- SMS Emden during the Great War -
If you enjoy this site please consider making a donation.
Add Stories & Photos
Day by Day
War in the Air
Prisoners of War
The Royal Navy
Training for War
Those Who Served
Life on Home Front
Central Powers Army
Central Powers' Navy
World War Two
Add Stories & Photos
Help & FAQ's
Our Facebook Page
Great War Books
Research your Family History.
World War 1 One ww1 wwII greatwar great
28th October 1914 Battle of Penang 1914 The Battle of Penang occurred on 28 October 1914, during World War I. It was a naval action in the Strait of Malacca, in which the German cruiser SMS Emden sank two Allied warships.
At the time, Penang was part of the Straits Settlement, a British Crown colony. Penang is an island off the west coast of Malaya, now the present day Malaysia. It is only a short distance from the mainland. The main town of Penang, George Town, is on a harbour. In the early months of the war, it was heavily used by Allied naval and merchant vessels. Shortly after the outbreak of the war, the German East Asia Squadron left its base in Tsingtao, China. The squadron headed east for Germany, but one ship, the light cruiser SMS Emden—under Lt. Commander Karl von Müller—was sent on a solitary raiding mission.
At about 0430 on 28 October, Emden appeared off the George Town roads and attacked the harbour and vessels lying therein. Captain von Müller had disguised his ship by rigging a false smoke stack, which made Emden resemble the British cruiser HMS Yarmouth. Once he had entered the harbor, however, he ran up the German naval ensign and revealed what ship the newcomer actually was. Before any of the Allied naval vessels could respond, a torpedo was fired at the Russian protected cruiser Zhemchug, followed up with a salvo of shells which riddled the ship. A second torpedo, fired as Emden turned to leave, penetrated the forward magazine, causing an explosion that sank the Russian ship. Returning to the harbour from a patrol was the French destroyer Mousquet, under the command of a Lt. Théroinne, which then set off in pursuit of Emden, but was quickly sunk by the German ship. Casualties amongst Zhemchug's crew of 250 amounted to 89 dead and 143 wounded.
The Zhemchug was tied up in a state of non-readiness while her captain, Cmdr. Baron Cherkassov, went ashore that night to visit his wife (some sources say mistress). The keys for the ship's magazine had been taken ashore and no lookouts had been posted. Cherkassov could only watch in helpless horror from the Eastern & Oriental Hotel as his ship sank to the bottom of the Straits. He was court martialled for negligence and sentenced to 3½ years in prison, reduction in rank and expelled from the navy. His deputy, Lt. Kulibin, was sentenced to 1½ years in prison. However, the Tsar changed both sentences to sending to the front as ordinary seamen. Both later distinguished themselves in combat and were decorated with the Cross of St. George. Lt. Théroinne was amongst the Frenchmen lost aboard the Mousquet. Thirty-six French survivors out of a crew of 80 from the destroyer were picked up by the Emden, three of whom later died from their injuries. They were buried at sea at the insistence of von Müller. Two days later, the Germans stopped the British steamer Newburn and transferred the remaining Frenchmen so that they could be conveyed to Sabang, Sumatra, then part of the neutral Dutch East Indies. Emden continued its raiding mission for another 10 days, before being severely damaged and run aground at the Battle of Cocos.
9th November 1914 Battle of Cocos 1914 The Battle of Cocos was a single-ship action that occurred on 9 November 1914. The Australian light cruiser HMAS Sydney responded to an attack on a communications station at Direction Island by the German light cruiser SMS Emden. After the retreat of the German East Asia Squadron from south-east Asia, Emden remained behind to function as a commerce raider. During a two-month period, the German cruiser captured or sank 25 civilian vessels, shelled Madras, and destroyed two Allied warships at Penang. In early November, Emden's commanding officer, Karl von Müller, decided to attack the communications station at Direction Island, in the Cocos (Keeling) Islands, to hamper Allied communications and frustrate the search for his ship. Around the same time, the first convoy of Australian and New Zealand soldiers bound for Europe sailed from Albany, Western Australia, with Sydney, under the command of John Glossop, and three other warships escorting. During the night of 8–9 November, Emden reached the islands, and sent a shore party to disable the wireless and cable transmission station on Direction Island. The station was able to transmit a distress call before it was shut down; this was received by the nearby convoy, and Sydney was ordered to investigate. Sydney spotted the island and Emden at 0915, with both ships preparing for combat. The longer range of Emden's guns meant she was able to fire first, but the German ship was unable to inflict disabling damage to the Australian cruiser before Sydney closed into range and opened up with her more powerful main guns. At 1120, the heavily damaged Emden beached herself on North Keeling Island. The Australian warship broke to pursue Emden's supporting collier, which scuttled herself, then returned to North Keeling Island at 1600. At this point, Emden's battle ensign was still flying, usually a sign that a ship intends to continue fighting. After no response to instructions to lower the ensign, Glossop ordered two salvoes shot into the beached cruiser, after which the Germans lowered the flag and raised a white sheet. Sydney had orders to ascertain the status of the transmission station, but returned the next day to provide medical assistance to the Germans. Of the Emden's crew, 134 were killed and 69 wounded, compared to only 4 killed and 16 wounded aboard Sydney. The German survivors were taken aboard the Australian cruiser, which caught up to the troop convoy in Colombo on 15 November, then transported the prisoners to Malta and handed them over to the British Army. An additional 50 German personnel from the shore party, unable to be recovered before Sydney arrived, commandeered a schooner and escaped from Direction Island, eventually arriving in Constantinople.
