. L. Duff. She received no hits and sustained no casualties. She saw no other active service during the First World War; routine exercises continued until 1918.

        In October 1918 she was sent to reinforce the British Eastern Mediterranean Squadron, and in November, as the flagship of Vice-Admiral Gough-Calthorpe, led a combined Franco-British force through the Dardanelles to Constantinople (now Istanbul) after the signing by Turkey of the armistice at the conclusion of the war.

        In April 1919 she was relieved and sailed for England, and on 26 April 1919 was reduced to reserve status at Sheerness. In May 1922 she was used as a gunnery target, and later in the year as a target for aerial attack. In December 1922 she was sold to Stanlee Shipbreaking Company of Dover, and was towed to Dover where she was broken up.

           

        HMS Temeraire

        HMS Temeraire was a Bellerophon-class battleship in the Royal Navy built at the Royal Dockyard, Devonport. She was ordered under the 1906 Naval Estimates at the cost of £1,641,114. Although not externally much different from her predecessor Dreadnought, internally she and others of the Bellerophon-class were much improved, with better sub-division of bulkheads against torpedo attack. A heavier secondary armament (originally, 16 single-mounted 4 inch in casemates placed in the superstructure) was believed to be capable of fighting off torpedo boat attacks. She was built at Devonport Dockyard, Plymouth, laid down on 1st January 1907, launched on 24th August 1907 and commissioned on 15th May 1919.

        For the majority of the Great War, Temeraire was a member of the 4th Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. On a sweep of the North Sea on 18 March 1915, she unsuccessfully attempted to ram U-29, which had just attacked Neptune; in the process, she nearly collided with Dreadnought, which ended up ramming and sinking U-29. During the summer of that year, she refitted at HM Dockyard, Devonport.

        At the Battle of Jutland, Temeraire, under the command of Captain E.V. Underhill, fired seventy-two 12 in (305 mm) and fifty 4 in (102 mm) shells, at the crippled German light cruiser SMS Wiesbaden, claiming 2 or three hits, at the battlecruiser SMS Derfflinger and German destroyers. Temeraire received no damage. In October 1918, she was detached to the Eastern Mediterranean Squadron under the overall command of Vice Admiral Gough-Calthrope.

        With the end of hostilities, Temeraire was converted to a seagoing cadet training ship. With the other members of her class, she was regarded as obsolete; with a view towards the need for compliance with the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty that was shortly to be signed by Great Britain, she was decommissioned and sold for scrap in 1921.

           The 13th (Service) Battalion (Forest of Dean)(Pioneers) Gloucestershire Regiment was formed at Malvern in December 1914 by Lieut-Col. H. Webb, MP. Adopted by War Office 12 July 1915.

      • August 1915 : attached as Divisional Pioneers to 39th Division.
      • Moved to Aldershot in September 1915 and landed in France 3 March 1916.
      • 6 May 1918 : reduced to cadre strength.

           

        HMS Neptune

        HMS Neptune was a Royal Navy dreadnought battleship, intended to be the lead ship of three Neptune-class battleships, but the subsequent two ships had slightly thicker belt armour and were reclassified as the Colossus class. Ordered in the 1908 Naval Estimates and built by Portsmouth Dockyard. Laid down on the 19th January 1909, Launched on the 30th September 1909 and Commissioned on the 11th January 1911.

        she had a displacement of 19,900 tons (22,000 full load), Length: 546 ft (166 m), Beam: 85 ft (26 m), Draught: 27 ft (8.2 m).
        Powered by Parsons steam turbines, direct drive on four shafts, 25,000 shp, 18 Yarrow boilers, she had a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h) and a range of 6,330 nm at 10 knots (19 km/h). Her crew complement was 756 officers and ratings. She was armed with 10 × BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk XI guns (5×2), 12 × BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 × 18 inch (457 mm) torpedo tubes (later removed).

        She was the first Royal Navy battleship that differed in her gun turret layout from Dreadnought. She had two wing turrets staggered en echelon so that all five turrets could shoot in broadside, although in practice the blast damage to the superstructure and boats made this impractical except in an emergency. To achieve this staggering firepower with such a small increase in hull length, the ship was equipped with superfiring rear turrets; arranged so that one would fire over the other when shooting towards the stern. She was the first Royal Navy ship to have a superfiring main armament. However, the upper of the two turrets could not fire within 30 degrees of the stern without the lower turret being damaged by blast through its sighting hoods. A further saving in length was achieved by siting the ship's boats on a flying deck over the two midships turrets to reduce the length of the vessel. However, had the flying deck been damaged during action, they may have fallen onto the turrets, immobilising them. The bridge was also situated above the conning tower, which risked similarly being obscured if the bridge collapsed.

        She was one of the first battleships to be built with director gun-control and was used for trials of this then-novel system. She was flagship of the Home Fleet from May 1911 until May 1912 when she was transferred to the 1st Battle Squadron, where she remained until June 1916, just after the Battle of Jutland. She was accidentally struck by SS Needvaal in April 1916 but no serious damage was done. She was present at the Battle of Jutland as part of Admiral Jellicoe's Battle Fleet. She fired only 48 12 inch (305 mm) shells but is credited with scoring several hits on the German battlecruiser Lützow. Her captain was Vivian Bernard.

        After the war she was quickly transferred to the reserve fleet and subsequently scrapped in 1922.

           

        HMS Colossus

        HMS Colossus of the British Royal Navy was a Colossus-class dreadnought battleships. She was built by Scotts of Greenock, laid down on the 8th July 1908, launched on 9 April 1910 and commissioned on the 8th August 1911. Although very similar to Neptune she was not part of Neptune's class as Colossus and her sister ship, Hercules, had greater armour. She had a displacement of 19,680 tons (normal) and 22,700 tons fully laden. Length: 546 ft (166 m) Beam: 85 ft (26 m) Draught: 26.3 ft (8.0 m) She was powered by Steam turbines fed by 18 boilers, with 4 shafts and 25,000 hp Her top speed was 21 knots (39 km/h) She had a crew complement of 755 officers and ratings, with up to 800 in wartime Her armament consisted of 10 × BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk XII guns, 16 × BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 × 21 in torpedo tubes Her armour was 11 inch (280 mm) on her waterline beltm 3 inch (76.2 mm) on her deck and her turrets were 11 inch (280 mm). She joined the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Home Fleet.

        When the First World War began in August 1914, Colossus became the flagship of the 1st Battle Squadron. While commanded by Captain Dudley Pound she fought with distinction at the Battle of Jutland in 1916 while acting as the flagship of Rear-Admiral Ernest Gaunt. During the battle, Colossus took two hits which caused minor damage and six casualties. When the war came to a close, Colossus became a training ship until 1920 when, under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty, she was stricken and eventually broken up in 1928. Her sister-ship was scrapped in 1921.

           

        HMS Hercules

        HMS Hercules was a Colossus-class battleship built by Palmers, launched on 10 May 1910, and commissioned on 31 July 1911 at Portsmouth. She was a 20,000-ton dreadnought, mounting ten 12 inch (305 mm) guns in five twin gun turrets, sixteen 4 inch (101.6 mm), four 3 pounders, and three 21 inch (533.4 mm) torpedo tubes. She was capable of 21 knots (39 km/h). Her crew numbered 751 officers and ratings. She was flagship of the 2nd Division Home Fleet and from July 1912 to March 1913 she was flagship of the 2nd Battle Squadron. On 22 March 1913 during a gale she collided with and damaged SS Mary Parkes of Glasgow, suffering only minor damage herself.

        Hercules had a reputation as 'A pugilists ship' amongst the men. Many a 'troublemaker' was posted to Hercules. Discipline was strict. She was equipped with a boxing ring. Breaches of discipline, especially those that resulted in arguments or fights, would very often be dealt with by 'volunteering' those involved to fight in the ring. Large wagers were often placed on these bouts by both the officers and men. Another punishment meted-out, was to lock miscreants in the brig with a length of used heavy hawser. The offender was allowed out as soon as he had, with his bare hands, unpicked the hawser. This might take days and result in ripped and bleeding nails.

        In August 1914 she joined the Grand Fleet. On the 31st of May 1916, at the Battle of Jutland, she fought in the 6th Division along with Marlborough, Revenge and Agincourt. She was the 23rd ship in line after deployment. She engaged enemy battlecruisers from 19.00-19.15 achieving hits with her fifth and sixth salvoes. She fired 98 rounds from her main armament during the whole engagement. She was straddled and hit by splinters, but sustained no damage or casualties. Turned to avoid several torpedoes, one of which was seen to pass right alongside.

        In June 1916, Hercules was transferred to become flagship of the 4th Battle Squadron. 19 August 1916 she was at sea with the Squadron to intercept the German High Seas Fleet's attempted raid on Sunderland; during this foray she carried out the first test of a towed kite balloon (without observers). 24 April 1918, with HMS St. Vincent she was ordered to Orkney to support Agincourt and the 2nd Cruiser Squadron during the last sortie of the High Seas Fleet. 21 November, Hercules took part in Operation ZZ. She was in the southern line of ships escorting the nine battleships, five battlecruisers, seven light cruisers and 49 destroyers of the Imperial German Navy as they were surrendered to the Grand Fleet and sailed to the Firth of Forth.

        On the 3rd of December 1918, Hercules was detached to take the Allied Naval Armistice Commission to Kiel, returning to Rosyth on 10 December. She was accompanied by the destroyers Verdun, Venetia, Viceroy and Vidette. On this occasion, she flew three Admirals' flags from her single tripod mast. They were flown side by side on the lower yard, a British Vice Admiral's and an American Rear Admiral's on the (senior) starboard side and a French Rear Admiral's on the port side thus giving equal dignity to each flag. Junior officers commented that it was all very unseamanlike and irreverently speculated whether the yard could stand the strain. In February 1919 she was reduced to the Reserve Fleet. On 8 November 1921, she was sold to a German ship breaker, Hercules left Rosyth under tow to be scrapped at Kiel.

           

        HMS Collingwood

        HMS Collingwood was a St. Vincent-class dreadnought battleship of the British Royal Navy. Her design was essentially similar to the design of the previous ships, the Bellerophon class. The Admiralty perceived in the planned building of German dreadnoughts a potential threat to the naval security of Great Britain, and saw the need to construct a significant modern battle fleet as fast as possible. Building to an existing concept clearly saved time. It was intended that there should be initially a core battle-fleet of eight similar battleships; HMS Dreadnought, three Bellerophon class, three St. Vincent class and one further unnamed ship, later authorised as HMS Neptune. Collingwood was ordered on 26 October 1907. She was laid down at Devonport dockyard on 3 February 1908; launched on 7 November 1908 and completed in May 1910. On 3 May 1910, she was commissioned at Portsmouth into the first division of the Home Fleet.

        With other members of the fleet she took part in regular peacetime exercises and in February 1911 damaged her bottom plating on an uncharted rock off Ferrol, needing dockyard repair. On 24 June 1911 she was present at the Coronation Fleet Review at Spithead. On 1 May 1912 the first division was renamed the First Battle Squadron. She underwent an extensive refit in 1912–1913 and recommissioned on 21 April 1914 as flagship of the second-in-command, first battle squadron.

        Between 17 and 20 July 1914, she took part in a test mobilisation and fleet review. There were more dreadnought-class battleships present at this review than at any review before or since. On 29 July 1914 she sailed to the war station of the fleet at Scapa Flow. She was based briefly (22 October to 3 November 1914) with the greater part of the fleet at Lough Swilly while the defences at Scapa were strengthened.

        Collingwood was in the battle line at the Battle of Jutland, being the twentieth ship from the head of the line after deployment. She engaged a König-class dreadnought between 1854 and 1926 and claimed hits on her. During the charge of the German battle cruisers she engaged SMS Derfflinger.