Sydney was a Town class light cruiser, of the Chatham subclass. She had a standard displacement of 5,400 long tons. The cruiser was 456 feet 9.75 inches long overall and 430 feet long between perpendiculars, with a beam of 49 feet 10 inches and a draught of 19 feet 8 inches. A combined coal- and oil-fuelled boiler system allowed the ship to reach speeds over 25 knots. The cruiser's main armament consisted of eight BL 6-inch Mark XI guns in single mountings, firing 100-pound (45 kg) shells. Secondary and anti-aircraft armament consisted of a single 3-inch quick-firing high-angle anti-aircraft gun and ten 0.303-inch machine guns (eight Lewis guns and two Maxim guns). Two 21-inch torpedo tubes were fitted, with a payload of seven torpedoes carried.Two hydraulic-release depth charge chutes were carried for anti-submarine warfare. A single 12-pounder 8-cwt field gun and four 3-pounder Hotchkiss saluting guns rounded out the armament. Sydney was laid down by the London and Glasgow Engineering and Iron Shipbuilding Company at Glasgow, Scotland, on 11 February 1911. The ship was launched on 29 August 1912 by the wife of Admiral Sir Reginald Henderson. Sydney was completed on 26 June 1913, and commissioned into the RAN that day. At the time of the battle, Captain John Glossop was in charge of the ship.
SMS Emden (1906)
Emden was a Dresden-class cruiser. The ship had a displacement of 3,364 tons at normal load, was 118 metres long, had a beam of 13.4 metres and a draught of 5.3 metres. The light cruiser had a maximum speed of 24.5 knots. The ship was armed with ten 10.5 cm (4.1 in) SK L/40 guns in single mountings and carried two torpedo tubes. Emden was built in Danzig by Kaiserliche Werft Danzig. The ship was laid down on 6 April 1906, launched on 26 May 1908 and commissioned on 10 July 1909. At the time of the battle, the cruiser was under the command of Karl von Müller.
Background and leadup
Prior to World War I, Emden was operating as part of the German East Asia Squadron. Shortly after the war began, the threat of the Australian battlecruiser HMAS Australia, plus the likelihood that Japan would join the Allies, prompted the German squadron to head into the Pacific Ocean as the first stage of a retreat to Germany. Unlike the rest of the force, Emden was ordered to head into the Indian Ocean and commence a raiding campaign, as she was the most modern vessel in the East Asia Squadron. Over the next two months, the German ship captured or sank 25 civilian vessels, shelled Madras, and destroyed the Russian protected cruiser Zhemchug and French destroyer Mousquet at Penang. During these two months, none of Emden's personnel were killed. At some point during the deployment, a fake fourth funnel was erected to disguise Emden as a British cruiser, specifically HMS Yarmouth. Military historian George Odgers described Emden's activities as "one of the most daring careers of maritime destruction in naval history". Aware of the increasing efforts to find his ship, von Müller selected the wireless station at Direction Island as his next target, with the hope that, in addition to hampering communications between Australia and the United Kingdom, disabling it would frustrate efforts to coordinate the search for Emden (which by this point included sixteen warships from five Allied nations), and direct them away from the Aden-India shipping route, which was where he intended Emden to operate next. In October 1914, Sydney and sister ship HMAS Melbourne were assigned to escort the first convoy of Australian and New Zealand soldiers heading for Egypt. Originally, the Japanese armoured cruiser Nisshin was to be part of the convoy force, but she ran aground on 12 October, and Sydney was assigned instead. The two cruisers sailed to Albany, Western Australia, where they met the 36-ship convoy and the other two escorts, British armoured cruiser HMS Minotaur and Japanese battlecruiser Ibuki. Sydney, Melbourne, Minotaur, and the 36 merchant ships departed from Albany on 1 November, heading for Colombo. Ibuki had diverted to Fremantle to collect another two transports, and caught up two days later. On 8 November, Minotaur left the convoy with orders to support operations against German South-West Africa, as the destruction of the South Atlantic Squadron at the Battle of Coronel left both the expedition and the Union of South Africa exposed to naval attack. After the cruiser's departure, Melbourne was assigned as lead ship of the convoy.
Wireless station capture
During the night of 8 November, Emden sailed to Direction Island. At 0530 on 9 November, lookouts at the Direction Island cable and wireless station spotted Emden sitting offshore. The station's director observed that the extra funnel was false, and when a steam pinnace was deployed to tow two boats (carrying a 50-strong landing party led by Emden's first officer, Hellmuth von Mücke) towards shore, he ordered the station to begin transmitting distress calls. Both wireless and cable transmissions were made. Emden was able to jam the wireless signal shortly after it began, while the cable distress call continued until an armed party burst into the transmission room. After taking control of the station and its 34 staff, German personnel smashed the transmitting equipment and severed two of the station's three undersea cables, plus a dummy cable. They also felled the main wireless mast; although taking care at the request of the staff to avoid damaging the station's tennis court, the mast landed on a cache of Scotch whisky. The station was placed under German martial law. The distress signal had been received by Melbourne around 0630, and although the cruiser initially turned to investigate, her commanding officer remembered his responsibility to the convoy, and instead ordered Sydney to detach. Emden heard Melbourne's wireless signal, and began to prepare for combat. A smoke signal was sent up by the ship to recall the landing party.
At 0915, Sydney spotted Direction Island and the attacking ship, although at the initial glance, those aboard the Australian cruiser could not determine if she was Emden or Königsberg, which was also believed to be at large. Confident of being faster than either ship, Sydney slowed and began preparing for combat. Emden sighted Sydney around the same time, but von Müller assumed that the Australian convoy was further south, and that the approaching warship was HMS Newcastle or another vessel of similar vintage. The appearance of an Allied cruiser forced Emden to make for open waters, abandoning the attack party despite their best efforts to catch up. Emden was the first to fire at 0940; the 30-degree elevation of her main guns allowed her to out-range Sydney. The Germans' third salvo struck Sydney from a range of 10,000 yards with one shell exploding in the Australian ship's gunnery control room. Von Müller recognised that his success in the battle required Emden to do as much damage as possible before the other ship retaliated, but despite the heavy rate of fire from the Germans over the next ten minutes (at points reaching a salvo every six seconds), the high angle of the guns and the narrow profile presented as Sydney closed meant that only fifteen shells hit the Australian warship; only five of these exploded. Damage was sustained to the Australian cruiser's forward range-finder and a mess deck inside the forecastle, while other shells ignited cordite charges stored ready next to one of the guns. Four sailors were killed, and another sixteen wounded; the only casualties aboard Sydney during the entire engagement. As Sydney closed to 9,500 yards, she commenced firing. This was hampered with the loss of the gunnery control room, with each mounting being targeted and fired locally. The first two salvoes missed, but two shells from the third struck. Having found the range, the RAN cruiser began firing for effect. While firing, Sydney closed to 5,500 yards and launched torpedoes, which missed. Heavy and accurate fire damaged or destroyed Emden's wireless equipment, steering gear, both rangefinders, and voicepipes to the turrets. The forward funnel collapsed overboard, then the foremast fell and crushed the fore-bridge. A shell from Sydney landed in the aft ammunition room of Emden, and the Germans had to flood it or risk a massive explosion. By this point, smoke from battle damage had begun to obstruct the ships' views of each other. The damage to Emden had severely compromised her ability to fire effectively and Glossop brought Sydney to about 5,500 yards. At this range a torpedo was fired at the German cruiser, then the Australian ship sped up and turned to starboard so one of the guns that had yet to fire could engage. Emden matched Sydney's turn, but by this point, the second funnel had been blasted off, and there was a fire in the engine room. In addition, about half of the cruiser's personnel had been killed or wounded and the abandoning of the attack party on Direction Island meant there were no reserves to replace them. By 1100, only one of Emden's guns was still firing. As the third funnel went overboard, Emden found herself closer to North Keeling Island, and von Müller ordered the ship to beach herself on North Keeling Island to hopefully prevent further loss of life. Emden ran aground at around 1120, at which point, Sydney ceased fire.