        Prince Albert (the future King George VI) was a sub-lieutenant commanding "A" turret and he is reported as having sat in the open on the turret roof to watch the action. The ship saw no other action during World War I except for routine patrolling and exercises but was present in the Southern line of the Grand Fleet at the surrender of the German High Seas Fleet on 21 November 1918.

        In March 1919 she was reduced to reserve, becoming for a short time a gunnery training ship at Portsmouth. In March 1921 she was placed on the disposal list; on 1 December she was sold to Stanlee Shipbreaking Company and in March 1922 she was towed to Dover and broken up.

           

        HMS St Vincent

        HMS St. Vincent was the lead ship of the three St. Vincent class of battleships of the British Royal Navy, the other two being Collingwood, and Vanguard. Visually, they were very difficult to distinguish from the Bellerophons. The major innovation in this class was the adoption of longer 50 calibre main armament, increased from the 45 calibre fitted to previous classes

        Ordered in 1907, HMS St Vincent was laid down at Portsmouth Dockyard on the 30th December 1907 and launched on the 10th September 1908. She was commissioned on 3 May 1910 as 2nd flagship of 1st Division Home Fleet at Portsmouth. She was commanded by Capt. Douglas Nicholson and was flagship of Rear-Admiral Richard Peirse, M.V.O., Home Fleet, at the Coronation Spithead Review of 24 June 1911.

        In April 1914, she became flagship of the Second-in-Command, 1st Battle Squadron Home Fleet, which she remained until November 1915, when she became a private ship. She was in the 5th Division of the battlefleet at the Battle of Jutland, 20th in the line of battle, and engaged a German battleship believed to have been of the König class. In June 1916, she was transferred to the 4th Battle Squadron. In March 1919, she was reduced to reserve and became a gunnery training ship, which she remained until placed on the Disposal list in March 1921. Her captain had been Harold Briggs. She was sold for scrap in 1921.

           

        HMS Vanguard

        HMS Vanguard, the ninth vessel to bear the name, was ordered in 1907 and built at Vickers Barrow-in-Furness, She was laid on the 2nd of April 1908, Launched on the 22nd of February 1909 and Commissioned on 1st of March 1910. Vanguard was a St. Vincent-class dreadnought battleship with a displacement of 19,560 t. Length: 152.4 m (500 ft) Beam: 25.6 m (84 ft) Draught: 8.7 m (28.5 ft). Her propulsion was 4 shaft Parsons turbines, coal-fired boilers, 24,500 shp, giving a top speed of21.7 knots (40.2 km/h) She had a range of 6,900 nautical miles (12,780 km) at 10 knots (19 km/h) and her crew complement was 758 officers and ratings. She was armed with:

        • 10 × BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk XI guns (5×2)
        • 12 × BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns
        • 1 × 4 inch AA gun
        • 1 × 3 inch AA gun
        • 3 × 18 inch torpedo tubes (submerged)
        At the outbreak of World War I, Vanguard joined the First Battle Squadron at Scapa Flow, and fought in the Battle of Jutland as part of the Fourth Battle Squadron. As one of twenty-four dreadnoughts in Jellicoe's Battle Fleet, she did not suffer any damage or casualties.

        Just before midnight on 9 July 1917 at Scapa Flow, Vanguard suffered an explosion, probably caused by an unnoticed stokehold fire heating cordite stored against an adjacent bulkhead in one of the two magazines which served the amidships gun turrets 'P' and 'Q'. She sank almost instantly, killing an estimated 804 men and there were only two survivors. One of the casualties of the disaster was Captain Kyōsuke Eto, a military observer from the Imperial Japanese Navy, which was allied with the Royal Navy at the time through the Anglo-Japanese Alliance.

        The site is now designated as a controlled site under the Protection of Military Remains Act. In terms of loss of life, the destruction of the Vanguard remains the most catastrophic accidental explosion in the history of the UK, and one of the worst accidental losses of the Royal Navy.

           7th (Service) Battalion, Rifle Brigade was raised at Winchester on the 21st of August 1914 as part of Kitchener's First New Army and joined 41st Brigade, 14th (Light) Division. They trained at Aldershot, moving to Elstead in November, returning to Aldershot in March 1915 for final training. They proceeded to France, landing at Boulogne on the 19th of May 1915. They fought in the The Action of Hooge, being the first division to be attacked by flamethrowers. They were in action in The Second Attack on Bellewaarde. In 1916 they were on the Somme seeing action in The Battle of Delville Wood and The Battle of Flers-Courcelette. In 1917 they fought in The German retreat to the Hindenburg Line, The First and Third Battle of the Scarpe at Arras, The Battle of Langemark and The First and Second Battle of Passchendaele. On the 2nd of February 1918 they transferred to 43rd Brigade still with 14th (Light) Division. In 1918 they returned to the Somme and were in action during The Battle of St Quentin and The Battle of the Avre, suffering very heavy casualties with almost 6,000 men of the Division killed or injured. The Division was withdrawn from the front line and were engaged building a new defensive line to the rear. On the 27th of April, the battalion was reduced to a cadre and on the 17th of June 1918 returned to England and were absorbed by 33rd Battalion, London Regiment.

           2/6th (City of London) Battalion (Rifles)

      • Formed in London in August 1914.
      • Moved in October to Walton-on-Thames, then Burgess Hill in November where placed under orders of 2/1st London Brigade in 2/1st London Division.
      • Moved to Norwich in May 1915 and formation retitled as 174th Brigade in 58th (2/1st London) Division.
      • Moved on to Ipswich next month, then Stowmarket and Sudbury and then to Sutton Veny in July 1916.
      • 25 January 1917 : landed at Le Havre.
      • 31 January 1918 : absorbed by 1/6th Bn.

           8th (Service) Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, was raised at Newcastle in August 1914 as part of Kitchener's First New Army. After initial training close to home, they moved to Belton Park, Grantham. On the 4th of April 1915 the new 11th Division assembled at Witley and Frensham for final training. They served with 34th Brigade, 11th (Northern) Division proceeding to Gallipoli in July 1915 sailing from Liverpool to Murdos, landing near Lala Baba at Suvla Bay on the 6th of August 1915. On the 20th December 1915 the Division was withdrawn from Gallipoli to Imbros and then to Egypt in January 1916 where they took over defence of a section of the Suez canal. They were recalled to France in June, embarking from Alexandria on 3rd of July, arriving as reinforcements to the battle of The Somme. In 1917 they saw action in the Battle of Messines and Third Battle of Ypres. In 1918 they saw action in the Second Battles of Arras and the Battles of the Hindenburg Line, reaching high ground east of Havay when the Armistice was signed. The 8th Battalion was demobbed in 1919.

           

        HMS Orion

        HMS Orion was a dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy. Launched in 1910, she was the lead ship of her class; she was the first so-called "super-dreadnought", being the first British dreadnought to mount guns of calibre greater than twelve inches, and the first British dreadnought to have all of its main armament mounted on the centreline.

        HMS Orion was an Orion-class battleship with a displacement of 22,000 long tons (22,000 t) Length: 581 ft (177 m), Beam: 88 ft 7 in (27.00 m), Draught: 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m)
        she was propelled by Steam turbines red by 18 boilers with 4 shafts, giving 27,000 hp (20 MW). Her top speed was 21 kn (39 km/h) She had a crew complement of 750–1,100 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 10 x BL 13.5-inch (342.9 mm) Mk V guns, 16 x BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 x 21 in (530 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged)

        Orion was laid down in Portsmouth Dockyard on 29 November 1909. She was launched on 20 August 1910, ran her sea trials starting in September 1911 and was commissioned on 2 January 1912. She joined the second division of the Home Fleet as second flag-ship, in which role she relieved the pre-dreadnought battleship Hibernia. On 7 January 1912 she was damaged when Revenge broke loose from her moorings and collided with Orion, causing minor damage to the port side.

        At Jutland on 31 May 1916 she carried the flag of Rear-Admiral Arthur Leveson, the second in command of the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. She took part in the general battleship action, claiming no hits and receiving none. In the later part of the action she claimed four hits on the German battlecruiser Lützow. As this battlecruiser did not survive the action confirmation was not possible. She remained with the Grand Fleet, seeing, in common with the rest of the battle-fleet, no more action during the remainder of the war. On 3 October 1919 she became flagship of the Reserve Fleet at Portsmouth, and in June 1921 she became a seagoing gunnery training ship at Portland.

        On 12 April 1922 she was paid off onto the disposal list under the terms of the Washington Treaty. On 19 December she was sold to shipbreakers Cox and Danks, and from February 1923 she was broken up at Upnor.

           

        HMS Conqueror

        HMS Conqueror was an Orion-class battleship of the Royal Navy, built by William Beardmore and Company, Dalmuir at a cost of £1,891,164 Laid down on the 5 April 1910, she was launched on 1 May 1911 and Commissioned on 1 December 1912 She had a displacement of 22,000 long tons (22,000 t). Length: 581 ft (177 m), Beam: 88 ft 7 in (27.00 m), Draught: 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m)
        Her propulsion was provided by Steam turbines fed by 18 boilers with 4 shafts, giving 27,000 hp (20 MW) and a top speed of 21 kn (39 km/h). Her Crew Complement was 750–1,100 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 10 x BL 13.5-inch (342.9 mm) Mk V guns, 16 x BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 x 21 in (530 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged).

        She served in the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet in World War I, and fought at the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916, suffering no damage. As a result of the Washington Naval Convention she was decommissioned in 1921 and sold for scrap

           

        HMS Monarch

        HMS Monarch was an Orion-class battleship of the Royal Navy these were the first battleships in the Royal Navy to feature an all-big-gun armament on the centre line. HMS Monarch, was bult by Armstrong, Elswick, at a cost of £1,888,736. She was laid down on 1 April 1910, launched on 30 March 1911 and was commissioned in February 1912. She had a displacement of 22,000 long tons (22,000 t). Length: 581 ft (177 m), Beam: 88 ft 7 in (27.00 m), Draught: 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m) Propelled by 4 shafts, powered by steam turbines, fed by 18 boilers, giving 27,000 hp (20 MW) she had a top speed of 21 kn (39 km/h)Her Crew Complement was 750–1,100 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 10 x BL 13.5-inch (342.9 mm) Mk V guns, 16 x BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 x 21 in (530 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged). On her commissioning in Feb 1912, Monarch was the second of the Orion class to be completed, she was followed by the HMS Thunderer in June and HMS Conqueror in November of the same year, together they formed the second division of the 2nd Battle Squadron. Pre-war their lives were typical of any other major warship in the British fleet with fleet manoeuvres and battle practice.

        Early in World War I, Monarch was unsuccessfully attacked by the German submarine U-15, on 8 August 1914 and off the Fair Isle channel, U-15, an early gasoline engined boat, was sighted on the surface by the cruiser HMS Birmingham, after Birmingham opened fire the submarine commenced diving, the cruiser then rammed the submarine which was lost with all 25 of her men, it was U-15's first and last patrol.