After Emden's beaching
Sydney then turned to pursue and capture Emden's supporting collier, Buresk. The cruiser caught up shortly after 1200 and fired a warning shot, but on closing with Buresk, Sydney found the collier had already commenced scuttling. Sydney recovered the boarding party and the crew from Buresk, fired four shells to hasten the collier's sinking, then once she had submerged, turned back towards North Keeling Island. The Australian cruiser reached Emden around 1600. The Germans' battle ensign was still flying, generally a sign that a ship intends to continue fighting. Sydney signalled "Do you surrender?" in international code by both lights and flag-hoist. The signal was not understood and Emden responded with "What signal? No signal books". The instruction to surrender was repeated by Sydney in plain morse code, then after there was no reply, the message "Have you received my signal?" was sent. With no response forthcoming and operating under the assumption that Emden could still potentially fire, launch torpedoes, or use small arms against any boarding parties, Glossop ordered Sydney to fire two salvoes into the wrecked ship. This attack killed 20 German personnel. The ensign was pulled down and a white sheet was raised over the quarter-deck as a flag of surrender. Glossop had orders to ascertain the status of the transmission station and left with Sydney to do so, after sending a boat with Buresk's crew to Emden with a message that they would return the next day. In addition to checking on Direction Island, there was also the potential that Emden and Königsberg had been operating together and that the second ship would approach to recover the attack party from the island, or go after the troop convoy. Consequently, Sydney could not render assistance to Emden's survivors until such threats had passed. It was too late to make a landing on Direction Island, so the cruiser spent the night patrolling the islands, and approached the wireless station the next morning. On arrival, the Australians learned that the Germans had escaped the previous evening in a commandeered schooner. Sydney embarked the island's doctor and two assistants, then headed for North Keeling Island.
After Sydney contacted the convoy to report her success against Emden, the soldiers aboard the troopships were granted a half-day holiday from duties and training to celebrate. Von Muller surrendered to Glossop on the quarterdeck. Although accepting the surrender, Glossop allowed von Muller to keep his sword. During the battle, 130 personnel aboard Emden were killed, and 69 were wounded. Four of the latter died from wounds. Transferring the German survivors aboard Sydney took about five hours, with the difficulty of transferring so many wounded, rough seas, and overcrowding aboard the Australian cruiser. The two Australian medical officers aboard Sydney and the medical staff from Direction Island worked from 1800 on 10 November to 0430 the next morning to clear the most pressing needs for medical attention, with Emden survivors prioritised. Most of 11 November was spent treating less pressing cases; the Direction Island staff left the ship around midday, and Emden's ship's surgeon, who had previously been unable to assist because of the shock and stress of caring for so many wounded from the battle's end until Sydney returned, had recovered enough by this point to assist as an anaesthetist. On 12 November, the auxiliary cruiser Empress of Russia arrived, and all except the most seriously wounded prisoners were transferred over. Sydney caught up to the convoy at Colombo on 15 November. There were no celebrations of Sydney's success as the cruiser entered harbour. Glossop had requested that the sailors and soldiers aboard the warships and transports refrain from cheering, out of respect for the German wounded being carried aboard. The survivors from Emden were later transported to Malta and placed in the custody of the British Army.
After Emden's defeat, the only German warship in the Indian Ocean basin was SMS Königsberg; the cruiser had been blockaded in the Rufiji River in October, and remained there until her destruction in July 1915. Australia was no longer under direct threat from the Central Powers, and many of the RAN ships which had been designated for the nation's defence could be safely deployed to other theatres. Over the next two years, troop convoys from Australia and New Zealand to the Middle East could sail without naval escort, further freeing Allied resources. The state of affairs persisted until the raider SMS Wolf began operations in the region in 1917.
After completing escort duties, the Australian ship was deployed to the North America and West Indies Station for eighteen months, then spent the rest of the war attached to the British Grand Fleet. Sydney remained in service until 1928, and was broken up for scrap in 1929. For the battle, Sydney was awarded the battle honour "Emden 1914". This was the first honour for a single ship action awarded to a RAN vessel, and one of only three awarded to any British Commonwealth ship during the 20th century. Glossop was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath.
Von Muller was awarded the Iron Cross, First Class. The Kaiser announced the construction of a new Emden which would bear an Iron Cross on her bow. A Königsberg class cruiser laid down in 1914 was named SMS Emden on completion in 1916 and built with an Iron Cross mounted on her stem-head. Shortly after the battle, the auxiliary cruiser Empress of Japan visited the wreck to recover the signal logs. In 1915, a Japanese company proposed that the ship be repaired and refloated, but an inspection by HMAS Protector concluded that surf damage to Emden made such an operation unfeasible. By 1919, there were reports that the wreck had disappeared. Emden had broken up from the battle damage, and was pulled out by water currents before sinking in shallow waters.