        On 27 December 1914 Monarch rammed HMS Conqueror suffering moderate damage to her bow, she received temporary repairs at Scapa Flow before proceeding to Devonport for full repairs, she rejoined her sister-ships on 20 January 1915, HMS Conqueror was also seriously damaged in this collision. At the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916 all four of the Orion-class ships were present under the leadership of Rear Admiral Arthur Leveson flying his flag in the Orion; his CO was Captain O. Backhouse. Monarch was commanded by Captain G.H. Borret. Monarch's first action at Jutland came at 1833 when she sighted five German battleships, three König and two Kaiser-class ships. She opened with Armour Piercing Capped shells at the leading König-class ship, but could only fire two salvoes before the König ships disappeared. She then fired a further salvo at the leading Kaiser-class ship. Although claiming a ‘straddle’ on the leading König, she actually scored one hit on SMS König herself. This 13.5" shell hit the 6.75" casemate side armour in way of Number 1 port 5.9" gun, the shell burst on the armour blowing a hole some three by two feet in size. Most of the blast went downwards, blowing a ten foot square hole in the 1.5" thick armoured upper-deck; the deck was also driven down over a large area. Several charges for the 5.9" gun were ignited and burnt including those in the hoists to Number 14 magazine, but the fires did not penetrate the magazine. The crew of the gun had a lucky escape as an earlier nearby hit had forced them to evacuate the gun-house due to gas from the explosion and so no injuries were incurred. The gun however whilst largely undamaged had its sights and control cables destroyed. In 1914 Monarch sighted the German battlecruiser Lützow and opened on her with five salvos of Armour Piercing Capped shells at a range of 17,300 yards increasing to 18,500 yards; straddles were claimed but no hits before the target was lost in smoke and spray. There were five hits on the Lützow at this time and they could only have been fired by either the Orion or the Monarch. Lützow was in serious trouble and was only saved from further serious damage by the actions of her escorting destroyers in making smoke and shielding her from view. This was effectively the end of the battle for the Orion class as the German high seas fleet was in retreat to the south under cover of smoke and a torpedo attack by their destroyers which for a while had the British fleet turned away to the North to avoid the torpedoes. In total Monarch fired 53 rounds of 13.5" shell all of which were Armour Piercing Capped shells. Like the rest of her sister ships she did not use her 4" secondary batteries, and also like the rest of her sister ships she received no damage or injuries. After the Battle of Jutland the German High Seas put in very few appearances on the North sea so life for the British fleet became mainly sweeps and patrols of the North Sea.

        As a result of the Washington Naval Convention she was decommissioned in 1921. On 14 June 1924, Monarch was assigned her final role, that of target ship. She was decommissioned and stripped of anything valuable including scrap metals at Portsmouth Dockyard. She was then towed out by dockyard tugs into Hurd's Deep in the English Channel approximately 50 miles (93 km) south of the Isles of Scilly and on 21 January 1925 was attacked by a wave of Royal Air Force bombers, which scored several hits; this was followed by the C-class light cruisers HMS Caledon, HMS Calliope, HMS Carysfort, and HMS Curacoa firing shells of 6-inch (152-mm) caliber, and the V and W-class destroyer HMS Vectis, using her guns of 4-inch (102-mm) calibre.

        Following this exercise, the battlecruisers HMS Hood and HMS Repulse and the five Revenge-class battleships HMS Ramillies, HMS Resolution, HMS Revenge, HMS Royal Oak, and HMS Royal Sovereign commenced firing at her with their 15-inch (381-mm) guns. The number of hits on Monarch is unknown, but after nine hours of shelling she finally sank at 2200 after a final hit by Revenge.

           

        HMS Thunderer was the third Orion-class battleship built for the Royal Navy and was the last vessel to be constructed by Thames Iron Works. She was the last and largest warship ever built on the River Thames, and after her completion her builders declared bankruptcy. She was ordered in 1909, laid down on 13 April 1910, launched on 1 February 1911 and commissioned in May 1912 at a cost of £1,892,82 Displacement was 22,000 long tons (22,000 t) Length: 581 ft (177 m), Beam: 88 ft 7 in (27.00 m), Draught: 24 ft 6 in (7.47 m). Her Propulsion consisted of Steam turbines fed by 18 boilers, propelling 4 shafts, with 27,000 hp (20 MW), giving a top speed of 21 kn (39 km/h) Crew Complement:= was 750 to 1,100 officers and ratings. Her armament consisted of 10 x BL 13.5-inch (342.9 mm) Mk V guns, 16 x BL 4-inch (101.6 mm) Mk VII guns and 3 x 21 in (530 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged)

        On commissioning in June 1912 Thunderer and her three Orion-class sisters – Orion, Conqueror and Monarch formed the 2nd Division of the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet and she remained with her sister ships throughout.

        In December 1914, she was refitted. She was present with her squadron at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916, firing 37 13.5" (343 mm) shells. Thunderer first came to action on the 31st Of May 1916 at 18:30 when indistinct ranges of 22 to 18,000 yards were obtained on some German ships. Due to poor visibility from smoke she did not open fire at this time, it must be remembered Thunderer was at the rear of the 2nd division and her visibility would be affected by the smoke of the three leading ships. At 1915 Thunderer sighted two enemy battleships visible between the Royal Oak and the Iron Duke. She fired two salvoes of Common Percussion Capped shell at the leading ship; no hits were made and the second salvo was actually fired over the top of the Iron Duke. Thunderer did not sight the enemy again, however during the German fleet's run to the south after they broke off the engagement the Moltke sighted four large ships at 2240; these were the four Orion-class ships, so she had a lucky escape that the British lookouts did not see her. In total, Thunderer fired just 37 rounds of 13.5” all being Common Percussion Capped, she did not use her 4 in batteries at all. She suffered no damage. Post-Jutland, the Orion class ships spent their time on routine fleet manoeuvres.

           

        HMS King George V

        King George V, was built by HM Dockyard Portsmouth Laid down 16th January 1911, Launched 9th October 1911, Completed in November 1912. She had a displacement of 23,400 tonnes, Length: 598 ft (182.3 m), Beam: 89 ft (27.1 m), Draught: 28 ft (8.5 m) Her propulsion was 18 boilers feeding 4 Parsons turbines with direct drive to 4 shafts, giving 27,000 shp (20,100 kW) and a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) Her Armament consisted of 10 × BL 13.5-inch (343 mm) Mk V guns, 16 × BL 4-inch (102 mm) Mk VII guns, 4 × 3-pounder (47-mm) guns and 3 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. Her Armour Belt was 8 to 12 in (203 to 305 mm), decks 1 to 4 in (25 to 102 mm) barbettes 3 to 10 in (76 to 254 mm) and turrets 11 in (279 mm) She had a crew complement of 870, though this increased substantially by 1916 to 1,110.

        On the outbreak of the First World War, the 2nd Battle Squadron became part of the Grand Fleet, with King George V serving as flagship for the squadron. In November 1914, King George V was found to suffer from problems with her condensers. This forced the ship to be withdrawn from operations while her port condenser was retubed, which took until 12 December, with her starboard condenser being retubed in January. The 2nd Battle Squadron, including King George V sailed from Scapa Flow on 15 December in an attempt to combat German warships that were bombarding towns on the East coast of England. When German battlecruisers and cruisers under the command of Franz von Hipper attacked Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on 16 December, the 2nd Battle Squadron and the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron was deployed to try and intercept the German force, unaware that the German entire High Seas Fleet had been deployed to support Hipper's ships. While the 2nd Battle Squadron came to within 10 miles of the much larger High Seas Fleet, no engagement occurred.

        She took part in the Battle of Jutland, on the 31st of May 1916, being the lead ship of the 1st Division of the 2nd Battle Squadron. Her sister-ships were HMS Centurion, HMS Audacious and HMS Ajax. At the Battle of Jutland, the 2nd Battle Squadron was divided into two divisions, with Vice Admiral Martyn Jerram, in command of the 1st Division, flying his flag aboard King George V, while Captain Frederick Field served as the ship's captain. King George V was lightly engaged during the battle, firing nine 13.5 in rounds at the German battlecruiser SMS Derfflinger, which missed. King George V was undamaged in the battle.

        HMS King George V was decommissioned in 1919, used as a training ship between 1923–26 and scrapped in 1926.

           

        HMS Centurion

        HMS Centurion was the second super-dreadnought battleship of the King George V class. Her sister ships were: HMS King George V, HMS Audacious, HMS Ajax. She was built at HM Dockyard, Devonport, laid down on the 16th of January 1911, launched 18 November 1911 and commissioned in May 1913. She had a displacement of 25,500 tonnes, Length: 598 ft (182.3 m), Beam: 89 ft (27.1 m), Draught: 28 ft (8.5 m) Her propulsion was 18 boilers with 4 Parsons turbines and direct drive to 4 shafts producing 27,000 shp (20,100 kW) which gave her a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) The ships complement was 782 officers and ratings. Her armament consisted of 10 × BL 13.5-inch (343 mm) Mk V guns, 16 × BL 4-inch (102 mm) Mk VII guns, 4 × 3-pounder (47-mm) guns and 3 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. Her armour dBelt was 8 to 12 in (203 to 305 mm), Decks: 1 to 4 in (25 to 102 mm), Barbettes: 3 to 10 in (76 to 254 mm) and Turrets: 11 in (279 mm)

        HMS Centurion was attached upon completion to the 2nd Battle Squadron, led by sister ship HMS King George V. She was present at the Battle of Jutland as part of the main body of Grand Fleet under the command of Captain Michael Culme-Seymour but was only lightly engaged, firing four salvos of her main armament at the German Battlecruiser Lützow before HMS Orion blocked Centurion's line of fire to Lützow.

        After duty in the North Sea, where she was commanded for a time by Roger Keyes, she was sent to the Eastern Mediterranean in 1918 with HMS Superb to oversee the capitulation of the Ottoman Empire. In 1919, Centurion was dispatched to the Black Sea in the Allied Intervention in the Russian Civil War.

        With the signing of the Washington Naval Treaty Centurion was decommissioned and made a target ship to replace HMS Agamemnon in 1924. She remained in this role at Portsmouth Harbour until April 1941, where she was fitted with a false superstructure so as to resemble the battleship HMS Anson then building at HM Dockyard, Portsmouth.

        On 4 April 1941, the Admiralty suggested that a heavy naval bombardment of the Libyan city of Tripoli should be made by the Mediterranean Fleet and followed up by blocking the port with a block ship, the Centurion. Admiral Andrew Cunningham declined the offer due to her slow speeds and heavy enemy air cover, so this idea was shelved. In June 1942, she sailed with Operation Vigorous in the eastern Mediterranean to simulate an operational battleship. Between 1942 and 1944 Centurion was stationed off Suez as an anti-aircraft ship and to give pause to Regia Marina action in the area—the Italians thought that her false wooden 13.5-inch guns were real and kept their super-dreadnoughts away. Her final act after a long and somewhat understated career was to be sunk as a breakwater off the Normandy beaches after D-Day. Reportedly the Germans thought that the old vessel had been sunk by shore batteries of the German 352nd Division with great loss of life when only 70 crewmen were observed leaving the sinking vessel; in fact the 70 men were the entire crew.

           

        HMS Ajax

        HMS Ajax was a King George V-class battleship (one of four ships of the class). Ajax was laid down at Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering, Greenock yard on 27 February 1911. She was launched on 21 March 1912 and completed in March 1913. She underwent sea trials during April 1913, and was commissioned into the first division of the second battle squadron of the Grand Fleet at Devonport on 31 October 1913. She had a displacement of 23,400 tonnes, Length: 598 ft (182.3 m), Beam: 89 ft (27.1 m), Draught: 28 ft (8.5 m) Her propulsion was provided by 18 boilers driving 4 Parsons turbines, and direct drive to 4 shafts, producing 27,000 shp (20,100 kW), which gave her a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h; 24 mph) Her ships complement was 900 officers and ratings. Her armament consisted of 10 × BL 13.5-inch (343 mm) Mk V guns, 16 × BL 4-inch (102 mm) Mk VII guns, 4 × 3-pounder (47-mm) guns, 3 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes. Her Armour Belt was 8 to 12 in (203 to 305 mm) Decks: 1 to 4 in (25 to 102 mm) Barbettes: 3 to 10 in (76 to 254 mm) Turrets: 11 in (279 mm) Her only distinctive pre-war activity was her participation, with her sisters HMS King George V, HMS Audacious and HMS Centurion, at the Kiel canal celebrations in June 1914. She transferred to Scapa Flow with the rest of the Grand fleet on 29 July 1914, in response to the increasing political tension in Europe.