After being abandoned, the German shore party commandeered the 97-ton schooner Ayesha and roughly half Direction Island's food supply. They left Direction Island on the evening of 9 November. The schooner initially sailed to Padang, where they were escorted into port on 27 December by the Dutch destroyer Lynx and only allowed to remain under strict terms, so the Netherlands could maintain their stance of neutrality. With the threat that Ayesha would be seized by Dutch authorities, von Mücke took the schooner out during the night of 28 December, and headed for a rendezvous point he had announced to the German merchant vessels sheltering at Padang. On 14 December, the freighter Choising arrived at the rendezvous, and the Germans were welcomed aboard. Choising delivered them to Hodeida on 8 January 1915. Unable to travel overland, the Germans acquired several dhows and sailed up the Red Sea to Jiddah, then crossed overland to Mecca. From here, von Mücke and his sailors used the Hejaz Railway to travel to Constantinople, reported to the German admiral stationed there, then continued on to Germany itself. In 2010, German director Berengar Pfahl began work on Die Manner der Emden (The Emden Men), a film based on the story of the 50 German sailors left behind on Direction Island and their voyage home. Much of the filming occurred in Sri Lanka, with the luxury yacht Raja Laut used to represent the schooner Ayesha. Die Manner der Emden was originally to be released in February 2012,but was delayed until June 2012.
If you can provide any additional information, please add it here.
Want to know more about SMS Emden?There are:3 articles tagged SMS Emden available in our Library
Those known to have served on
during the Great War 1914-1918.
- Seabrook John William. Ldg.Sgn.
The names on this list have been submitted by relatives, friends, neighbours and others who wish to remember them, if you have any names to add or any recollections or photos of those listed, please Add a Name to this List
Looking for help with Family History Research?
Please see Family History FAQ's
We are unable to provide individual research free of charge, but do offer a paid service at competitive rates, the small profit from these services will be put towards the costs of keeping this website running. For more information please see our Research Services Leaflet
Can you help?The Wartime Memories Project is run by volunteers and this website is funded by donations from our visitors.
If the information here has been helpful or you have enjoyed reaching the stories please conside making a donation, no matter how small, would be much appreciated, annually we need to raise enough funds to pay for our web hosting or this site will vanish from the web. In these difficult times current donations are falling far short of this target.
If you enjoy this site please consider making a donation.
- The Wartime Memories Project is the original WW1 and WW2 commemoration website
This website has been running for 16 years and receives in excess of a million hits per month. The website and our group will continue long after the 2014-18 events are over. We hope that people will continue to support us by submitting material and stories in addition to submitting to the new websites set up for the anniversary.
- We are looking for volunteers to help with researching the activities of units of the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers, Territorial Force, Regular Army, Pals Battalions, Kitchener's New Armies, Voluntary Organisations and the Ships of the Royal Navy. We currently have a huge backlog of stories and historical documents which need to be edited or transcribed for display online, if you have a good standard of written English, an interest in the two World Wars and a little time to spare online we would appreciate your help. For more information please see our page on Volunteering.
Wanted: Digital copies of Group photographs, Scrapbooks, Autograph books, photo albums, newspaper clippings, letters, postcards and ephemera relating to the Great War. If you have any unwanted photographs, documents or items from the First or Second World War, please do not destroy them. The Wartime Memories Project will give them a good home and ensure that they are used for educational purposes. Please get in touch for the postal address, do not sent them to our PO Box as packages are not accepted.
We are now on Facebook. Like this page to receive our updates, add a comment or ask a question.
If you have a general question please post it on our Facebook page.
May 2017World War 1 One ww1 wwII greatwar great
Please note we currently have a backlog of submitted material, our volunteers are working through this as quickly as possible and all names, stories and photos will be added to the site. If you have already submitted a story to the site and your UID reference number is higher than 231539 your submission is still in the queue, please do not resubmit without contacting us first.
Did you know? We also have a section on World War Two. and a Timecapsule to preserve stories from other conflicts for future generations.
Want to know more about SMS Emden?There are:3 articles tagged SMS Emden available in our Library
Available at discounted prices.
Suggest a link
The Wartime Memories Project is a non profit organisation run by volunteers.
This website is paid for out of our own pockets, library subscriptions and from donations made by visitors. The popularity of the site means that it is far exceeding available resources.
If you are enjoying the site, please consider making a donation, however small to help with the costs of keeping the site running.
Website © Copyright MCMXCIX - MMXVII
- All Rights Reserved