        She remained with the Grand Fleet for the duration of World War I. She saw action only at the Battle of Jutland on 31 May 1916. In this action the first division of the second battle squadron, commanded by Vice-Admiral Sir Martyn Jerram, consisted of HMS King George V, HMS Ajax, HMS Centurion and HMS Erin. She sighted the leading ships of the battle line of the German High Seas Fleet and the German battle cruisers and fired on them. She herself received no hits; because of the number of ships involved it was not possible to establish if she made any hits on her targets.

        She remained at Scapa Flow until June 1919, being transferred to the third battle squadron for the final four months of her time there. In June 1919 she was transferred to the fourth battle squadron, which formed part of the Mediterranean Fleet. She took part with her battle squadron in actions against the Bolsheviks and Turkish nationalists in 1919 in the Black Sea and in the Sea of Marmora. When the Sultan of Turkey was deposed in 1923 he was conveyed to Mecca in HMS Ajax. In April 1924 she returned to Devonport, and was part of the Reserve Fleet until October 1926, when she was paid off onto the disposal list. On 10 December 1926 she was sold to Alloa Shipbreaking Company, and broken up at Rosyth from 14 December 1926.

           

        HMS Erin

        HMS Erin was a dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, built for an order placed by the Ottoman government with the British Vickers company, originally under the name of Reşad, but was renamed Reşadiye during construction. The Ottomans intended was to procure a battleship which was at least the equal of any other ship currently afloat or building. The design was based on that of King George V, but with some features of Iron Duke. The ship was laid down at Vickers shipyard on 6 December 1911, launched on 3 September 1913.

        In 1914, when the First World War broke out the ship was nearly completed; at the orders of Winston Churchill, the First Lord of the Admiralty, she was seized for use by the Royal Navy and renamed Erin. She was completed in August 1914. She was taken over for the Royal Navy on 22 August 1914. She had a displacement of 27,500 long tons (27,940 t) (normal), 30,250 long tons (30,740 t) (full load) Length: 559 ft 6 in (170.54 m), Beam: 91 ft (27.7 m), Draught: 28 ft (8.5 m) Her power was 26,500 shp (19,800 kW), produced by 4 Parsons steam turbines fed by 15 Babcock boilers and driving 4 shafts, giving her a top speed of 21 kn (38.9 km/h) Her complement was 1,070 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 10 × 13.5 in (343 mm) Mk VI guns (5x2), 16 × 6 in (152.4 mm) guns, 6 × 6-pounder 57 mm (2.2 in) guns, 2 × 3 in (76.2 mm) 20 cwt anti-aircraft guns and 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes. Her Armour Belt was 12 in (30.5 cm), Main armour was 9 in (22.9 cm) and Turrets 4–11 in (10.2–27.9 cm)

        It has been claimed that the seizing of Erin and the Sultân Osmân-ı Evvel (renamed Agincourt) was instrumental in bringing the Ottoman Empire into the war on the side of the Central Powers, but this is disputed given that the Ottomans and Germans had concluded a secret alliance on 2 August. An attempt by the British to compensate the Ottomans for the loss of their battleships was ignored. On 5 September 1914, she joined the Grand Fleet at its principal war base at Scapa Flow in Orkney. She was briefly part of the Fourth Battle Squadron, being transferred to the Second Battle Squadron in October 1914.

        On the 31st of May 1916, she was present at the Battle of Jutland. After the deployment of the battle fleet, the Second Battle Squadron formed the head of the line; its first division consisted of King George V (the flagship of Vice-Admiral Sir T. H. Martyn Jerram), Ajax, Centurion and Erin, which was therefore the fourth ship in the line. She remained with the Grand Fleet for the remainder of the war, seeing no further enemy action.

        In October 1919, she was placed in Reserve at the Nore. From December 1919, she was used at Chatham Dockyard as a turret drill ship. In July and August 1920, she underwent a refit at Devonport Dockyard. It had been intended that under the terms of the Washington treaty of 1921 she should be retained as a training ship, but a change of plan meant that this rôle was filled by Thunderer, and in May 1922, she was placed on the disposal list. On 19 December 1922, she was sold to the shipbreaking firm of Cox and Danks, and in 1923 she was broken up at Queenborough.

           

        HMS Agincourt with Erin in background

        HMS Agincourt was a dreadnought battleship built in the United Kingdom in the early 1910s as part of Brazil's role in a South American naval arms race, she held the distinction of mounting more heavy guns (fourteen) and more turrets (seven) than any other dreadnought battleship constructed, in keeping with the Brazilians' requirement for an especially impressive design. Brazil ordered the ship as The Rio de Janeiro and she was laid down on 14 September 1911 by Armstrongs in Newcastle upon Tyne and launched on 22 January 1913. But the collapse of the rubber boom and a warming in relations with the country's chief rival, Argentina, led to the ship's sale while under construction to the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Navy renamed her Sultan Osman I, after the empire's founder. The ship was nearly complete when World War I broke out, and was undergoing sea trials before delivery. The Ottoman crew arrived to collect her, the Turkish captain, waiting with five hundred Turkish sailors aboard a transport in the Tyne, threatened to board his ships and hoist the Turkish flag; Churchill gave orders to resist such an attempt “by armed force if necessary.” the British Admiralty fears of a German–Ottoman alliance led to her seizure for use by the Royal Navy. This act was a significant contributor to the decision of the Ottoman government to join the Central Powers, as the payments for the ship and another which would become HMS Erin were complete, and distrust of Britain increased. Such an action was allowed for in the contracts, as First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill had not wanted to risk the ships being used against the British, but it had consequences. The takeover caused considerable ill will in the Ottoman Empire, where public subscriptions had partially funded the ships. When the Ottoman government had been in a financial deadlock over the budget of the battleships, donations for the Ottoman Navy had come in from taverns, cafés, schools and markets, and large donations were rewarded with a "Navy Donation Medal". The seizure, and the gift of the German battlecruiser Goeben to the Ottomans, influenced public opinion in the Empire to turn away from Britain, and they entered the war on the side of Germany and the Austro-Hungarian Empire against the Triple Entente of Britain, France, and Russia on 29th of October 1914, after Goeben had attacked Russian facilities in the Black Sea.

        The Royal Navy made modifications to Agincourt before her commissioning, in particular removing the flying bridge over the two centre turrets. The ship was also initially fitted with Turkish-style lavatories that had to be replaced. Her name, Agincourt, was a favourite of Churchill's, and had initially been allocated to a sixth vessel of the Queen Elizabeth class ordered under the 1914–15 Naval Estimates, but not yet begun at the war's outbreak. Her nickname, The Gin Palace, came from her luxurious fittings and a corruption of her name (A Gin Court), pink gin being a popular drink among Royal Navy officers at the time. The Admiralty was unprepared to man a ship of Agincourt's size at such short notice and her crew was drawn from the highest and lowest echelons of the service: the Royal yachts and the detention barracks. Agincourt's captain, Captain Douglas Romily Lothian Nicholson and executive officer came from HMY Victoria and Albert III, most of whose crew was also transferred to Agincourt on 3rd of August 1914. Most of the naval reservists had already been called up by this time and sent to other ships so a number of minor criminals who had had their sentences remitted were received from various naval prisons and detention camps.

        Agincourt was working up until 7th of September 1914, when she joined the 4th Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. The fleet anchorage at Scapa Flow was not yet secure against submarine attack and much of the fleet was kept at sea, where Agincourt spent forty of her first eighty days with the Grand Fleet. This was the beginning of a year and a half of inaction, only broken by occasional North Sea 'sweeps' intended to draw the enemy from his bases. The ship spent the bulk of her time during the war on patrols and exercises. On 1st of January 1915, Agincourt was still assigned to the 4th BS, but was assigned to the 1st Battle Squadron before the Battle of Jutland on 31st of May 1916.

        Although the Grand Fleet made several sorties over the next few years it is not known if Agincourt participated in them. On 23 April 1918, Agincourt and Hercules were stationed at Scapa Flow to provide cover for the Scandinavian convoys between Norway and Britain when the High Seas Fleet sortied in an attempt to destroy the convoy. The reports from German Intelligence were slightly off schedule, as both the inbound and outbound convoys were in port when the Germans reached their normal route so Admiral Scheer ordered the fleet to return to Germany without spotting any British ships.

        Agincourt was later transferred to the 2nd Battle Squadron and was present at the surrender of the High Seas Fleet on 21 November 1918. She was placed in reserve at Rosyth in March 1919. After unsuccessful attempts to sell her to the Brazilian Government, she was listed for disposal in April 1921, but was used for experimental purposes later that year. She was sold for scrap on 19 December 1922 to comply with the tonnage limitations of the Washington Naval Treaty, although she was not actually broken up until the end of 1924.

           

        HMS Canada

        HMS Canada was built as the Almirante Latorre, named after Juan José Latorre, a super-dreadnought battleship for the Chilean Navy. Construction began at Armstrong Whitworth's Elswick yard in Newcastle upon Tyne soon after the ship was ordered in November 1911. She had a displacement of 25,000 long tons (25,401 t) standard and 32,000 long tons (32,514 t) full load. Length: 625 ft (191 m), Beam: 92.5 ft (28.2 m), Draught: 33 ft (10 m) Her propulsion was provided by coal and oil fuel in 21 Yarrow boilers feeding low pressure Parsons and High pressure Brown-Curtis steam turbines, giving 37,000 shp (27,591 kW), Her top speed 22.75 knots (42.13 km/h; 26.18 mph) Her Ships Complement was 834 officers and men and her armament consisted of 10 × 14 in (356 mm)/45 caliber BL guns, 16 × 6 in (152 mm) guns, 2 × 3 in (76 mm) anti-aircraft guns, 4 × 3-pounder guns and 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged). Her Armour Belt was 9 in (230 mm), Deck: 1.5 in (38 mm), Barbette: 10 in (250 mm), Turret: 10 in (250 mm) and Conning tower: 11 in (280 mm). She was launched on the 27th of November 1913, as Almirante Latorre and was approaching completion when she was purchased by the United Kingdom's Royal Navy on the 9th of September 1914. she was not forcibly seized like the Ottoman Reşadiye and Sultân Osmân-ı Evvel, two other ships being built for a foreign navy, because the Allies' reliance on Chilean munitions imports made retention of Chile's friendly neutral status with the United Kingdom a matter of vital importance. The ship was modified for British service, the bridge was taken off in favour of two open platforms, and a mast was added in between the two funnels to support a derrick that would service launches. The super-dreadnought completed fitting-out on 20th of September 1915 and was commissioned into the Royal Navy on the 15th of October 1915, she served in the Grand Fleet as HMS Canada for the duration of the war. She saw action during the Battle of Jutland, firing 42 rounds from her 14-inch guns and 109 6-inch shells during the battle, and suffered no hits or casualties. During the battle, she got off two salvoes at the disabled cruiser Wiesbaden at 1840, and fired five more at an unknown ship around 1920. Her 6-inch guns were utilized for firing at German destroyers at 19:11. HMS Canada was transferred to the 1st Battle Squadron on 12 June 1916. In 1917–18, she was fitted with better rangefinders and range dials, and two of the aft 6-inch secondary guns were removed after they suffered blast damage from the middle 14-inch turret. In the latter year, flying-off platforms for aircraft were added atop the superfiring turrets fore and aft.

        HMS Canada was put into the reserve fleet in March 1919 and was repurchased by Chile in 1920. She took back her original name of Almirante Latorre, and served as the Chilean flagship and frequently as presidential transport. She underwent a thorough modernization in the United Kingdom in 1929–31. In September 1931, crewmen aboard Almirante Latorre instigated a mutiny, which the majority of the Chilean fleet quickly joined. After divisions developed between the mutineers, the rebellion fell apart and the ships were returned to government control. Almirante Latorre was placed in reserve for a time in the 1930s because of the Great Depression, but she was in good enough condition to receive interest from the United States after the attack on Pearl Harbor. This overture was declined and the ship spent most of the Second World War on patrol for Chile. She was scrapped in Japan beginning in 1959.

           

        HMS Benbow

        HMS Benbow was an Iron Duke-class battleship of the Royal Navy, the third ship of the class and the third ship to be named in honour of Admiral John Benbow. She was ordered under the 1911 Naval Estimates and built in the yards of William Beardmore and Company, of Glasgow. She was laid down on 30 May 1912 and launched on 12 November 1913. She was commissioned in October 1914 after the outbreak of the First World War. Her sister ships were: Iron Duke, Marlborough and Emperor of India. She had a displacement of 25,000 tons / 29,500 full load Length: 622 ft 9 in (189.8 m) , Beam: 90 ft (27.4 m), Draught: 32 ft 9 in (9.98 m) Her propulsion was 4 shaft Parsons steam turbines with direct drive, fed by 18 Babcock & Wilcox or Yarrow boilers delivering 29,000 hp, giving her a top speed of 21.25 knots (39.4 km/h) and a range of 14,000 nm at 10 knots (18.5 km/h) Her armament consisted of 10 × BL 13.5-inch (342.9 mm) Mk V guns (5 × twin turrets), 12 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk VII guns (single mounts), 2 × QF 3 inch 20 cwt AA guns and 4 × 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes Her Armour Belt was 12 in, Bulkheads: 8 in, Barbettes: 10 in, Turrets: 11 in and Decks: 2.5 in

        Benbow served as the 4th Battle Squadron's flagship until June 1916. She was initially the flagship of Admiral Douglas Gamble, until he was replaced in February 1915 by Vice-Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee. Her commander was Captain H. W. Parker.

        Prior to the Battle of Jutland, Benbow left Scapa Flow with the rest of the Grand Fleet under the command of Admiral John Jellicoe on 30 May 1916. She led the 4th Division, consisting of HMS Bellerophon, HMS Temeraire and HMS Vanguard. She spent the remainder of the war at anchor at the 4th Division's home port of Scapa Flow, or on manoeuvres and routine patrols in the North Sea.

        In 1919 Benbow was deployed in the Mediterranean, and then with the Black Sea squadron in support of the White Russians in the Russian Civil War. She carried out a number of shore bombardments, until she left the squadron in 1920. She became part of the Mediterranean fleet until 1926. Benbow's captain between 1921 and 1923 was James Fownes Somerville, later Sir James Fownes Somerville, Admiral of the Fleet. HMS Benbow left the Mediterranean in 1926 and joined the Atlantic Fleet until 1929, when she was paid off into reserve. She was disarmed in 1930 under the terms of the London Naval Treaty and placed on the disposal list. Benbow was sold for scrap in January 1931 and scrapped in March 1931 by Metal Industries, of Rosyth.

           

        HMS Queen Elizabeth

        HMS Queen Elizabeth was built at HM Dockyard Portsmouth, laid down on 21st October 1912, launched on 16th October 1913 and commissioned on 22nd December 1914. HMS Queen Elizabeth was the lead ship of the Queen Elizabeth-class of dreadnought battleships, named in honour of Elizabeth I of England. She saw service in both World Wars. A super-dreadnought class of battleships, she and the other vessels in the class were the first ships of their type to be powered by oil instead of coal. She was launched on 16 October 1913 at Portsmouth, Hampshire, and entered service in January 1915 during World War I.

        While still undergoing testing in the Mediterranean, the Queen Elizabeth was sent to the Dardanelles for the Allied attempt to knock the Ottoman Empire out of the war. The Queen Elizabeth was the only modern battleship to participate, though a number of battle cruisers and pre-dreadnought battleships were also involved. She became the flagship for the preliminary naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign, leading the first line of British battleships in the battle of 18 March 1915. During the attempted military invasion of the Gallipoli on 25 April, the Queen Elizabeth was the flagship for General Sir Ian Hamilton, commander of the Mediterranean Expeditionary Force. However, after the sinking of HMS Goliath by a Turkish torpedo boat on 12 May, the Queen Elizabeth was immediately withdrawn to a safer position.

        She joined Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas's 5th Battle Squadron (consisting of Queen Elizabeth-class battleships) of the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow, but she missed the Battle of Jutland due to being in dock for maintenance.

           

        HMS Barham

        HMS Barham was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship of the Royal Navy named after Admiral Charles Middleton, 1st Baron Barham, built at the John Brown shipyards in Clydebank, Scotland, and launched in 1914. She had a crew of 950 to 1300 officers and ratings.

        Barham was commissioned in August 1915, and joined the 5th Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet based at Scapa Flow as flagship on 2 October 1915. On 1 December 1915, she collided with her sister ship Warspite, with both ships receiving significant damage. After temporary repair at Scapa, Barham was sent to Invergordon for more permanent repairs, sailing again on the 23rd of December. At the Battle of Jutland on 31 May to 1 June 1916, Barham was Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas's flagship of the 5th Battle Squadron, attached to Admiral David Beatty's battlecruiser fleet. Barham fired 337 15-inch shells and 25 6-inch shells during the battle. The number of hits cannot be confirmed, but it is believed that she and her sister ship Valiant made 23 or 24 hits between them, making them two of the most accurate warships in the British fleet. She received six hits during the battle, five from 12-inch shells and one from an 11-inch shell, suffering casualties of 26 killed and 46 wounded. Following Jutland, Barham was under repair until 5 July 1916. She was refitted at Cromarty between February and March 1917, being fitted with a pair of 12-pounder anti-aircraft guns that year, and was again refitted in February 1918. She was sunk during the Second World War on 25 November 1941 by the German submarine U-331

           

        HMS Warspite

        HMS Warspite was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship, built at HM Dockyard Devonport, laid down on 31st of October 1912, launched on 26th of November 1913 and commissioned on 8th of March 1915. She was the seventh warship of the Royal Navy to carry the name. Her thirty-year career covered both world wars and took her across the Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Pacific Oceans. She was involved in several major engagements, including battles in the North Sea and Mediterranean, earning her the most battle honours ever awarded to an individual ship in the Royal Navy and the most awarded for actions during the Second World War. For this and other reasons Warspite gained the nickname the "Grand Old Lady" after a comment made by her most famous commander, Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham in 1943.

        When she was launched in 1913 the use of oil as fuel and untried 15-inch guns were revolutionary concepts in the naval arms race between Britain and Germany, a considerable risk for Winston Churchill, then First Lord of the Admiralty and Admiral John Fisher who had advocated the design. However, the new fast battleships proved to be an outstanding success.

        In 1916 she was damaged during action at the Battle of Jutland. Upon the completion of her repairs, Warspite rejoined the 5th Battle Squadron. Further misfortune struck soon afterwards, when she collided with Valiant after a night-shooting exercise, necessitating more repair work at Rosyth. Captain Philpotts avoided reprimand on this occasion, but was moved to a shore-based job as Naval Assistant to the new First Sea Lord, Admiral Jellicoe. He was replaced by Captain de Bartolome in December 1916. In June 1917, Warspite collided with a destroyer, but did not require major repairs. In the following month, Warspite was rocked at her moorings in Scapa Flow when Vanguard, a St. Vincent-class battleship, exploded with the loss of hundreds of her crew when an ammunition magazine detonated. Early in April 1918 she joined the Grand Fleet in a fruitless pursuit of the German High Seas Fleet which had been hunting for a convoy near Norway. In 1918, Warspite had to spend four months being repaired after a boiler room caught fire. Captain Hubert Lynes relieved Captain de Bartolome and on 21st of November he took the Warspite out to escort the German High Seas Fleet into internment at Scapa Flow following the signing of the Armistice.

        HMS Warspite was refitted twice between the wars, but advances in technology and the cumulative effects of battle damage relegated her to the role of shore bombardment towards the end of the Second World War. She was decommissioned in 1945 and wrecked off the Cornish coast on the way to the scrap yard.

           

        HMS Malaya

        HMS Malaya was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship built at Armstrong Whitworth, at High Walker on Tyneside. She was laid down on 20 October 1913, launched 18 March 1915 and commissioned the on 1st February 1916. She had a displacement of 27,500 tons standard, 36,500 tons full load Length: 645 ft 9 in (196.82 m), Beam: 90 ft 6 in (27.58 m), Draught: 30 ft 2 in (9.19 m) Propulsion was provided by Parsons direct drive steam turbines, fed by 24 boilers driving 4 shafts giving 75,000 shp, and a top speed of 24 knots (44 km/h). Her bunkerage held 3,400 tons oil, giving a range of 5,000 nmi (9,000 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h). Her Ships Complement was 950–1300 officers and ratings. She was armed with 8 × BL 15-inch Mk I guns (4 x 2), 16 (Queen Elizabeth) or 14 (other ships) × single BL 6-inch Mk XII guns, 2 × single QF 3-inch 20cwt anti-aircraft guns, 4 × single 3-pdr (47 mm) saluting guns and 4 × 21-inch (530 mm) submerged torpedo tubes. HMS Malaya flew the red-white-black-yellow ensign of the Federated Malay States and was named in honour of the Federated Malay States in British Malaya, whose government paid for her construction. She served in Admiral Hugh Evan-Thomas's 5th Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. She took part in the Battle of Jutland, 31 May 1916, where she was hit eight times and took major damage and heavy crew casualties. A total of 65 men died, in the battle or later of their injuries. Among the wounded was Able Seaman Willie Vicarage, notable as one of the first men to receive facial reconstruction using plastic surgery and the first to receive radical reconstruction via the tubed pedicule technique pioneered by Sir Harold Gillies.

        On 17 November 1922 Malaya carried the last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Mehmed VI, from Istanbul into exile on Malta (and later San Remo). In August–September 1938 she served in the port of Haifa during the 1936–39 Arab revolt in Palestine.

           

        HMS Valiant

        HMS Valiant was a Queen Elizabeth-class battleship built at Fairfield, Clydebank, laid down on 31 January 1913, launched 4 November 1914 and commissioned on 13 January 1916.

        The Queen Elizabeths were the first battleships to be armed with 15-inch (381 mm) guns, and were described in the 1919 edition of Jane's Fighting Ships as "the most successful type of capital ship yet designed." They saw much service in both world wars.

        HMS Valiant had a displacement: 27,500 tons standard, 36,500 tons full load. ength: 645 ft 9 in (196.82 m), Beam: 90 ft 6 in (27.58 m), Draught: 30 ft 2 in (9.19 m) Her propulsion was provided by Parsons direct drive steam turbines fed by 24 boilers, driving 4 shafts to give 75,000 shp and a to speed of 24 knots (44 km/h). With a bunkerage of 3,400 tons oil, she had a range of 5,000 nmi (9,000 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h) Her Ships Complement was 950–1300 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 8 × BL 15-inch Mk I guns (4 x 2), 16 × single BL 6-inch Mk XII guns, 2 × single QF 3-inch 20cwt anti-aircraft guns, 4 × single 3-pdr (47 mm) saluting guns, and 4 × 21-inch (530 mm) submerged torpedo tubes. Her turbines were manufactured by Fairfields, and her armour plate was provided by William Beardmore and Company. Upon completion on 19 February 1916 under Captain Maurice Woollcombe she joined the recently formed Fifth Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet.

        At the Battle of Jutland she fired 288 15-inch shells at the German High Seas Fleet. Despite the severity of damage suffered by her sister ships in the battle, she suffered no damage. One of her 15-inch guns which had been in Valiant at Jutland was later removed and became one of the three guns of the Johore Battery at Singapore. However, on 24th of August that same year she collided with HMS Warspite and was in repairs until the 18th of September.

        From 1919 to the end of 1924 she was part of the 1st Battle Squadron, Atlantic Fleet after which she was with the 1st Battle Squadron of the Mediterranean Fleet until March 1929. She was broken up at Cairnryan in 1948.

           

        HMS Revenge (1915)

        HMS Revenge was a Revenge class battleship built by Vickers-Armstrong, laid down on 22nd December 1913 under the name Renown, launched 29th May 1915 and commissioned on the 1st February 1916.

        The Revenge-class battleships (listed as Royal Sovereign class in several editions of Jane's Fighting Ships, and sometimes also known as the "R" class) were five battleships of the Royal Navy, ordered as World War I loomed on the horizon, and launched in 1914–1916. There were originally to have been eight of the class, but two were later redesigned, becoming the Renown-class battle cruisers, while the other, which was to have been named HMS Resistance, was cancelled.

        HMS Revenge had a displacement of 29,150 tons standard, 33,500 tons full load. Length: 624 ft (190 m), Beam: 88.5 ft (27.0 m), Draught: 28.6 ft (8.7 m) Her propulsion was provided by Steam turbines, driving 4 shafts, fed by 24 boilers, giving 26,500 shp (20 MW) She had a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h) and range of 5,000 nmi (9,000 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h) Her Ships Complement was 997–1,150 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 8 × 15 in /42 guns (381 mm), 14 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk XII guns, 2 × QF 3-inch (76.20 mm) 20 cwt anti-aircraft guns, 4 × 47 mm guns and 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged). Armour Belt was 13 in (330 mm) amidships; 4–6 in (102–152 mm) ends. Deck: up to 5 in (127 mm). Turrets: 13 in (330 mm) faces; 5 in (127 mm) sides; 5 in (127 mm) roof Barbettes: up to 10 in (254 mm) and citadel: 11 in (279 mm).

        Revenge was in action at The Battle of Jutland under the command of Captain E. B. Kiddle. The day before the Grand Fleet departed their base to confront the surrendering German High Seas Fleet in Operation ZZ, a visit was made by senior members of the British Royal Family: King George V, Queen Mary and Edward, Prince of Wales. The King and his son visited USS New York, HMS Lion and Revenge. Queen Mary had tea in Revenge.

        In 1919, at Scapa Flow, Admiral Ludwig von Reuter issued the order to the now interned German High Seas Fleet to scuttle the entire fleet of 74 ships to prevent their use by the victorious Allies. After the incident, von Reuter was brought to the quarterdeck of Revenge, flagship of Vice-Admiral Sydney Fremantle and accused of breaching naval honour. Von Reuter replied to the accusation, "I am convinced that any English naval officer, placed as I was, would have acted in the same way." No charges were brought against him.

        In January 1920, the 1st Battle Squadron was detached to the Mediterranean due to crises in the region. While there, Revenge supported Greek forces and remained in the Black Sea, due to concerns about the Russian Civil War until July, when she returned to the British Atlantic Fleet. In 1922, Revenge, with her sister ships Ramillies, Resolution and Royal Sovereign, was again sent to the Mediterranean due to further tension in the area, in no small part due to the forced abdication of King Constantine I of Greece. Revenge was stationed at Constantinople and the Dardanelles throughout her deployment. She rejoined the Atlantic Fleet the following year.

        In January 1928 she was paid off for refit at Devonport Dockyard; this included her 3-inch anti-aircraft guns being replaced by 4-inch guns and a control system was installed to direct them from a station on the foremast. Two of the 6-inch guns were removed from the foc’sle deck. She was recommissioned in March 1929 into the British Mediterranean Fleet. A further minor refit in May 1931 added two platforms for the new eight-barrelled 2-pounder pom-pom anti-aircraft guns, although only the starboard set of guns was actually fitted due to a shortage. On 16 July 1935, Revenge was part of the Naval Review of 160 warships at Spithead in celebration of George V's Silver Jubilee. Later that year she was stationed at Alexandria due to potential dangers posed by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.

        In 1936 she was paid off for another refit. She was recommissioned a year later into the 2nd Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet. Early in 1939, her single 4-inch guns were replaced with four twin Mark XVI 4-inch guns and the fire control system was upgraded with a second system being added astern. She finally received the port multiple 2-pounder pom-pom and two four barrelled Vickers .50 machine guns were fitted on either side of the control tower. On 9 August 1939 she was part of another Fleet Review, that was observed by George VI. Revenge was now becoming rather antiquated and slow, but she was still used a great deal throughout the war, being assigned to the North Atlantic Escort Force, together with her sister-ship Resolution.

           

        HMS Royal Oak

        HMS Royal Oak, a Revenge Class Battleship was built at HM Dockyard, Devonport, laid down on 15 January 1914, launched on 17 November 1914 and commissioned on 1st May 1916 at a final cost of £2,468,269. She was the eighth vessel to bear the name Royal Oak, replacing a pre-dreadnought scrapped in 1914. She had a displacement of 29,150 tons standard, 33,500 tons full load. Length: 624 ft (190 m), Beam: 88.5 ft (27.0 m), Draught: 28.6 ft (8.7 m) Her propulsion was provided by Steam turbines, driving 4 shafts, fed by 24 boilers, giving 26,500 shp (20 MW) with a top speed of 21 knots (39 km/h) and a range of 5,000 nmi (9,000 km) at 12 knots (22 km/h). Her Ships Complement was 997–1,150 officers and ratings. Armament consisted of 8 × 15 in /42 guns (381 mm), 14 × BL 6-inch (152.4 mm) Mk XII guns, 2 × QF 3-inch (76.20 mm) 20 cwt anti-aircraft guns, 4 × 47 mm guns and 4 × 21 in (533 mm) torpedo tubes (submerged). Her Armour Belt was 13 in (330 mm) amidships; 4–6 in (102–152 mm) ends. Deck: up to 5 in (127 mm). Turrets: 13 in (330 mm) faces; 5 in (127 mm) sides; 5 in (127 mm) roof. Barbettes: up to 10 in (254 mm) and Citadel: 11 in (279 mm)

        Upon completion Royal Oak was assigned to the Third Division of the Fourth Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet and engaged the German High Seas Fleet in the Battle of Jutland. Under the command of Captain Crawford Maclachlan, Royal Oak left Scapa Flow on the evening of 30 May in the company of the battleships Superb, Canada and Admiral Jellicoe's flagship Iron Duke. The next day's indecisive battle saw Royal Oak fire a total of thirty-eight 15-inch and eighty-four 6-inch shells, claiming three hits on the battlecruiser SMS Derfflinger, putting one of its turrets out of action, and a hit on the cruiser SMS Wiesbaden. She avoided damage herself, despite being straddled by shellfire on one occasion. Following the battle, Royal Oak was reassigned to the First Battle Squadron.

        On 5th November 1918 — the final week of the First World War — she was anchored off Burntisland in the Firth of Forth accompanied by the seaplane tender Campania and the light battlecruiser Glorious. A sudden Force 10 squall caused Campania to drag her anchor, collide with Royal Oak and then with Glorious. Both capital ships suffered only minor damage; Campania, however, was holed by her initial collision and sank five hours later without loss of life.

        At the end of the First World War, Royal Oak escorted several vessels of the surrendering German High Seas Fleet from the Firth of Forth to their internment in Scapa Flow and was present at a ceremony in Pentland Firth to greet other ships as they followed. She was sunk at Scapa Flow in October 1939.

           

        HMS Lion

        HMS Lion, was a Battlecruiser, built by HM Dockyard Devonport, laid down on 29 September 1909, launched on 6 August 1910 and completed in May 1912 at a cost of £2,086,458. Like all ships of the Lion Class, she had a Displacement of 26,270 long tons (26,690 t) normal load, 30,820 long tons (31,310 t) deep load. Length: 700 ft (213.4 m), Beam: 88 ft 6.75 in (27.0 m), Draught: 32 ft 5 in (9.9 m) at deep load Power: 70,000 shp (52,000 kW), 42 Yarrow boilers, Propulsion: 4 shafts, Parsons direct-drive steam turbines She had a Maximum speed of 28 knots (52 km/h; 32 mph) and a range of 5,610 nmi (10,390 km; 6,460 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph). The ships Complement was 1,092 officers and ratings, and she was armed with: 4 × 2 – BL 13.5-inch guns, 16 × 1 – BL 4-inch guns and 2 × 1 – 21-inch (533 mm) torpedo tubes Her armour belt measured 9–4 inches (229–102 mm), bulkheads were 4 inches (102 mm), barbettes at 9–8 inches (229–203 mm) turrets were 9 inches (229 mm), her decks measured 2.5 inches (64 mm) and her conning tower was 10 inches (254 mm) thick.

        The Lion-class battlecruisers were designed to be as superior to the new German battlecruisers of the Moltke class as the German ships were to the Invincible class. The increase in speed, armour and gun size forced a 65% increase in size over the Indefatigable class and made them the largest warships in the world.

        Lion's first action was as flagship of the battlecruiser force under the command of Admiral Beatty during the Battle of Heligoland Bight on 28th of August 1914. She took part in the chase after the enemy raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby on the 16th of December. She was also in action during the Battle of Dogger Bank on the 24th of January 1915. She fired 243 rounds from her main guns, but only made four hits: one each on Blücher and Derfflinger, and two on Seydlitz. In return she had been hit by the Germans sixteen times, but only suffered one man killed and twenty wounded. Lion was badly damaged and Indomitable was ordered to tow her back to port at 1500, but it took two hours and two tries before she could start to tow Lion, and a further day-and-a-half to reach port at speeds of 7–10 knots (13–19 km/h; 8.1–11.5 mph), even after Lion's starboard engine was temporarily repaired. After repairs at Palmers Shipyard, she rejoined the Battlecruiser Fleet, again as Beatty's flagship, on 7 April.

        On 31 May 1916 Admiral Beatty's Battlecruiser Fleet put to sea to intercept a sortie by the High Seas Fleet into the North Sea at the Battle of Jutland. Lion became the flagship of Vice-Admiral W. C. Pakenham in December 1916 when he assumed command of the Battlecruiser Fleet upon Beatty's promotion to command of the Grand Fleet. Lion had an uneventful time for the rest of the war, conducting patrols of the North Sea as the High Seas Fleet was forbidden to risk any more losses. She provided support for British light forces involved in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight on 17 November 1917, but never came within range of any German forces.

        The 1st BCS, including Lion, sailed on the 12th of December 1917 in a futile attempt to intercept the German destroyers that had sunk the convoy en route to Norway earlier that day, but returned to base the following day. Lion, along with the rest of the Grand Fleet, sortied on the afternoon of 23 March 1918 after radio transmissions had revealed that the High Seas Fleet was at sea after a failed attempt to intercept the regular British convoy to Norway. However, the Germans were too far ahead of the British and escaped without firing a shot.

        HMS Lion was among the escorting ships when the High Seas Fleet sailed for Scapa Flow on 21st of November 1918 to be interned. Along with the rest of the 1st BCS she guarded the interned ships until she was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet in April 1919. She was then placed in reserve in March 1920 and was paid off on 30 March 1922. Despite a press campaign to have her saved for the nation as a memorial, Lion was sold for scrap on 31 January 1924 for £77,000 to meet the tonnage limitations of the Washington Naval Treaty.

           

        HMS Princess Royal

        HMS Princess Royal was built by Vickers, Barrow, laid down on 2 May 1910, launched on 24 April 1911 and completed in November 1912 at a cost of £2,092,214. She was the second of two Lion-class battlecruisers built for the Royal Navy before World War I. Designed in response to the Moltke-class battlecruisers of the German Navy, the ships significantly improved on the speed, armament, and armour of the preceding Indefatigable class. The ship was named for The Princess Royal, a title occasionally granted to the Monarch's eldest daughter.

        HMS Princess Royal served in the Battle of Heligoland Bight a month after the war began. She was then sent to the Caribbean to prevent the German East Asia Squadron from using the Panama Canal. After the East Asia Squadron was sunk at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, Princess Royal rejoined the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron. During the Battle of Dogger Bank, Princess Royal scored only a few hits, although one crippled the German armoured cruiser Blücher. Shortly afterwards, she became the flagship of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, under the command of Rear-Admiral Osmond Brock.

        She was moderately damaged during the Battle of Jutland and required a month and a half of repairs. Apart from providing distant support during the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1917, the ship spent the rest of the war on uneventful patrols of the North Sea. Princess Royal was placed into reserve in 1920, then was sold for breaking up as scrap in 1922 to meet the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.

        The other deviation from working with the Home Fleet was that Princess Royal sailed from Cromarty on 28 September to rendezvous with a Canadian troop convoy bound for the United Kingdom. She rejoined the 1st BCS on 26 October, but was detached again a few days later to reinforce the North Atlantic and Caribbean Squadrons in the search for Admiral Graf Spee's German East Asia Squadron after it destroyed the West Indies Squadron on 1 November 1914. Princess Royal arrived at Halifax on 21 November, then spent several days off New York City before she steamed down to the Caribbean to guard against the possibility that Graf Spee would use the Panama Canal. The East Asia Squadron was sunk off the Falkland Islands on 7 December, and Princess Royal left Kingston, Jamaica to sail to the UK on 19 December.

           

        HMS Iron Duke

        HMS Iron Duke was a dreadnought battleship of the Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class, named in honour of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. She was built by Portsmouth Dockyard, and her keel laid in January 1912. Launched ten months later, she was commissioned into the Home Fleet in March 1914 as the fleet flagship. She was armed with a main battery of ten 13.5-inch (340 mm) guns and was capable of a top speed of 21.25 knots (39.36 km/h; 24.45 mph).

        In August 1914, after the outbreak of World War I, the Home Fleet was reorganised as the Grand Fleet; Iron Duke remained the flagship of the fleet, now under Admiral John Jellicoe, 1st Earl Jellicoe. On the evening of 22 November 1914, the Grand Fleet conducted a fruitless sweep in the southern half of the North Sea; Iron Duke stood with the main body in support of Vice Admiral David Beatty's 1st Battlecruiser Squadron. The fleet was back in port in Scapa Flow by 27 November. Iron Duke and most of the fleet remained in port during the German raid on Scarborough, Hartlepool and Whitby in December 1914, though the 3rd Battle Squadron was sent to reinforce the British forces in the area. Iron Duke went to sea with the 2nd and 4th Battle Squadrons for gunnery practice north of the Hebrides on 23 and 24 December. The following day, the rest of the fleet joined Iron Duke for a sweep in the North Sea, which concluded on 27 December.

        Iron Duke and the rest of the fleet conducted gunnery drills on 10–13 January 1915 west of the Orkneys and Shetlands. On the evening of 23 January, the bulk of the Grand Fleet sailed in support of Beatty's Battlecruiser Fleet, but Iron Duke and the rest of the fleet did not become engaged in the ensuing Battle of Dogger Bank the following day. Upon returning from the operation, Iron Duke went to Invergordon for refit; while she was away, HMS Centurion acted as the temporary fleet flagship. The work was completed by 23 February, after which she returned to Scapa Flow. On 7–10 March, the Grand Fleet conducted a sweep in the northern North Sea, during which it conducted training manoeuvres. Another such cruise took place on 16–19 March. On 11 April, the Grand Fleet conducted a patrol in the central North Sea and returned to port on 14 April; another patrol in the area took place on 17–19 April, followed by gunnery drills off the Shetlands on 20–21 April.

        The Grand Fleet conducted a sweep into the central North Sea on 17–19 May without encountering any German vessels. On 25 May, Iron Duke carried Jellicoe to Rosyth to meet with Admiral Henry Jackson, the new First Sea Lord. Iron Duke returned to Scapa Flow on 28 May, in time to participate in another sweep into the North Sea on 29–31 May. After returning to Scapa Flow, Iron Duke immediately departed for Cromarty. The fleet conducted gunnery training in mid-June. Iron Duke, the 2nd Battle Squadron, and the 1st Cruiser Squadron conducted gunnery training at Cromarty on 2 August; after completing the drills, the ships returned to Scapa Flow. On 7 August, the ship again took Jellicoe to Cromarty for another meeting, this time with the Prime Minister, H. H. Asquith. Iron Duke was back in Scapa Flow by 16 August.

        On 2–5 September, the fleet went on another cruise in the northern end of the North Sea and conducted gunnery drills. Throughout the rest of the month, the Grand Fleet conducted numerous training exercises. Iron Duke went to Invergordon on 1 October for another period of refitting—the work lasted until 11 October. Two days later, the majority of the fleet conducted another sweep into the North Sea, returning to port on 15 October. On 2–5 November, Iron Duke participated in another fleet training operation west of the Orkneys. Another such cruise took place on 1–4 December. Later in the month, Iron Duke took part in gunnery drills, and during them, conducted an experiment of sorts to determine the accuracy of the ship's gunners. Jellicoe concluded that the "result was very satisfactory."

        Iron Duke collided with the tanker Prudentia on 12 January 1916 while in Scapa Flow, and the latter sank. The tanker had come loose during a severe gale, which had winds of up to 80 miles per hour (130 km/h). Iron Duke was undamaged in the accident. The typical routine of gunnery drills and squadron exercises occurred in January. The fleet departed for a cruise in the North Sea on 26 February; Jellicoe had intended to use the Harwich Force to sweep the Heligoland Bight, but bad weather prevented operations in the southern North Sea. As a result, the operation was confined to the northern end of the sea. On the night of 25 March, Iron Duke and the rest of the fleet sailed from Scapa Flow to support the Battlecruiser Fleet and other light forces that raided the German zeppelin base at Tondern. By the time the Grand Fleet approached the area on 26 March, the British and German forces had already disengaged and a severe gale threatened the light craft. Iron Duke guided the destroyers back to Scapa while the rest of the fleet retired independently.

        On 21 April, the Grand Fleet conducted a demonstration off Horns Reef to distract the Germans while the Russian Navy relaid its defensive minefields in the Baltic Sea. The fleet returned to Scapa Flow on 24 April and refuelled before proceeding south in response to intelligence reports that the Germans were about to launch a raid on Lowestoft. The Grand Fleet did not arrive in the area until after the Germans had withdrawn. On 2–4 May, the fleet conducted another demonstration off Horns Reef to keep German attention focused on the North Sea.

        On the 31st of May she was in action at the Battle of Jutland as the flagship of the Grand Fleet. She inflicted significant damage on the German battleship SMS König early in the main fleet action. On 18th of August, the Germans again sortied, this time to bombard Sunderland; Scheer hoped to draw out Beatty's battlecruisers and destroy them. British signals intelligence decrypted German wireless transmissions, allowing Jellicoe enough time to deploy the Grand Fleet in an attempt to engage in a decisive battle. Both sides withdrew, however, after their opponents' submarines inflicted losses: the British cruisers Nottingham and Falmouth were both torpedoed and sunk by German U-boats, and the German battleship SMS Westfalen was damaged by the British submarine E23. After returning to port, Jellicoe issued an order that prohibited risking the fleet in the southern half of the North Sea due to the overwhelming risk from mines and U-boats.

        In the aftermath of Jutland, the Royal Navy determined that horizontal protection, particularly over ammunition magazines, was insufficient. As a result, many ships in the Grand Fleet had additional armour installed; Iron Duke went into dock for this work in October. The work, which saw over 100 long tons (100 t) of armour added to the ship, was completed by December. On 28 November 1916, while she was still in dry dock, Admiral Beatty replaced Jellicoe as the commander of the Grand Fleet; Iron Duke served as his flagship until January 1917, when he transferred to Queen Elizabeth.[28] In 1918, flying-off platforms for aircraft were installed on Iron Duke's "B" and "Q" turrets.

        In January 1917, she was relieved as fleet flagship. After the war, Iron Duke operated in the Mediterranean as the flagship of the Mediterranean Fleet. She participated in both the Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War in the Black Sea and the Greco-Turkish War. She also assisted in the evacuation of refugees from Smyrna. In 1926, she was assigned to the Atlantic Fleet, where she served as a training ship.

        Iron Duke only remained on active duty for a few more years; in 1930, the London Naval Treaty specified that the four Iron Duke-class battleships be scrapped or otherwise demilitarised. Iron Duke was therefore converted into a gunnery training ship; her armour and much of her armament was removed to render her unfit for combat. She served in this capacity until the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, when she was moored in Scapa Flow as a harbour defence ship. In October, she was badly damaged by German bombers and was run aground to avoid sinking. She continued to serve as an anti-aircraft platform for the duration of the war, and was eventually refloated and broken up for scrap in the late 1940s

           

           Walkergate City Hospital was built in 1888 as an isolation hospital for Infectious Diseases, often known as The Fever Hospital. During the Great War two temorary pavilions were constructed on the east side of Benton Road for military use, they were also in military use during WW2 and were converted into a geriatric unit in 1953, remaining in use until 1979 when they were demolished.

           Lemington Bond Munitions Works was a filling factory managed by Armstrong, Whitworth and Co. It was situated at Lemington Point, on an island on the River Tyne formed by an old loop of the river, Lemmington Gut, later the site of the Anglo Great Lakes Graphite Plant. The munitions factory was nicknamed "Canary Island" by locals due to the cordite turning the skin of workers a shade of yellow.

           Derwenthaugh Munitions Works was part of the Armstrong Munitions Factory on the Tyne and was engaged in the assembly of shells.

           Dick, Kerr & Co was a manufacturer of electric trams with a factory on Strand Road in Preston, Lancashire, during the Great War they converted part of the factory to produce ammunition for the war effort. they also produced petrol-electric locomotives for use on the light railways of the western front.

           Cleveland House on Eston Road, Grangetown, Middlesbrough, belonging to Bolkow and Vaughn Works was used as a Naval Hospital during the Great War. The buidling became the Council Offices in 1920.

           Bolkow Vaughn, based in Middlesbrough were Ironmasters, steel manufacturers and colliery owners. Their products are listed in 1914 Whitakers Red Book as; "Cleveland pig iron, hematite, ferro-manganese and spiegeleisen steel rails and plates, tramrails, ironstone, coal, coke and byproducts such as sulphate of ammonia, benzol, toluol, xylol, sol, naphtha and motor spirit; also fire brick and plate bricks, ground annealed slag and artificial stone. The manufacture of steel is carried on by the acid and basic processes, both Bessemer and Siemens. Employees 18,000"

           Lennel House in Coldstream, the country home of Lady Clementine Waring was a convalescent hospital for officers of the rank of Major and above under the care of Neurology specialists.

           Seven hundred acres of land at Grange Farm, Billingham was purchased in 1917 as a site for the production of chemicals for explosives. Some production of Nitrogen began in late 1918, but the massive complex was not completed until after the end of the war and the works were put up for sale in 1919 and were purchased by Brunner Mond.

           

        HMS Invincible

        HMS Invincible was a battlecruiser of the British Royal Navy, the lead ship of her class of three, and the first battlecruiser to be built by any country in the world. She was built by Armstrong Whitworth, Elswick. An Invincible-class battlecruiser, she was laid down on on 2nd of April 1906, Launched on 13th April 1907 and commissioned on the 20th of March 1909 at a cost of £1,768,995 She had a displacement of 17,250 long tons (17,530 t), 20,420 long tons (20,750 t) at (deep load). Length: 567 ft (173 m) overall, Beam: 78.5 ft (23.9 m), Draught: 30 ft (9.1 m) deep load Powered by 31 Yarrow boilers giving 41,000 shp (31,000 kW), and propelled by four-shaft Parsons direct-drive steam turbines. She had a top speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph) with a range of 2,270 nmi (4,200 km; 2,610 mi) at 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph), 3,090 nmi (5,720 km; 3,560 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) Her ships complement was 784 officers and ratings, but she allowed for up to 1000 in wartime. Her armament consisted of 4 × 2 - BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk X guns, 16 × 1 - QF 4-in (102mm) Mk III guns. 7 × 1 - Maxim guns and 5 × 1 - submerged 18-inch (450-mm) torpedo tubes.

        Entering service from the second half of 1908 she was assigned to the Home Fleet. In 1914, Invincible was refitting in England when war broke out. She participated in the Battle of Heligoland Bight and was the flagship of the 3rd Battlecruiser Squadron during the Battle of Jutland. The squadron had been detached from Admiral Beatty's Battlecruiser Fleet a few days before the battle for gunnery practice with the Grand Fleet and acted as its heavy scouting force during the battle. She was destroyed by a magazine explosion during the battle on teh 31st of May 1916, after 'Q' turret was penetrated by fire from German Battleships Lützow and Derfflinger. Only 6 of her crew of over 1000 survived the explosion.

           

        HMS Inflexible

        HMS Inflexible, a Battlecruiser of theInvincible class, was built by John Brown of Clydebank. Laid down on 5 February 1906, Launched on 26 June 1907 and commissioned on 20th October 1908 at a cost of £1,768,229. she had a displacement of 17,250 long tons (17,530 t), 20,420 long tons (20,750 t) at (deep load) Length: 567 ft (173 m) overall, Beam: 78.5 ft (23.9 m), Draught: 30 ft (9.1 m) deep load. Powered by 31 Yarrow boilers giving 41,000 shp (31,000 kW) to four-shaft Parsons direct-drive steam turbines . She had a top speed of 25.5 knots (47.2 km/h; 29.3 mph) and a range of 2,270 nmi (4,200 km; 2,610 mi) at 23 knots (43 km/h; 26 mph), 3,090 nmi (5,720 km; 3,560 mi) at 10 knots (19 km/h; 12 mph) Her ships complement was 784 (up to 1000 in wartime) officers and ratings. Her armament consisted of 4 × 2 - BL 12-inch (304.8 mm) Mk X guns, 16 × 1 - QF 4-in (102mm) Mk III guns, 7 × 1 - Maxim guns and 5 × 1 - submerged 18-inch (450-mm) torpedo tubes.

        HMS Inflexible had an active career during the war. She tried to hunt down the German battlecruiser SMS Goeben and the light cruiser SMS Breslau in the Mediterranean Sea when war broke out and she and her sister ship Invincible sank the German armoured cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and SMS Gneisenau during the Battle of the Falkland Islands. Inflexible bombarded Turkish forts in the Dardanelles in 1915, but was damaged by return fire and struck a mine while maneuvering. She had to be beached to prevent her from sinking, but she was patched up and sent to Malta, and then Gibraltar for more permanent repairs. Transferred to the Grand Fleet afterwards she damaged the German battlecruiser Lützow during the Battle of Jutland and watched Invincible explode. She was deemed obsolete after the war and was sold for scrap in 1921.

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

           

        HMS Queen Mary

        HMS Queen Mary was the last battlecruiser built by the Royal Navy before World War I. The sole member of her class, Queen Mary shared many features with the Lion-class battlecruisers, including her eight 13.5-inch guns. She was completed in 1913 and took part in the Battle of Heligoland Bight in 1914. Like most of the modern British battlecruisers, she remained in the North Sea during the war. As part of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron, she was involved in an unsuccessful attempt to intercept a German force that had bombarded the North Sea coast of England in December 1914. She was refitting in early 1915 and missed the Battle of Dogger Bank in January, but was present and met her fate in the Battle of Jutland. She was hit twice by the German battlecruiser Derfflinger during the early part of the battle and her magazines exploded shortly afterwards, sinking the ship. Her wreck was discovered in 1991 and rests in pieces, some of which are upside down, on the floor of the North Sea. Queen Mary is designated as a protected site under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 as it is the grave of 1,266 officers and men.

        Queen Mary was ordered under the 1910–11 Naval Programme. It was standard practice to order only one battlecruiser with each naval programme. She differed from her predecessors of the Lion class in the layout of her secondary armament in the location of the officers' quarters. All battleships since HMS Dreadnought in 1905 had the officers' quarters closer to their action stations amidships. After complaints from the Fleet, Queen Mary was the first battlecruiser to restore their quarters to their traditional place in the stern. In addition, she was the first battlecruiser to mount a sternwalk. Queen Mary, the only ship of her name ever to serve in the Royal Navy, was named for Mary of Teck, the wife of King George V. The Queen's representative at the ship's christening on 20 March 1912 was the wife of Viscount Allendale. Queen Mary was laid down at Palmers Shipbuilding and Iron Company, Jarrow, on 6 March 1911. She was launched on 20 March 1912 and was completed in August 1913 at a total cost of £2,078,491 (including guns). The ship came under the command of Captain Reginald Hall on 1 July and was the last battlecruiser introduced before the start of World War I, being commissioned on 4 September 1913. Assigned to the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (BCS) under the command of Rear Admiral David Beatty, Queen Mary and the rest of the 1st BCS made a port visit to Brest in February 1914 and the squadron visited Russia in June.

        During World War I HMS Queen Mary's first action was as part of the battlecruiser force under the command of Beatty during the Battle of Heligoland Bight on 28th of August 1914. Like most of the Grand Fleet she remained in the North sea area during the Great War. Her next action was an unsuccessful attempt to cut off the German Squadron after the bombardment of Scarborough, Whitby and Hartlepool on the 16th December 1914 Queen Mary was undergoing refitting in January and February 1915 and missed the Battle of Dogger Bank. Her final engagement was in the Battle of Jutland where she sunk with the loss of 1,266 crewmen. Eighteen survivors were picked up by the destroyers HMS Laurel, HMS Petard, and HMS Tipperary. A further two were rescued by the Germans.

        Queen Mary, along with the other Jutland wrecks, has been declared a protected place under the Protection of Military Remains Act 1986 to discourage further damage to the resting place of 1,266 officers and men. Surveys of this site conducted by nautical archaeologist Innes McCartney in 2001–03 have shown the wreck is in three sections, with the two forward sections being heavily damaged and in pieces. Her aft end is upside down and relatively complete except for her propellers, which have been salvaged. Examination of the damage to the ship has suggested that the initial explosion was not in the magazine of 'A' or 'B' forward main turrets, but instead in the magazine of the forward 4-inch battery. An explosion of the quantity of cordite in the main magazine would have been sufficient to also ignite 'Q' magazine, destroying much more of the ship. The explosion in the smaller magazine would have been sufficient to break the ship in two, the blast then spreading to the forward magazine and ripping apart the forward section.

           

        HMS Tiger

        HMS Tiger was the sole battlecruiser in the 1911–12 Naval Programme. She was laid down at the John Brown and Company shipyard in Clydebank on 6 June 1912, launched on 15 December 1913 and commissioned into the Royal Navy on 3 October 1914, at a cost of £2,593,100, including armament. The ship was still under construction when the First World War broke out in August 1914. On 3 August 1914 Captain Henry Bertram Pelly was appointed to command the ship. Beatty described Pelly at the time as "a very charming person and, what is more important just now, a very efficient officer". After the Battle of Coronel and the deployment of three battlecruisers to hunt for the German East Asia Squadron, Tiger was ordered to cut short her firing trials off Berehaven and was commissioned into the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron (1st BCS) two months later, on 3 October. She began trials and working up and Beatty described Tiger to the First Sea Lord, Admiral of the Fleet Lord Fisher of Kilverstone, as "not yet fit to fight. Three out of her four dynamoes are out of action for an indefinite period, and her training is impeded by bad weather, which might continue for many weeks at this time of year and at present is quite unprepared and inefficient."

        Tiger took part in the First Battle of Dogger Bank and The Battle of Jutland. She was also present in support during the second Battle of Heligoland Bight and the unsuccessful attempt to intercept German ships after a planned bombardment of Sunderland.

        After her repairs were completed, Tiger served as the temporary flagship of the 1st Battlecruiser Squadron while Lion was under repair. In the meantime, on the evening of 18 August the Grand Fleet put to sea in response to a message deciphered by Room 40 which indicated that the High Seas Fleet, less the II Squadron, would be leaving harbour that night. The German objective was to bombard Sunderland on the 19th, with extensive reconnaissance provided by airships and submarines. The Grand Fleet sailed with 29 dreadnought battleships and six battlecruisers. Throughout the 19th, Jellicoe and Scheer received conflicting intelligence, with the result that having reached its rendezvous in the North Sea, the Grand Fleet steered north in the erroneous belief that it had entered a minefield before turning south again. Scheer steered south-eastward pursuing a lone British battle squadron reported by an airship, which was in fact the Harwich Force under Commodore Tyrwhitt. Having realised their mistake the Germans then steered for home. The only contact came in the evening when Tyrwhitt sighted the High Seas Fleet but was unable to achieve an advantageous attack position before dark, and broke off contact. Both the British and the German fleets returned home. The British had lost two cruisers to submarine attacks and a German dreadnought had been damaged by a torpedo.

        The ship received a lengthy refit from 10 November 1916 to 29 January 1917 at Rosyth where her deck and turret roof armour were reinforced and additional rangefinders were added over her conning tower and the rear of 'X' turret. For the remainder of the war, Tiger uneventfully patrolled the North Sea, as both fleets were essentially forbidden to risk any more losses. She provided support for British light forces involved in the Second Battle of Heligoland Bight on 17 November 1917, but never came within range of any German forces. The same year saw her undergo a minor refit during which a flying-off platform for a Sopwith Camel was mounted on 'Q' turret and a searchlight platform was added to her third funnel. She underwent a more extensive refit in 1918 which saw her topmast shifted to the top of the derrick-stump and a more substantial observation platform added to the foremast. Some of her short rangefinders were replaced by longer ones as well.

        Tiger remained in service with the Royal Navy after the Armistice with Germany and she had a flying-off platform added on 'B' turret's roof in 1919. The ship collided with the battleship Royal Sovereign in late 1920 while assigned to the Atlantic Fleet. Tiger survived the culling of older capital ships following the Washington Naval Treaty, although she was placed in reserve on 22 August 1921. The ship was refitted in March 1922 with a 25-foot rangefinder fitted on 'X' turret, her original pair of 3-inch AA guns replaced by four 4-inch guns and the flying-off platform on 'Q' turret was removed. On 14 February 1924, Tiger was recommissioned and became a seagoing training ship, a role she served in throughout the 1920s. Her last major period of activity came in 1929, when Hood went into dockyard hands for refit. While Hood was out of commission, Tiger returned to active service to keep the Royal Navy's three-ship Battlecruiser Squadron (normally made up of Hood plus the smaller Renown and Repulse) up to strength. Although by the 1930s Tiger was still in reasonable condition, the decision was taken to discard her following the London Naval Conf